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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Vadose Zone Journal, 2015, Vol.14(5), p.0
    Description: We used X-ray computed microtomography to study gas trapping in a fluctuating water table. Our results show that capillary forces control trapping and phase distribution in dynamic capillary fringes. In porous media, the nonwetting phase is trapped on water saturation due to capillary forces acting in a heterogeneous porous structure. Within the capillary fringe, the gas phase is trapped and released along with the fluctuation of the water table, creating a highly active zone for biological transformations and mass transport. We conducted column experiments to observe and quantify the magnitude and structure of the trapped gas phase at the pore scale using computed microtomography. Different grain size distributions of glass beads were used to study the effect of the pore structure on trapping at various capillary numbers. Viscous forces were found to have negligible impact on phase trapping compared with capillary and buoyancy forces. Residual gas saturations ranged from 0.5 to 10%, while residual saturation increased with decreasing grain size. The gas phase was trapped by snap-off in single pores but also in pore clusters, while this single-pore trapping was dominant for grains larger than 1 mm in diameter. Gas surface area was found to increase linearly with increasing gas volume and with decreasing grain size.
    Keywords: Grain Size ; Water Table ; Mass Transport ; Buoyancy ; Pores ; Porous Media ; Particle Size ; Water Table ; Saturation ; Vadose Water ; Fluctuations ; Trapping ; Buoyancy ; Methods and Instruments ; General;
    ISSN: Vadose Zone Journal
    E-ISSN: 1539-1663
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 2
    In: Water Resources Research, November 2015, Vol.51(11), pp.9094-9111
    Description: We study the impact of pore structure and surface roughness on capillary trapping of nonwetting gas phase during imbibition with water for capillary numbers between 10 and 5 × 10, within glass beads, natural sands, glass beads monolayers, and 2‐D micromodels. The materials exhibit different roughness of the pore‐solid interface. We found that glass beads and natural sands, which exhibit nearly the same grain size distribution, pore size distribution, and connectivity, showed a significant difference of the trapped gas phase of about 15%. This difference can be explained by the microstructure of the pore‐solid interface. Based on the visualization of the trapping dynamics within glass beads monolayers and 2‐D micromodels, we could show that bypass trapping controls the trapping process in glass beads monolayers, while snap‐off trapping controls the trapping process in 2‐D micromodels. We conclude that these different trapping processes are the reason for the different trapping efficiency, when comparing glass beads packs with natural sand packs. Moreover, for small capillary numbers of 10, we found that the cluster size distribution of trapped gas clusters of all 2‐D and 3‐D porous media can be described by a universal power law behavior predicted from percolation theory. This cannot be expected a priori for 2‐D porous media, because bicontinuity of the two bulk phases is violated. Obviously, bicontinuity holds for the thin‐film water phase and the bulk gas phase. The snap‐off trapping process leads to ordinary bond percolation in front of the advancing bulk water phase and is the reason for the observed universal power law behavior in 2‐D micromodels with rough surfaces. Surface roughness controls capillary trapping efficiency The transition‐zone model can be applied to 2‐D micromodels with rough surfaces The 2‐D and 3‐D porous media belong all to the same universality class
    Keywords: Surface Roughness ; Precursor Thin‐Film Flow ; Snap‐Off Trapping ; Universal Power Law ; Ordinary Bond Percolation
    ISSN: 0043-1397
    E-ISSN: 1944-7973
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 10/2015, Vol.15(10), pp.2155-2173
    Description: Purpose: Water reservoirs around the world suffer from accelerated sediment loads and, consequently, contamination. Notably, in water-scarce regions such as Jordan, this poses a threat to an important water source, and identifying the sediment sources is an important task. Thus, a sediment fingerprinting study in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment of northern Jordan was implemented with special attention directed to the development of suitable correction factors necessary to improve the comparability of source and sink sediments. The selection of seven conservative elements for the sediment fingerprinting was made, with specific attention directed to the chemical environment of the reservoir. Materials and methods: Thirty-six samples from six different surface and subsurface sources and 38 sink samples from the Wadi Al-Arab reservoir were collected. In total, 27 organic and inorganic elements as well as radionuclides were analysed. Two vertical physicochemical water profiles provided information on the pH and Eh conditions and common element concentrations. The stepwise multiple regression analysis model (SMRAM) was developed to explore parameters that influence the element concentrations and their interrelations, and to calculate an element-specific correction factor. The standard selection procedure was expanded by the comparison of water and sink sediment element concentrations, a literature review concerning the pH and Eh conditions and, in selected cases, a correlation analysis. Results and discussion: The combination of Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, super(232)Th, super(228)Th and super(137)Cs provided the best source discrimination, and based on Monte Carlo simulations, the mixing model revealed the existence of three major sediment source areas. These are as follows: (i) olive orchards on slopes, which delivered 59 plus or minus 8 % of the sediments in the sink; (ii) cultivated fields on plateau and saddle positions contributed 11 plus or minus 9 %; and (iii) slopes with natural vegetation used for grazing contributed 29 plus or minus 15 % of the deposited sediment. With a mean residual error of 1.04 %, the sum of the source concentrations differs only slightly from sink concentrations and proves that the model is reliable. Conclusions: The SMRAM model revealed that the different inorganic (total inorganic carbon, TIC) and organic (total organic carbon, TOC) carbon contents and the clay/sand content influence the element concentrations of the sediment samples. Due to the carbonatic environment, it was mainly necessary to correct for TIC. Applying an expanded literature review regarding the chemical environment under investigation, in addition to the standard mass conservation and Kruskal-Wallis test, prevented possible non-conservative elements from entering the discriminant analysis.
    Keywords: Reservoir ; Sediment Sources ; Fingerprinting ; Carbon ; Literature Reviews ; Total Organic Carbon ; Sediments ; Redox Potential ; Modelling ; Carbon ; Vegetation ; Conservation ; Hydrogen Ion Concentration ; Sinks ; Standards ; Slopes ; Reservoirs ; Sediments ; Conferences and Other Meetings ; General;
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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