Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 2010, Vol.389(11), pp.2290-2299
Rich-club and page-club coefficients and their null models are introduced for directed graphs. Null models allow for a quantitative discussion of the rich-club and page-club phenomena. These coefficients are computed for four directed real-world networks: Arxiv High Energy Physics paper citation network, Web network (released from Google), Citation network among US Patents, and email network from a EU research institution. The results show a high correlation between rich-club and page-club ordering. For journal paper citation network, we identify both rich-club and page-club ordering, showing that “elite” papers are cited by other “elite” papers. Google web network shows partial rich-club and page-club ordering up to some point and then a narrow declining of the corresponding normalized coefficients, indicating the lack of rich-club ordering and the lack of page-club ordering, i.e. high in-degree (PageRank) pages purposely avoid sharing links with other high in-degree (PageRank) pages. For UC patents citation network, we identify page-club and rich-club ordering providing a conclusion that “elite” patents are cited by other “elite” patents. Finally, for email communication network we show lack of both rich-club and page-club ordering. We construct an example of synthetic network showing page-club ordering and the lack of rich-club ordering.
Directed Networks ; Rich-Club Coefficient ; Page-Club Coefficient ; Real Networks ; Physics
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