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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2005, Vol. 73(10), p.6727
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid, produces a lipooligosaccharide (LOS) which terminates in N-acetyllactosamine. This glycoform can be further extended by the addition of a single sialic acid residue to the terminal galactose moiety. H. ducreyi does not synthesize sialic acid, which must be acquired from the host during infection or from the culture medium when the bacteria are grown in vitro. However, H. ducreyi does not have genes that are highly homologous to the genes encoding known bacterial sialic acid transporters. In this study, we identified the sialic acid transporter by screening strains in a library of random transposon mutants for those mutants that were unable to add sialic acid to N-acetyllactosamine-containing LOS. Mutants that reacted with the monoclonal antibody 3F11, which recognizes the terminal lactosamine structure, and lacked reactivity with the lectin Maackia amurensis agglutinin, which recognizes alpha 2,3-linked sialic acid, were further characterized to demonstrate that they produced a N-acetyllactosamine-containing LOS by silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analyses. The genes interrupted in these mutants were mapped to a four-gene cluster with similarity to genes encoding bacterial ABC transporters. Uptake assays using radiolabeled sialic acid confirmed that the mutants were unable to transport sialic acid. This study is the first report of bacteria using an ABC transporter for sialic acid uptake.
    Keywords: Transposons ; Galactose ; N-Acetyllactosamine ; Monoclonal Antibodies ; ABC Transporter ; Chancroid ; Agglutinins ; Lectins ; Infection ; Gel Electrophoresis ; Sialic Acids ; Lipooligosaccharides ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Genetics and Evolution ; Bacteria ; Microorganisms & Parasites;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
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  • 2
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2002, Vol. 70(10), p.5887
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi is the causative agent of chancroid, a sexually transmitted ulcerative disease. In the present study, the Neisseria gonorrhoeae lgtA lipooligosaccharide glycosyltransferase gene was used to identify a homologue in the genome of H. ducreyi. The putative H. ducreyi glycosyltransferase gene (designated lgtA) was cloned and insertionally inactivated, and an isogenic mutant was constructed. Structural studies demonstrated that the lipooligosaccharide isolated from the mutant strain lacked N-acetylglucosamine and distal sugars found in the lipooligosaccharide produced by the parental strain. The isogenic mutant was transformed with a recombinant plasmid containing the putative glycosyltransferase gene. This strain produced the lipooligosaccharide glycoforms produced by the parental strain, confirming that the lgtA gene encodes the N-acetylglucosamine glycosyltransferase.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 3
    In: The Journal of Bacteriology, 2005, Vol. 187(13), p.4627
    Description: In 1995, the Institute for Genomic Research completed the genome sequence of a rough derivative of Haemophilus influenzae serotype d, strain KW20. Although extremely useful in understanding the basic biology of H. influenzae, these data have not provided significant insight into disease caused by nontypeable H. influenzae, as serotype d strains are not pathogens. In contrast, strains of nontypeable H. influenzae are the primary pathogens of chronic and recurrent otitis media in children. In addition, these organisms have an important role in acute otitis media in children as well as other respiratory diseases. Such strains must therefore contain a gene repertoire that differs from that of strain Rd. Elucidation of the differences between these genomes will thus provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of nontypeable H. influenzae. The genome of a representative nontypeable H. influenzae strain, 86-028NP, isolated from a patient with chronic otitis media was therefore sequenced and annotated. Despite large regions of synteny with the strain Rd genome, there are large rearrangements in strain 86-028NP's genome architecture relative to the strain Rd genome. A genomic island similar to an island originally identified in H. influenzae type b is present in the strain 86-028NP genome, while the mu-like phage present in the strain Rd genome is absent from the strain 86-028NP genome. Two hundred eighty open reading frames were identified in the strain 86-028NP genome that were absent from the strain Rd genome. These data provide new insight that complements and extends the ongoing analysis of nontypeable H. influenzae virulence determinants.
