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  • Hepatitis B
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Vaccine, 17 October 2013, Vol.31(44), pp.5111-5117
    Description: Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk from occupational exposure to airborne and bloodborne pathogens, and the risk of infection among HCP is greater than among the general population. The aim of the study was to characterize attitudes toward occupational recommended vaccines as well as the perception of risks of occupationally acquired infections. We surveyed 650 medical students to assess their perception of influenza and hepatitis B and their opinions and beliefs about influenza and hepatitis B vaccines. We found differences between pre-clinical and clinical students regarding the uptake of influenza and hepatitis B vaccines, about the chances of being occupationally infected with influenza or hepatitis B, and about the likelihood of suffering from severe side-effects following immunization. Interestingly, the risk perception varied drastically between the two vaccine-preventable diseases hepatitis B and influenza. Medical students rated the probability of contracting hepatitis B due to a work-related exposure and the severity of disease significantly higher than for influenza, and this may be an explanation for the greater acceptance of the hepatitis B vaccine. Furthermore, our findings suggest that medical students are frequently inaccurate in assessing their own risk level, and their specific knowledge about both diseases and the severity of these diseases proved to be unsatisfactory.
    Keywords: Infection Control ; Influenza ; Healthcare Personnel ; Hepatitis ; Medical Students ; Vaccination ; Medicine ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0264-410X
    E-ISSN: 1873-2518
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: BMC Infectious Diseases, 01 October 2012, Vol.12(1), p.276
    Description: Abstract Background There is agreement that the infectivity assay with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) is a suitable surrogate test to validate disinfectants for hepatitis B virucidal activity. However, since this test is not widely used,...
    Keywords: Duck Hepatitis B Virus ; Vaccinia Virus ; Disinfectants ; Limited Virucidal Activity ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1471-2334
    E-ISSN: 1471-2334
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  • 3
    In: LaboratoriumsMedizin, 2009, Vol.33(4), pp.223-227
    Description: Medizinstudenten sind im Rahmen ihrer klinischen Ausbildung einer erhöhten Infektionsgefährdung ausgesetzt. Dessen ungeachtet sind die Impfraten der Medizinstudenten ungenügend. Ein adäquater Impfstatus der Medizinstudenten vor Beginn ihres klinischen Ausbildungsabschnitts ist jedoch wichtig, um nosokomiale Infektionen zu vermeiden.
    Description: Im April und Mai 2007 wurden insgesamt 366 Serumproben von Medizinstudenten des ersten klinischen Semesters ausgewertet. Die serologischen Untersuchungen erfolgten mittels etablierter ELISA-Systeme. Untersucht wurde auf spezifische Antikörper gegen Masern, Mumps, Röteln, Varizellen, Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) und HIV.
    Description: Insgesamt 63,9% (n=234) der Studenten waren gegen Hepatitis B geimpft (Grundimmunisierung, drei Impfdosen). Dagegen hatten 31,7% (n=116) der Studenten bisher noch keine Hepatitis B-Impfung und 4,4% (n=16) kein komplettes Impfschema erhalten (〈drei Impfungen). Zwei Studenten zeigten serologische Marker einer abgelaufenen HBV-Infektion. Es wurde die Erstdiagnose einer HCV-Infektion sowie die Erstdiagnose einer HIV-Infektion gestellt. Bei 7,9% (Masern), 17,5% (Mumps), 6,5% (Röteln) und 2,2% (Varizellen) der Studenten konnten keine virusspezifischen Antikörper nachgewiesen werden.
    Description: Es sollten weitere Anstrengungen unternommen werden, um die Impfraten der Medizinstudenten zu verbessern. Es ist wichtig, Immunitätslücken zu identifizieren und vor dem ersten Patientenkontakt zu schließen. Im Hinblick auf die Erstdiagnose und die Folgen schwerwiegender blutübertragbarer Erkrankungen (z.B. HBV, HCV und HIV) sollten Medizinstudenten auf diese Infektionen untersucht werden.
