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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2000, Vol.41(10), pp.1511-1517
    Description: Episodic pollution events such as runoff or spraydrift can lead to a short-term (few hours) contamination of aquatic ecosystems with pesticides. So far, different short-term exposures with respect to long-term effects have not been studied. In the present study, caddisfly larvae, typical for agricultural streams (Limnephilus lunatus Curtis, 2nd and 3rd instar) were exposed for 1- vs 10-h to three different equivalent doses ( mu g h) of fenvalerate. After transfer into an artificial stream microcosm with pesticide-free water, chronic effects were observed over 240 days. Comparison of 1- and 10-h exposure revealed that 1-h contamination leads to stronger effects. The differences were significant for the sublethal endpoints emergence pattern and dry weight of adults (ANOVA, Fisher's PLSD; P 〈 0.05). In terms of exposure dose, the difference between 1- and 10-h exposure equals a factor of 6 as a mean of all endpoints studied. The following significant effect levels for the 1-h exposure were obtained for the different endpoints investigated: reduced emergence success and production at 0.1 mu g l super(-1), temporal pattern of emergence at 0.001 mu g l super(-1), dry weight of adults at 0.01 mu g l super(-1).
    Keywords: Acute ; Production ; Pyrethroid ; Runoff ; Short-Term Exposure ; Spraydrift ; Trichoptera ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Aquatic Toxicology, December 2016, Vol.181, pp.94-103
    Description: For in situ remediation of groundwater contaminated by halogenated hydrocarbons Carbo-Iron , a composite of microscale activated carbon and nano Fe , was developed. Against the background of intended release of Carbo-Iron into the environment in concentrations in the g/L-range, potential ecotoxicological consequences were evaluated in the present study. The nano Fei in Carbo-Iron acts as reducing agent and is oxidized in aqueous systems by chlorinated solvents, groundwater constituents (e.g. dissolved oxygen) and anaerobic corrosion. As Carbo-Iron is generally oxidized rapidly after application into the environment, the oxidized state is environmentally most relevant, and Carbo-Iron was used in its oxidized form in the ecotoxicological tests. The amphipod was selected as a surrogate test species for functionally important groundwater crustaceans. Effects of Carbo-Iron on were determined in a 10-d acute test, a 7-d feeding activity test and a 42-d chronic test. Additionally, a 56-d life cycle test was performed with a modified design to further evaluate effects of Carbo-Iron on adult and their offspring. The size of Carbo-Iron particles in stock and test suspensions was determined via dynamic light scattering. Potential uptake of particles into test organisms was investigated using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. At the termination of the feeding and acute toxicity test (i.e. after 7 and 10 d of exposure, respectively), Carbo-Iron had a significant effect on the weight, length and feeding rate of at the highest test concentration of 100 mg/L. While an uptake of Carbo-Iron into the gut was observed, no passage into the surrounding tissue was detected. In both chronic tests, the number of offspring was the most sensitive endpoint and significant effects were recorded at concentrations ≥50 mg/L (42-d experiment) and ≥12.5 mg/L (56-d experiment). Parental exposure to oxidized Carbo-Iron significantly exacerbated the acute effects of the nanocomposite on the subsequent generation of by a factor 〉10. The present study indicates risks for groundwater species at concentrations in the mg/L range. Carbo-Iron may exceed these effect concentrations in treated aquifers, but the presence of the pollutant has most likely impaired the quality of this habitat already. The benefit of remediation has to be regarded against the risk of ecological consequences with special consideration of the observed increasing sensitivity of juvenile .
    Keywords: Iron-Based Nanomaterial ; Nanocomposite ; Groundwater Remediation ; Environmental Risk ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0166-445X
    E-ISSN: 1879-1514
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2003, Vol.51(6), pp.509-513
    Description: A water-sampling device to monitor the quality of water periodically and temporarily flowing out of concrete tubes, sewers or channels is described. It inexpensively and easily enables a qualitative characterization of contamination via these point-source entry routes. The water sampler can be reverse engineered with different sizes and materials, once installed needs no maintenance, passively samples the first surge, and the emptying procedure is short. In an agricultural catchment area in Germany we monitored an emergency overflow of a sewage sewer, an outlet of a rainwater sewer and two small drainage channels as input sources to a small stream. Seven inflow events were analysed for 20 pesticide agents (insecticides, fungicides and herbicides). All three entry routes were remarkably contaminated. We found parathion-ethyl concentrations of 0.3 mu g l super(-1), diuron up to 17.3 mu g l super(-1), ethofumesate up to 51.1 mu g l super(-1), metamitron up to 92 mu g l super(-1) and prosulfocarb up to 130 mu g l super(-1).
