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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Clinical chemistry, October 2013, Vol.59(10), pp.1538-9
    Description: In a recent issue of Science , Lacetera, Macis, and Slonim summarize new information regarding the impact that economic rewards have on the blood supply and safety (1). For many years, the WHO has taken the stance that economic incentives decrease the safety of the blood supply. In support of the WHO position, the establishment of an all-volunteer blood supply led to a dramatic decrease in the incidence of posttransfusion hepatitis C. The authors submit, however, that the position of the WHO is based on studies that failed to control for several confounding variables (percentage of first-time donors, location of donation, and use of prisoners). Recent randomized field surveys reviewed by the authors found that economic incentives increase …
    Keywords: Guidelines As Topic ; Blood Donors -- Ethics ; Reimbursement, Incentive -- Ethics
    ISSN: 00099147
    E-ISSN: 1530-8561
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2007, Vol.341(1), pp.207-214
    Description: Human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles represent promising drug carrier systems. Binding of cytostatics to HSA nanoparticles may diminish their toxicity, optimise their body distribution and/or may overcome multidrug resistance. In the present study, doxorubicin-loaded HSA nanoparticle preparations were prepared. Doxorubicin was loaded to the HSA nanoparticles either by adsorption to the nanoparticles’ surfaces or by incorporation into the particle matrix. Both loading strategies resulted in HSA nanoparticles of a size range between 150 nm and 500 nm with a loading efficiency of 70–95%. The influence on cell viability of the resulting nanoparticles was investigated in two different neuroblastoma cell lines. The anti-cancer effects of the drug-loaded nanoparticles were increased in comparison to doxorubicin solution. Based on these result a standard protocol for the preparation of doxorubicin-loaded HSA nanoparticles for further antitumoural studies was established.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles ; Doxorubicin ; Human Serum Albumin (HSA) ; Physicochemical Characterisation ; Cell Viability ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0378-5173
    E-ISSN: 1873-3476
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Die Pharmazie, July 2013, Vol.68(7), pp.549-54
    Description: Lysosomal storage disorders like mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI are rare diseases with a lack of well-suited treatments. Even though an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) of recombinant arylsulfatase B (ASB) is available for MPS VI, the administration cannot positively affect the neurologic manifestations such as spinal cord compression. Since nanoparticles (NP) have shown to be effective drug carriers, the feasibility of arylsulfatase B adsorption onto poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) (PBCA) nanoparticles was investigated in this study. In order to advance the ERT of ASB, the adsorption of the latter on the surface of PBCA NP as well as in vitro release in serum was investigated. With alteration of parameters like temperature, incubation time, pH, and enzyme amount, the adsorption process revealed to be stable with a maximum capacity of 67 microg/mg NP at a pH of 6.3. In vitro release experiments demonstrated that the adsorption is stable for at least 60 minutes in human blood serum, indicating that the ASB-loaded PBCA nanoparticles represent a promising candidate for ERT of MPS VI.
    Keywords: Enzyme Replacement Therapy ; Mucopolysaccharidosis VI -- Drug Therapy ; N-Acetylgalactosamine-4-Sulfatase -- Therapeutic Use
    ISSN: 0031-7144
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Controlled Release, 28 September 2015, Vol.214, pp.76-84
    Description: Highly aggressive cancer types such as pancreatic cancer possess a mortality rate of up to 80% within the first 6 months after diagnosis. To reduce this high mortality rate, more sensitive diagnostic tools allowing an early stage medical imaging of even very small tumours are needed. For this purpose, magnetic, biodegradable nanoparticles prepared using recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) and incorporated iron oxide (maghemite, -Fe O ) nanoparticles were developed. Galectin-1 has been chosen as target receptor as this protein is upregulated in pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions but not in healthy pancreatic tissue nor in pancreatitis. Tissue plasminogen activator derived peptides (t-PA-ligands), that have a high affinity to galectin-1 have been chosen as target moieties and were covalently attached onto the nanoparticle surface. Improved targeting and imaging properties were shown in mice using single photon emission computed tomography–computer tomography (SPECT–CT), a handheld gamma camera, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
    Keywords: Rhsa Nanoparticles ; Maghemite ; T-PA-Ligands to Galectins ; T-Papeptide1lac ; Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography–Computer Tomography (Spect–CT) ; Handheld Gamma Camera ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Mri) ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0168-3659
    E-ISSN: 1873-4995
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  • 5
    In: Bone Marrow Transplantation, 2017
    Keywords: Allografts–Blood ; Bone Marrow Transplantation–Blood ; Donor Selection–Therapy ; Female–Therapy ; HLA Antigens–Therapy ; Humans–Therapy ; Isoantibodies–Therapy ; Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-Abl Positive–Therapy ; Middle Aged–Therapy ; Tissue Donors–Therapy ; HLA Antigens ; Isoantibodies;
    ISSN: 0268-3369
    E-ISSN: 1476-5365
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  • 6
    In: HLA, October 2018, Vol.92(4), pp.253-254
    Description: A new allele, now named , was discovered during testing of a registry donor for possible stem cell transplantation.