    Description: Medical students are exposed to infectious diseases during the course of their clinical training. Unfortunately, vaccination rates among medical students remain insufficient. However, immunizations against vaccine-preventable diseases should be carried out before the students enter clinical courses. This is vital in order to prevent nosocomial infections. We screened 366 medical students in their first clinical year for hospital-related viral diseases. Serum samples were collected between April and May 2007. Antibody testing was carried out using commercial ELISA systems against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Overall, 63.9% (n=234) of the students were sufficiently vaccinated against HBV. In contrast, 31.7% (n=116) had not received any HBV vaccine dosage, and 4.4% (n=16) had not completed the full vaccine cycle (〈3 dosage). Remarkably, two students showed serological markers of resolved HBV infection. In addition, one student was HCV-positive and one was HIV-positive, respectively. The following seronegative rates were found: measles (7.9%), mumps (17.5%), rubella (6.5%), and varicella (2.2%). Further work is needed to identify optimal strategies for improving vaccination rates among medical students. It is imperative to identify and limit possible disparities in immunity of vaccine-preventable diseases before initial patient contact. With regard to the primary diagnosis of serious virus diseases including HBV, HCV and HIV, medical students should be screened for these blood borne pathogens.
    Keywords: Blutübertragbare Infektionskrankheiten ; Impfraten ; Medizinstudenten ; Blood Borne Infection ; Medical Students ; Vaccine Uptake Rates
    ISSN: 0342-3026
    E-ISSN: 1439-0477
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2007, Vol.196(3), pp.145-150
    Description: In the course of clinical training medical students are in particular exposed to infectious diseases. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the immunity status of 223 medical students in their first clinical semester to job-related diseases. Specific serological antibody testing of hepatitis B-virus (HBV), hepatitis C-virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), varicella zoster- (VZV), measles-, mumps-, rubella and polioviruses’ type 1, 2 and 3 were performed. The results yielded, that 69.5% of the students had an anti-HBs-level ≥10 IU/l and 54.7% ≥100 IU/l. Neither HCV infection nor HIV infection were found, but one student showed an active HBV infection. Virus specific immunity rates were found in 91.5% for measles, 80.3% for mumps, 90.1% for rubella and 96.9% for varicella. Furthermore the medical students demonstrated neutralizing antibodies to polioviruses: 95.1% (type 1), 96.9% (type 2) and 70% (type 3). 68.2% had antibodies (titer 1:≥10) against all three virus types. The partly significant gaps of immunity in the students need to be closed prior to the first contact with patients.
    Keywords: Virus serology ; Vaccination ; Medical students ; Immune status
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2008, Vol.81(3), pp.347-354
    Description: Byline: Sabine Wicker (1), Juliane Jung (2), Regina Allwinn (2), Rene Gottschalk (3), Holger F. Rabenau (2) Keywords: Bloodborne viruses; Health care workers; Needlestick injury; Occupational infections; Safety devices Abstract: Objective Health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to bloodborne pathogens, especially hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through job-related risk factors like needlestick, stab, scratch, cut, or other bloody injuries. Needlestick injuries can be prevented by safer devices. Methods The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and causes of needlestick injuries in a German university hospital. Data were obtained by an anonymous, self-reporting questionnaire. We calculated the share of reported needlestick injuries, which could have been prevented by using safety devices. Results 31.4% (n = 226) of participant HCWs had sustained at least one needlestick injury in the last 12 months. A wide variation in the number of reported needlestick injuries was evident across disciplines, ranging from 46.9% (n = 91/194) among medical staff in surgery and 18.7% (n = 53/283) among HCWs in pediatrics. Of all occupational groups, physicians have the highest risk to experience needlestick injuries (55.1%--n = 129/234). Evaluating the kind of activity under which the needlestick injury occurred, on average 34% (n = 191/561) of all needlestick injuries could have been avoided by the use of safety devices. Taking all medical disciplines and procedures into consideration, safety devices are available for 35.1% (n = 197/561) of needlestick injuries sustained. However, there was a significant difference across various medical disciplines in the share of needlestick injuries which might have been avoidable: Pediatrics (83.7%), gynecology (83.7%), anesthesia (59.3%), dermatology (33.3%), and surgery (11.9%). In our study, only 13.2% (n = 74/561) of needlestick injuries could have been prevented by organizational measures. Conclusion There is a high rate of needlestick injuries in the daily routine of a hospital. The rate of such injuries depends on the medical discipline. Implementation of safety devices will lead to an improvement in medical staff's health and safety. Author Affiliation: (1) Occupational Health Service, Hospital of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt, Germany (2) Institute of Medical Virology, Hospital of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt, Paul-Ehrlich-Str. 40, 60596, Frankfurt, Germany (3) City Health Office of Frankfurt/Main, Braubachstr. 18-22, 60311, Frankfurt, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 13/06/2007 Received Date: 22/01/2007 Accepted Date: 13/06/2007 Online Date: 10/07/2007
