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  • Immediate-Early Proteins
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 06 August 2013, Vol.110(32), pp.13126-31
    Description: Human CMV (hCMV) establishes lifelong infections in most of us, causing developmental defects in human embryos and life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. During productive infection, the viral 〉230,000-bp dsDNA genome is expressed widely and in a temporal cascade. The hCMV genome does not carry histones when encapsidated but has been proposed to form nucleosomes after release into the host cell nucleus. Here, we present hCMV genome-wide nucleosome occupancy and nascent transcript maps during infection of permissive human primary cells. We show that nucleosomes occupy nuclear viral DNA in a nonrandom and highly predictable fashion. At early times of infection, nucleosomes associate with the hCMV genome largely according to their intrinsic DNA sequence preferences, indicating that initial nucleosome formation is genetically encoded in the virus. However, as infection proceeds to the late phase, nucleosomes redistribute extensively to establish patterns mostly determined by nongenetic factors. We propose that these factors include key regulators of viral gene expression encoded at the hCMV major immediate-early (IE) locus. Indeed, mutant virus genomes deficient for IE1 expression exhibit globally increased nucleosome loads and reduced nucleosome dynamics compared with WT genomes. The temporal nucleosome occupancy differences between IE1-deficient and WT viruses correlate inversely with changes in the pattern of viral nascent and total transcript accumulation. These results provide a framework of spatial and temporal nucleosome organization across the genome of a major human pathogen and suggest that an hCMV major IE protein governs overall viral chromatin structure and function.
    Keywords: Chip-Chip ; Epigenetic Regulation ; Functional Genomics ; Herpesvirus ; Chromatin -- Genetics ; Cytomegalovirus -- Genetics ; Genome, Viral -- Genetics ; Immediate-Early Proteins -- Genetics ; Nucleosomes -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 07 March 2006, Vol.103(10), pp.3840-5
    Description: Type I IFNs are crucial components of the innate immune response to viral attack. They are rapidly synthesized and secreted after infection with human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and trigger a signal transduction pathway that involves successive activation and nuclear translocation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT2. The activated STATs, together with the IFN regulatory factor 9 protein, form a trimeric transcription complex (IFN-stimulated gene factor 3) that stimulates expression of numerous IFN-responsive genes, many of which exhibit antiviral activity. Here we demonstrate that the viral 72-kDa IE1 protein (IE1-72kDa) confers partial resistance to the antiviral activity of type I IFNs upon CMV. Accordingly, IFN-responsive transcripts accumulate to substantially increased levels after infection with an IE1-deficient mutant as compared with wild-type virus, and ectopic expression of the viral protein in stably transfected cells is sufficient to block their induction. We further show that IE1-72kDa forms a physical complex with STAT1 and STAT2 in nuclei of infected cells and in vitro and prevents association of STAT1, STAT2, and IFN regulatory factor 9 with promoters of IFN-responsive genes in vivo. Our results indicate that the viral protein blocks an intranuclear step after nuclear translocation and before DNA binding of IFN-stimulated gene factor 3, presumably by interfering with the integrity and/or correct subnuclear localization of the protein complex. This study identifies the CMV IE1-72kDa protein as a viral antagonist of the cellular innate immune response, inhibiting IFN-dependent STAT signaling by means of an unprecedented molecular mechanism.
    Keywords: Cytomegalovirus -- Immunology ; Interferon Type I -- Metabolism ; Stat1 Transcription Factor -- Metabolism ; Stat2 Transcription Factor -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 07 December 2004, Vol.101(49), pp.17234-9
    Description: The human cytomegalovirus 72-kDa immediate-early (IE)1 and 86-kDa IE2 proteins are expressed at the start of infection, and they are believed to exert much of their function through promiscuous transcriptional activation of viral and cellular gene expression. Here, we show that the impaired growth of an IE1-deficient mutant virus in human fibroblasts is efficiently rescued by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors of three distinct chemical classes. In the absence of IE1 expression, the viral major IE and UL44 early promoters exhibited decreased de novo acetylation of histone H4 during the early phase of infection, and the hypoacetylation correlated with reduced transcription and accumulation of the respective gene products. Consistent with these findings, IE1 interacts specifically with HDAC3 within infected cells. We also demonstrate an interaction between IE2 and HDAC3. We propose that the ability to modify chromatin is fundamental to transcriptional activation by IE1 and, likely, IE2 as well.