    Keywords: C*02:138 ; Hla ; Ngs
    ISSN: 2059-2302
    ISSN: 00012815
    E-ISSN: 2059-2310
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 10 March 2000, Vol.196(2), pp.197-200
    Description: The objective of the present study was to characterise and optimise the desolvation process of human serum albumin (HSA) for the preparation of nanoparticles. Following the desolvation of the protein, the resulting nanoparticles were stabilised by the addition of varying amounts of glutaraldehyde. The particle size and the number of available amino groups on the surface of the nanoparticles were determined. The results indicated that the particle size depended mainly on the amount of desolvating agent added, but not on the amount of cross-linker. Increasing volumes of glutaraldehyde reduced the number of amino groups on the surface of HSA nanoparticles.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles ; Human Serum Albumin (HSA) ; Surface Characterisation ; Desolvation Procedure ; Amino Group Determination ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0378-5173
    E-ISSN: 1873-3476
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2000, Vol.194(1), pp.91-102
    Description: The objective of the present study was to characterise and optimise the desolvation process of human serum albumin (HSA) for the preparation of nanoparticles and to characterise the resulting colloidal system. Following the desolvation of the protein, the resulting nanoparticles were stabilised by the addition of varying amounts of glutaraldehyde or by heat denaturation. The particle size, zeta potential, and the number of available amino groups on the surface of the nanoparticles were determined. The amino groups were quantified by a spectrophotometric method using 2,4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). The results indicated that the particle size depended mainly on the amount of desolvating agent added, but not on the amount of cross-linker or the kind of cross-linking procedure. Increasing amounts of glutaraldehyde reduced the number of amino groups on the surface of HSA nanoparticles and also decreased the zeta potential of the carrier system. The temperature and heat denaturation time only had an influence on the stability of the nanoparticles but not on the amount of amino groups or the particle size. It was shown that heat denatured HSA nanoparticles possessed the greatest number of amino groups on their surface. Additional experiments for the characterisation of gelatin A and B nanoparticles were performed.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles ; Human Serum Albumin (HSA) ; Gelatin ; Surface Characterisation ; Desolvation Procedure ; Amino Group Determination ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0378-5173
    E-ISSN: 1873-3476
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Pharmaceutical research, January 1998, Vol.15(1), pp.58-65
    Description: The present study was performed to investigate the influence of chitosan microspheres on transport of the hydrophilic, antiinflammatory drug prednisolone sodium phosphate (PSP) across the epithelial barrier. Microspheres were prepared using a precipitation method and loaded with PSP. Transport studies were performed in a diffusion cell chamber using the polarized human cell line HT-29B6. Porcine small intestine and fluorescence-labeled microspheres were used to investigate penetration ability of microspheres. It was shown that transport of PSP drug solution was not saturable across the cell monolayers (P = 8.68 +/- 8.24 x 10(-6) cm sec-1) and no sodium dependency could be established. EGTA treatment resulted in an increased permeability (P = 18.69 +/- 1.09 x 10(-6) cm sec-1). After binding of prednisolone to chitosan microspheres its permeability was enhanced drastically compared with the drug solution (P = 35.37 +/- 3.21 x 10(-6) cm sec-1). This effect was prevented by EGTA treatment (P = 15.11 +/- 2.57 x 10(-6) cm sec-1). Furthermore the supporting effect of chitosan microspheres was impaired by pH and ion composition of the medium, whereas the effect remained unchanged in cells treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharides. In vitro incubation of fluorescence-labeled microspheres in the lumen of freshly excised intestine revealed a significant amount of the spheres in the submucosa. Chitosan microspheres are a useful tool to improve the uptake of hydrophilic substances like PSP across epithelial layers. The effect is dependent on the integrity of the intercellular cell contact zones and the microparticles are able to pass the epithelial layer. Their potential benefit under inflammatory conditions like in inflammatory bowel disease, in order to establish high drug doses at the region of interest, remains to be shown.
    Keywords: Anti-Inflammatory Agents -- Pharmacokinetics ; Chelating Agents -- Pharmacology ; Chitin -- Analogs & Derivatives ; Ht29 Cells -- Drug Effects ; Prednisolone -- Analogs & Derivatives
    ISSN: 0724-8741
    E-ISSN: 1573904X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, June 1996, Vol.40(6), pp.1432-7
    Description: Prosthetic heart valve sewing rings were impregnated with gentamicin crobefat (EMD 46217), a poorly soluble gentamicin salt, gentamicin sulfate, and clindamycin palmitate to prevent early prosthetic endocarditis. MICs and MBCs of gentamicin and/or clindamycin were tested against several pathogens of early prosthetic endocarditis. The combination of gentamicin and clindamycin was found to be effective against most relevant bacterial pathogens. With an in vitro pharmacokinetic model, the antibacterial activity of gentamicin and clindamycin was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. High gentamicin levels over the first 24 h were required for a strong reduction of bacterial counts of both strains. Equal amounts of gentamicin and clindamycin sustained the antibacterial effect and prevented regrowth. The most effective release curves of gentamicin and clindamycin found with an in vitro model were used for monitoring release profiles of these antibiotics from impregnated sewing rings by investigating combinations of gentamicin sulfate, gentamicin crobefat, and clindamycin palmitate. Sewing rings impregnated with 4 mg of gentamicin sulfate, 14 mg of gentamicin crobefat, and 20 mg of clindamycin palmitate gave an initial gentamicin burst and afterwards yielded a lower sustained release of gentamicin and clindamycin palmitate. These in vitro release kinetics were confirmed in vivo by pharmacokinetic analysis after intramuscular implantation of impregnated sewing ring segments. Gentamicin and active clindamycin palmitate metabolites were obtained at the implantation site for at least 2 weeks in concentrations of 3 and 5 micrograms per g of muscle, respectively. The investigated method of impregnation holds promise for revision implants after prosthetic valve endocarditis. It may also serve as a prophylactic tool for routine use against this disease.
    Keywords: Clindamycin -- Therapeutic Use ; Endocarditis, Bacterial -- Drug Therapy ; Escherichia Coli Infections -- Drug Therapy ; Gentamicins -- Therapeutic Use ; Heart Valve Prosthesis -- Microbiology ; Staphylococcal Infections -- Drug Therapy
    ISSN: 0066-4804
    E-ISSN: 10986596
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