    Keywords: Bloodborne viruses ; Health care workers ; Needlestick injury ; Occupational infections ; Safety devices
    ISSN: 0340-0131
    E-ISSN: 1432-1246
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  • 6
    Language: German
    In: Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, 2009, Vol.59(5), pp.138-150
    Description: Beruflich bedingte, durch Blut übertragbare Infektionen können bei den Mitarbeitern des Gesundheitswesens zu schwerwiegenden Erkrankungen und arbeitsbedingten Todesfällen führen. Nichtsdestotrotz existiert in Deutschland keine adäquate epidemiologische Erfassung dieser Daten.Selektive Literaturaufarbeitung der Autoren zu den blutübertragbaren Erregern Hepatitis B und C, sowie HIV.Die Literaturrecherche zeigt, dass durch präventive Maßnahmen die Infektionsgefährdung der Mitarbeiter im Gesundheitswesen signifikant verringert werden kann. Für alle drei Erreger gilt als wichtigste präventive Maßnahme die Verwendung sicherer Instrumente. Im Hinblick auf Hepatitis B ist zudem die Impfung, bezüglich Hepatitis C die frühzeitige Diagnose und zeitgerechte Interferontherapie und bei HIV die Postexpositionsprohylaxe zu nennen.Arbeitsbedingte Infektionen können in den unterschiedlichsten Berufen vorkommen. Beispielweise im Rahmen der Tierhaltung, bei Forstarbeiten, in der Müllverarbeitung oder in der Lebensmittelindustrie. Mitarbeiter im Gesundheitswesen sind jedoch nahezu die einzige Berufsgruppe die gegenüber blutübertragbaren Erregern exponiert ist.Die Betreuung von Patienten mit blutübertragbaren Erkrankungen birgt ein realistisches, wenngleich insgesamt statistisch niedriges Risiko der Erregertransmission für die Beschäftigten. Für die von einer Infektionsübertragung betroffenen Mitarbeiter kann eine Infektion allerdings schwerwiegende, mitunter tödliche Folgen haben. Aus diesem Grunde sollten umfangreiche Anstrengungen unternommen werden, um die Mitarbeiter vor einer Infektionsübertragung zu schützen. Die epidemiologische Auswertung von arbeitsbedingten Infektionen und Todesfällen ist erforderlich, um zielgerichtete Präventionsmaßnahmen in die Wege leiten zu können.Occupationally acquired bloodborne infections among health care workers (HCWs) could lead to substantial illness and occasional deaths. Despite this, no accurate epidemiologic surveillance exists in Germany.Selective literature review of occupationally acquired bloodborne infections hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV. Currently available data demonstrate that prevention measures could minimize the risk of infection among HCWs. The implementation of safety devices is the most important measure to reduce the risk of transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV. Concerning HBV, the vaccination, in terms of HCV the early detection and therapy and with regards to HIV the postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) should be mentioned.Occupationally acquired infections have been confirmed in different occupations (e.g. animal husbandry, forestry, waste disposal and food industry). However, HCWs are one of the few groups at risk for the transmission of bloodborne pathogens. The risk of occupationally acquired infections is comparatively low but nevertheless an unavoidable part of daily patient care. The concerned HCWs are at risk of substantial illness and occasional deaths. The prevention of transmission of bloodborne pathogens is vital. A surveillance system of occupational acquired infections and deaths should determine the magnitude of the problem and could lead to future interventions.
    Keywords: bloodborne transmission ; occupational acquired infections diseases ; hepatitis B ; hepatitis C ; HIV ; needlestick injury
    ISSN: 0944-2502
    E-ISSN: 2198-0713
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  • 7
    In: LaboratoriumsMedizin, 2009, Vol.33(4), pp.---
    Description: Medical students are exposed to infectious diseases during the course of their clinical training. Unfortunately, vaccination rates among medical students remain insufficient. However, immunizations against vaccine-preventable diseases should be carried out before the students enter clinical courses. This is vital in order to prevent nosocomial infections. We screened 366 medical students in their first clinical year for hospital-related viral diseases. Serum samples were collected between April and May 2007. Antibody testing was carried out using commercial ELISA systems against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Overall, 63.9% (n=234) of the students were sufficiently vaccinated against HBV. In contrast, 31.7% (n=116) had not received any HBV vaccine dosage, and 4.4% (n=16) had not completed the full vaccine cycle (〈3 dosage). Remarkably, two students showed serological markers of resolved HBV infection. In addition, one student was HCV-positive and one was HIV-positive, respectively. The following seronegative rates were found: measles (7.9%), mumps (17.5%), rubella (6.5%), and varicella (2.2%). Further work is needed to identify optimal strategies for improving vaccination rates among medical students. It is imperative to identify and limit possible disparities in immunity of vaccine-preventable diseases before initial patient contact. With regard to the primary diagnosis of serious virus diseases including HBV, HCV and HIV, medical students should be screened for these blood borne pathogens.