    Keywords: Influenza -- Comparative Analysis ; Genetic Research -- Comparative Analysis;
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 4
    In: The Journal of Bacteriology, 2000, Vol. 182(8), p.2292
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi is the etiologic agent of chancroid, a genital ulcer disease. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is considered to be a major virulence determinant and has been implicated in the adherence of H. ducreyi to keratinocytes. Strain A77, an isolate from the Paris collection, is serum sensitive, poorly adherent to fibroblasts, and deficient in microcolony formation. Structural analysis indicates that the los of strain A77 lacks the galactose residue found in the N- acetyllactosamine portion of the strain 35000HP los as well as the sialic acid substitution. From an H. ducreyi 35000HP genomic DNA library, a clone complementing the defect in A77 was identified by immunologic screening with monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3F11, a MAb which recognizes the N-acetyllactosamine portion of strain 35000HP LOS. The clone contained a 4-kb insert that was sequenced. One open reading frame which encodes a protein with a molecular weight of 33,400 was identified. This protein has homology to glycosyltransferases of Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus somnus Neisseria species, and Pasteurella haemolytica. The putative H. ducreyi glycosyltransferase gene was insertionally inactivated, and an isogenic mutant of strain 35000HP was constructed. The most complex los glycoform produced by the mutant has a mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel identical to that of the los of strain A77 and lacks the 3F11- binding epitope. Structural studies confirm that the most complex glycoform of the LOS isolated from the mutant lacks the galactose residue found in the N-acetyllactosamine portion of the strain 35000HP LOS. Although previously published data suggested that the serum-sensitive phenotype of A77 was due to the los mutation, we observed that the complemented A77 strain retained its serum-sensitive phenotype and that the galactosyltransferase mutant retained its serum- resistant phenotype. Thus, the serum sensitivity of strain A77 cannot be attributed to the galactosyltransferase mutation in strain A77.
    Keywords: Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Chancroid ; Genetic Analysis ; Etiology ; Virulence ; N-Acetyllactosaminide a-1,3-Galactosaminyltransferase ; Genetics and Evolution;
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 5
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2000, Vol. 68(6), p.3352
    Description: To begin to understand the role of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) molecule in chancroid infections, we constructed mutants defective in expression of glycosyltransferase genes. Pyocin lysis and immunoscreening was used to identify a LOS mutant of Haemophilus ducreyi 35000. This mutant, HD35000R, produced a LOS molecule that lacked the monoclonal antibody 3F11 epitope and migrated with an increased mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Structural studies indicated that the principal LOS glycoform contains lipid A, Kdo, and two of the three core heptose residues. HD35000R was transformed with a plasmid library of H. ducreyi 35000 DNA, and a clone producing the wild-type LOS was identified. Sequence analysis of the plasmid insert revealed one open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a protein with homology to the WaaQ (heptosyltransferase III) of Escherichia coli. A second ORF had homology to the LgtF (glucosyltransferase) of Neisseria meningitidis. Individual isogenic mutants lacking expression of the putative H. ducreyi heptosyltransferase III, the putative glucosyltransferase, and both glycosyltransferases were constructed and characterized. Each mutant was complemented with the representative wild-type genes in trans to restore expression of parental LOS and confirm the function of each enzyme. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE analysis identified several unique LOS glycoforms containing di-, tri-, and poly-N-acetyllactosamine repeats added to the terminal region of the main LOS branch synthesized by the heptosyltransferase III mutant. These novel H. ducreyi mutants provide important tools for studying the regulation of LOS assembly and biosynthesis.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 6
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2004, Vol. 72(5), p.3002