    Keywords: Herbicides ; Fungicides ; Insecticides ; Small Streams ; Point Sources ; Sewage Plant ; Rainwater Sewer ; Pipes ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 1996, Vol.32(10), pp.1963-1969
    Description: The suspended particle sampler (SPS) for monitoring pesticide concentrations in small streams is described. The sampler was evaluated in a small headwater stream in northern Germany which was contaminated with the insecticide fenvalerate during rainfall in June 1994. The amount retained by the SPS decreased with increasing flow rate. The results obtained with the SPS were compared with those obtained using a runoff-triggered sampler and with those obtained by analysis of bottom sediment. Concentrations obtained using the SPS, runoff-triggered sampler and analysis of bottom sediment were 71, 302 and 10.9 ug fenvalerate per kg. Suspended particles were more heavily contaminated than the stream bed. Temporal dynamics of contamination of suspended particles with fenvalerate and parathion were studied.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2007, Vol.68(4), pp.605-612
    Description: Spraydrift and edge-of-field runoff are important routes of pesticide entry into streams. Pesticide contamination originating from spraydrift usually resides in the water phase, while pesticides in contaminated runoff are to a large extent associated with suspended particles (SPs). The effects of two organophosphorous insecticides (OPs), chloropyrifos (CPF) and azinphos-methyl (AZP), on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rainbow trout were compared between two exposure scenarios, simulating spraydrift- and runoff-borne contamination events in the Lourens River (LR), Western Cape, South Africa. NOECs of brain AChE inhibition, determined after 1 h of exposure followed by 24 h of recovery, were 0.33 μg l for aqueous CPF, 200 mg kg for SP-associated CPF and 20 mg kg for SP-associated AZP (at 0.5 g l SP). The highest aqueous AZP concentration tested (3.3 μg l ) was without significant effects. Previously reported peak levels of aqueous CPF in the LR (∼0.2 μg l ) are close to its NOEC (this study), suggesting a significant toxicological risk to fish in the LR. By contrast, reported levels of SP-associated OPs in the LR are 20–200-fold lower than their NOECs (this study). In a comparative in situ study, trout were exposed for seven days at agricultural (LR2, LR3) and upstream reference (LR1) sites. No runoff occurred during the study. Brain AChE was significantly inhibited at LR3. However, OP levels at LR3 (CPF 0.01 μg l ; AZP 0.14 μg l ) were minor compared to concentrations having effects in the laboratory (see above). Additionally, muscle AChE activity was significantly higher in caged trout from LR1 than in animals maintained in laboratory tanks.
    Keywords: Biomonitoring ; Fish ; Biomarker ; Spraydrift ; Runoff ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Aquatic Toxicology, August 2015, Vol.165, pp.154-159
    Description: In aquatic ecosystems, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO ) may adsorb co-occurring chemical stressors, such as copper (Cu). This interaction has the potential to reduce the concentration of dissolved Cu due to surface binding to the nanoparticles. The subsequent sedimentation of nano-TiO agglomerates may increase the exposure of benthic species towards the associated Cu. This scenario was assessed by employing the amphipod as model species and taking advantage of a 2 × 2-factorial design investigating absence and presence of 2 mg nano-TiO /L and 40 μg Cu/L ( = 45; = 24 d) in darkness, respectively. Nano-TiO alone did not affect mortality and leaf consumption, whereas Cu alone caused high mortality (〉70%), reduced leaf consumption (25%) and feces production (30%) relative to the control. In presence of nano-TiO , Cu-induced toxicity was largely eliminated. However, independent of Cu, nano-TiO decreased the gammarids’ assimilation and weight. Hence, nano-TiO may be applicable as Cu-remediation agent, while its potential long-term effects need further attention.
    Keywords: Heavy Metal ; Benthic Invertebrates ; Energy Processing ; Remediation ; Combined Toxicity ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0166-445X
    E-ISSN: 1879-1514
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Aquatic Toxicology, 2015, Vol.169, pp.105-112
    Description: Animals involved in leaf litter breakdown (i.e., shredders) play a central role in detritus-based stream food webs, while their fitness and functioning can be impaired by anthropogenic stressors. Particularly fungicides can affect shredders via both waterborne exposure and their diet, namely due to co-ingestion...