    Keywords: Blood Borne Infection ; Medical Students ; Vaccine Uptake Rates
    ISSN: 0342-3026
    E-ISSN: 1439-0477
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  • 8
    In: Clinical Transplantation, June 2003, Vol.17(3), pp.254-258
    Description: Hepatitis B (HBV)‐infected patients receive an anti‐HBs immunoprophylaxis [hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) titre of more than 100 IU/L] in combination with lamivudine to prevent reinfection after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). In comparison with intramuscular (i.m.) HBIG, costs for intravenous (i.v.) HBIG are found to be extremely high. We therefore studied patients' outcome (i) after a switch from i.v. to i.m. HBIG and (ii) the outcome after the patients were initially treated with i.m. HBIG after discharge from the hospital. (i) Six outpatients were switched from 2000 IU i.v. HBIG (Hepatect) administered every 2 wk to 2000 IU i.m. HBIG (Hepatitis‐B‐Immunglobulin Behring) given once a month. (ii) Six other outpatients were directly treated with i.m. HBIG every 4 wk after OLT. All patients also received 100 mg lamivudine/d. Patients switched from i.v. to i.m. HBIG had stable anti‐HBs titres (i.v. HBIG: 180 ± 37 IU/L vs. i.m. HBIG: 173 ± 23 IU/L). Patients directly treated with i.m. HBIG also had sufficient anti‐HBs titres (176 ± 31 IU/L). Intramuscular application of HBIG was well tolerated by all patients and no side‐effects were observed in patients receiving i.m. HBIG. In comparison with the protocol using i.v. HBIG, the costs of i.m. treatment were 60% lower. Long‐term administration of i.m. HBIG saves up to 60% of the usual costs for i.v. prophylaxis of HBV reinfection in patients after OLT. In combination with lamivudine, long‐term i.m. HBIG therapy is as efficient as i.v. HBIG treatment, but its lower costs clearly favour its use in preventing HBV reinfection after OLT.
    Keywords: Hepatitis B ; Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin ; Immunoprophylaxis ; Liver Transplantation ; Recurrence
    ISSN: 0902-0063
    E-ISSN: 1399-0012
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  • 9
    In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 2008, 2008, Vol. 52(7), pp.615-622
    Description: Objectives: Our paper measures the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients at the University Hospital of Frankfurt/Main, and correlates the prevalence with risk factors for exposure to and infection of healthcare workers (HCWs). Individual risk assessments were calculated for exposed HCWs. Methods: Survey of patients admitted to a German University Hospital. Markers for HBV, HCV and HIV were studied and evaluated statistically. Data on needlestick injuries (NSIs) among HCWs were correlated with the prevalence of infectious patients. Results: The HBV, HCV and HIV prevalence among patients at the University Hospital were 5.3% ( n  = 709/13 358), 5.8% ( n  = 1167/20 163) and 4.1% ( n  = 552/13 381), respectively. Our results indicate that the prevalence of blood-borne infections in patients was about nine times higher for HBV, ∼15 times higher for HCV and ∼82 times higher for HIV than in the overall German population. The highest risk of acquiring a blood-borne infection via NSI was found in the department of internal medicine due to increased prevalence of blood-borne pathogens in patients under treatment. Conclusions: While accidental NSIs were most frequent in surgery, the nominal risk of blood-borne virus infection was greatest in the field of internal medicine. The study underlines the importance of HBV vaccinations and access to HIV-post-exposure prophylaxis for HCWs as well as the use of anti-needlestick devices.
    Keywords: Blood - Borne Viruses ; Healthcare Workers ; Occupational Infections
    ISSN: 0003-4878
    E-ISSN: 1475-3162
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