    Description: In 1995, The Institute for Genomic Research completed the genomic sequence of a rough derivative of Haemophilus influenzae serotype d, strain KW20. This sequence, though extremely useful in understanding the basic biology of H. influenzae, has yet to provide significant insight into our understanding of disease caused by nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHI), because serotype d strains are not generally pathogens. In contrast, NTHI strains are frequently mucosal pathogens and are the primary pathogens of chronic otitis media as well as a significant cause of acute otitis media in children. Thus, it is of great importance to further understand their biology. We used a DNA-based microarray approach to identify genes present in a clinical isolate of NTHI that were absent from strain Rd. We also sequenced the genome of a second NTHI isolate from a child with chronic otitis media to threefold coverage and then used an array of bioinformatics tools to identify genes present in this NTHI strain but absent from strain Rd. These methods were complementary in approach and results. We identified, in both strains, homologues of H. influenzae lav, an autotransported protein of unknown function; tnaA, which encodes tryptophanase; as well as a homologue of Pasteurella multocida tsaA, which encodes an alkyl peroxidase that may play a role in protection against reactive oxygen species. We also identified a number of putative restriction-modification systems, bacteriophage genes and transposon-related genes. These data provide new insight that complements and extends our ongoing analysis of NTHI virulence determinants.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 7
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2002, Vol. 70(6), p.2965
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has been shown to form microcolonies when cultured in the presence of human foreskin fibroblasts. We identified a 15-gene cluster in H. ducreyi that encoded predicted protein products with significant homology to those encoded by the tad (for tight adhesion) locus in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans that is involved in the production of fimbriae by this periodontal pathogen. The first three open reading frames in this H. ducreyi gene cluster encoded predicted proteins with a high degree of identity to the Flp (fimbria-like protein) encoded by the first open reading frame of the tad locus; this 15-gene cluster in H. ducreyi was designated flp. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the H. ducreyi flp gene cluster was likely to be a polycistronic operon. Mutations within the flp gene cluster resulted in an inability to form microcolonies in the presence of human foreskin fibroblasts. In addition, the same mutants were defective in the ability to attach to both plastic and human foreskin fibroblasts in vitro. An H. ducreyi mutant with an inactivated tadA gene exhibited a small decrease in virulence in the temperature-dependent rabbit model for experimental chancroid, whereas another H. ducreyi mutant with inactivated flp-1 and flp-2 genes was as virulent as the wild-type parent strain. These results indicate that the flp gene cluster is essential for microcolony formation by H. ducreyi, whereas this phenotypic trait is not linked to the virulence potential of the pathogen, at least in this animal model of infection.
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins -- Genetics ; Genes, Bacterial -- Physiology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Growth & Development ; Multigene Family -- Physiology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 8
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2002, Vol. 70(6), p.2853
    Description: All Haemophilus ducreyi strains examined contain a lipooligosaccharide (LOS) consisting of a single but variable branch oligosaccharide that emanates off the first heptose (Hep-I) of a conserved Hep sub(3)-phosphorylated 3-deoxy-D- manno-octulosonic acid-lipid A core. In a previous report, identification of tandem genes, lbgA and lbgB, that are involved in LOS biosynthesis was described (Stevens et al., Infect. Immun. 65:651-660, 1997). In a separate study, the same gene cluster was identified and the lbgB (losB) gene was found to be required for transfer of the second sugar, D-glycero-D- manno-heptose (DD-Hep), of the major branch structure (Gibson et al., J. Bacteriol. 179:5062-5071, 1997). In this study, we identified the function of the neighboring upstream gene, lbgA, and found that it is necessary for addition of the third sugar in the dominant oligosaccharide branch, a galactose- linked s1-〉4, to the DD-Hep. LOS from an lbgA mutant and an lbgAB double mutant were isolated and were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, carbohydrate analysis, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that the mutant strains synthesize truncated LOS glycoforms that terminate after addition of the first glucose (lbgAB) or the disaccharide DD-Hep alpha 1-〉6Glcs1 (lbgA) that is attached to the heptose core. Both mutants show a significant reduction in the ability to adhere to human keratinocytes. Although minor differences were observed after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of total proteins from the wild-type and mutant strains, the expression levels of the vast majority of proteins were unchanged, suggesting that the differences in adherence and invasion are due to differences in LOS. These studies add to the mounting evidence for a role of full-length LOS structures in the pathophysiology of H. ducreyi infection.
    Keywords: Bacterial Genetics ; Genetics and Evolution ; Alpha -1,6-DD-Heptosyltransferase ; Lbga Gene ; Lbgb Gene ; Lipooligosaccharides ; S-1,4- Galactosyltransferase ; S-1,4-Galactosyltransferase;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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