    Keywords: Other Biological Topics ; Annan Biologi
    ISSN: 0166-445X
    E-ISSN: 18791514
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, August 2004, Vol.23(8), pp.1984-1990
    Description: We investigated the acute (5 d) effects of particle‐associated azinphosmethyl (AZP) in multispecies microcosms and assessed the results in the context to data obtained from a parallel field study undertaken in the Lourens River, South Africa. A runoff simulation was carried out in stream microcosms containing the macroinvertebrate fauna of an uncontaminated Lourens River site exposed to particle‐associated AZP (control and 200, 1,000, 5,000, 20,000 μg/kg; three replicates each) for 1 h. Measured AZP concentrations in filtered microcosm water resulted in the following values: Not detectable (control) and 0.03, 0.2, 1.1, and 6.9 μg/L, respectively. The two highest treatments resulted in significantly (analysis of variance [ANOVA]) reduced total numbers of individuals, while the number of taxa was affected in the 20,000 μg/kg treatment only. A comparison with previous data suggests that observed effects partly resulted from particle‐associated AZP. Particularly affected were six out of 14 macroinvertebrate taxa such as mayfly and stonefly taxa. In parallel, the distribution of macroinvertebrates at a pesticide‐free and a contaminated stretch of the Lourens River was monitored five times during the spraying season in 2001 and 2002. Out of the 14 core taxa found in the microcosm study as well as in the field approach, 10 showed comparable reactions in the microcosm experiment and in their field distribution; they were either classified as affected or unaffected in both studies. Thus, we conclude that particle‐associated AZP has the potential to affect the invertebrate community structure of the Lourens River and that microcosm studies employing fieldrelevant exposure scenarios may be valuable for a local risk assessment of pesticide‐related community disruptions in the Lourens River.
    Keywords: Aquatic Macroinvertebrates ; Community Structure ; Microcosms ; Particle‐Associated Azinphosmethyl ; Runoff
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2001, Vol.20(9), p.2088
    Description: We studied the chronic effects of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on reproductive status of medaka (Oryzias latipes) over two generations of continuous exposure. The exposure study of the parental (F0) medaka was begun on embryos within 24 h post-fertilization and continued with monitoring through embryological development, hatching, posthatch survival, growth, sexual differentiation, and reproduction under flow-through exposures to mean measured 4-NP concentrations of 4.2, 8.2, 17.7, 51.5, and 183 µg/litre for up to 104 d. Eggs spawned from the F0 fish at 102 and 103 d posthatch were also examined for hatchability, survival after hatching, growth, and sexual differentiation until 60 d posthatch. The 183-µg/litre treatment significantly reduced the embryo survival and swim-up success of the F0 fish. The cumulative mortality after swim-up of the F0 fish exposed to 17.7 and 51.5 µg/litre were significantly higher than the control mortality. No concentration-related effect of 4-NP was observed on the growth of surviving F0 fish at 60 d posthatch. However, the sex ratio estimated from the appearance of their secondary sex characteristics was skewed toward female in the 51.5-µg/litre treatment. Additionally, gonadal histology showed that 20% of the fish in the 17.7-µg/litre treatment and 40% in the 51.5-µg/litre treatment had testis-ova, indicating that 4-NP affects the gonadal development and survival of medaka at similar concentrations in juveniles. The sex ratio of the F0 fish in the 51.5-µg/litre treatment was completely skewed toward female; subsequently, the effects on fecundity and fertility in this generation were monitored at mean measured concentrations of 4.2, 8.2, and 17.7 µg/litre from 71 to 103 d posthatch. Fecundity was unaffected by any of the treatments examined. The mean fertility in the 17.7-µg/litre treatment was reduced to 76% of that in the controls, although no statistically significant differences were determined. Overall, these results indicate that the lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) and no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of 4-NP through the life cycle of the F0 medaka were 17.7 and 8.2 µg/litre, respectively. In the F1 medaka, no significant effects were observed on hatching success, posthatch mortality, or growth, but sexual differentiation at 60 d posthatch was affected. Induction of testis-ova in the gonads of the F1 fish was observed in both the 8.2- and the 17.7-µg/litre concentrations. The results indicate that 4-NP can have significant effects on reproductive potential of medaka at concentrations as low as 17.7 µg/litre.
    Keywords: Aquatic Animals ; Aquatic Organisms ; Embryonic Development ; Embryos ; Growth ; Mortality ; Nontarget Effects ; Ovaries ; Reproduction ; Sex Differentiation ; Survival ; Testes ; Toxic Substances ; Toxicity ; Toxicology ; Aquatic Species ; Death Rate ; Embryo Development ; Embryo Growth ; Nonylphenols ; Poisons ; Testicles ; Oryzias Latipes ; Oryzias ; Adrianichthyidae ; Beloniformes ; Osteichthyes ; Fishes ; Vertebrates ; Chordata ; Animals ; Eukaryotes;
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 1998, Vol.36(15), pp.3071-3082
    Description: A field method is described, which allows the qualitative estimation of pesticide contamination in the edge-of-field runoff. The method employs cheap and easy-to-use runoff sampling bottles, which were installed in an agricultural stream catchment over a period of three growing seasons. During this time 18 runoff events were detected, in nine of which insecticide contamination was measured (maximum concentrations: lindane 0.7 mu g l super(-1) and 12.7 mu g kg super(-1), parathion 20 mu g l super(-1) and 728 mu g kg super(-1), fenvalerate 18.4 mu g l super(-1) and 924 mu g kg super(-1)). These insecticides were detected mainly as particle-bound chemicals. On about 80 % of the occasions the presence or absence of runoff measured in the field was in agreement with a simulation of runoff presence or absence using the runoff model KINEROS.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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