    Keywords: Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors ; Virus Replication ; Immediate-Early Proteins -- Physiology ; Viral Proteins -- Physiology
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Pathogens, 2011, Vol.7(4), p.e1002016
    Description: Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) is a highly prevalent pathogen that, upon primary infection, establishes life-long persistence in all infected individuals. Acute hCMV infections cause a variety of diseases in humans with developmental or acquired immune deficits. In addition, persistent hCMV infection may contribute to various chronic disease conditions even in immunologically normal people. The pathogenesis of hCMV disease has been frequently linked to inflammatory host immune responses triggered by virus-infected cells. Moreover, hCMV infection activates numerous host genes many of which encode pro-inflammatory proteins. However, little is known about the relative contributions of individual viral gene products to these changes in cellular transcription. We systematically analyzed the effects of the hCMV 72-kDa immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein, a major transcriptional activator and antagonist of type I interferon (IFN) signaling, on the human transcriptome. Following expression under conditions closely mimicking the situation during productive infection, IE1 elicits a global type II IFN-like host cell response. This response is dominated by the selective up-regulation of immune stimulatory genes normally controlled by IFN-γ and includes the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory chemokines. IE1-mediated induction of IFN-stimulated genes strictly depends on tyrosine-phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and correlates with the nuclear accumulation and sequence-specific binding of STAT1 to IFN-γ-responsive promoters. However, neither synthesis nor secretion of IFN-γ or other IFNs seems to be required for the IE1-dependent effects on cellular gene expression. Our results demonstrate that a single hCMV protein can trigger a pro-inflammatory host transcriptional response via an unexpected STAT1-dependent but IFN-independent mechanism and identify IE1 as a candidate determinant of hCMV pathogenicity. ; Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) is a leading cause of birth defects and severe disease in people with compromised immunity. Disease caused by hCMV is frequently linked to inflammation, and the virus has been shown to induce numerous host genes many of which encode pro-inflammatory proteins. However, little is known about the contributions of individual viral proteins to these changes in cellular transcription. We systematically analyzed the effects of the hCMV immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein, a major viral transcriptional activator, on expression of 〉28,000 human genes. Following expression under conditions mimicking the situation during hCMV infection, IE1 elicited a transcriptional response dominated by the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory and immune stimulatory genes normally induced by the secreted signaling protein interferon-γ. However, IE1-mediated gene expression was independent of interferon induction, yet required the activated form of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), a central mediator of interferon signaling. Indeed, STAT1 moved to the nucleus and became associated with IE1 target genes upon expression of the viral protein. Our results demonstrate that a single hCMV protein can trigger a pro-inflammatory host cell response via an unexpected mechanism and suggest that IE1 may contribute to hCMV disease in more direct ways than previously thought.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Genetics And Genomics ; Immunology ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Microbiology ; Molecular Biology ; Computational Biology
    ISSN: 1553-7366
    E-ISSN: 1553-7374
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, October 2013, Vol.87(19), pp.10763-76
    Description: In the canonical STAT3 signaling pathway, binding of agonist to receptors activates Janus kinases that phosphorylate cytoplasmic STAT3 at tyrosine 705 (Y705). Phosphorylated STAT3 dimers accumulate in the nucleus and drive the expression of genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, invasion, and proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection rapidly promotes nuclear localization of STAT3 in the absence of robust phosphorylation at Y705. Furthermore, infection disrupts interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and expression of a subset of IL-6-induced STAT3-regulated genes, including SOCS3. We show that the HCMV 72-kDa immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein associates with STAT3 and is necessary to localize STAT3 to the nucleus during infection. Furthermore, expression of IE1 is sufficient to disrupt IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, binding of STAT3 to the SOCS3 promoter, and SOCS3 gene expression. Finally, inhibition of STAT3 nuclear localization or STAT3 expression during infection is linked to diminished HCMV genome replication. Viral gene expression is also disrupted, with the greatest impact seen following viral DNA synthesis. Our study identifies IE1 as a new regulator of STAT3 intracellular localization and IL-6 signaling and points to an unanticipated role of STAT3 in HCMV infection.
    Keywords: Cell Nucleus -- Metabolism ; Cytomegalovirus -- Physiology ; Cytomegalovirus Infections -- Virology ; Immediate-Early Proteins -- Metabolism ; Interleukin-6 -- Metabolism ; Stat3 Transcription Factor -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
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  • 6
    In: The Journal of Virology, 2009, Vol. 83(24), p.12854
    Description: Our previous work has shown that efficient evasion from type I interferon responses by human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) requires expression of the 72-kDa immediate-early 1 (IE1) protein. It has been suggested that IE1 inhibits interferon signaling through intranuclear sequestration of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2) protein. Here we show that physical association and subnuclear colocalization of IE1 and STAT2 depend on short acidic and serine/proline-rich low-complexity motifs in the carboxy-terminal region of the 491-amino-acid viral polypeptide. These motifs compose an essential core (amino acids 373 to 420) and an adjacent ancillary site (amino acids 421 to 445) for STAT2 interaction that are predicted to form part of a natively unstructured domain. The presence of presumably "disordered" carboxy-terminal domains enriched in low-complexity motifs is evolutionarily highly conserved across all examined mammalian IE1 orthologs, and the murine cytomegalovirus IE1 protein appears to interact with STAT2 just like the human counterpart. A recombinant hCMV specifically mutated in the IE1 core STAT2 binding site displays hypersensitivity to alpha interferon, delayed early viral protein accumulation, and attenuated growth in fibroblasts. However, replication of this mutant virus is specifically restored by knockdown of STAT2 expression. Interestingly, complex formation with STAT2 proved to be entirely separable from disruption of nuclear domain 10 (ND10), another key activity of IE1. Finally, our results demonstrate that IE1 counteracts the antiviral interferon response and promotes viral replication by at least two distinct mechanisms, one depending on sequestration of STAT2 and the other one likely involving ND10 interaction.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 0022-538X
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 10985514
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Pathogens, 01 July 2016, Vol.12(7), p.e1005748
    Description: The human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) major immediate-early 1 protein (IE1) is best known for activating transcription to facilitate viral replication. Here we present transcriptome data indicating that IE1 is as significant a repressor as it is an activator of host gene expression. Human cells...
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1553-7366
    E-ISSN: 1553-7374
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, 15 October 2016, Vol.90(20), pp.9543-55
    Description: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of commonly fatal malignancies of immunocompromised individuals, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). A hallmark of all herpesviruses is their biphasic life cycle-viral latency and the productive lytic cycle-and it is well established that reactivation of the KSHV lytic cycle is associated with KS pathogenesis. Therefore, a thorough appreciation of the mechanisms that govern reactivation is required to better understand disease progression. The viral protein replication and transcription activator (RTA) is the KSHV lytic switch protein due to its ability to drive the expression of various lytic genes, leading to reactivation of the entire lytic cycle. While the mechanisms for activating lytic gene expression have received much attention, how RTA impacts cellular function is less well understood. To address this, we developed a cell line with doxycycline-inducible RTA expression and applied stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. Using this methodology, we have identified a novel cellular protein (AT-rich interacting domain containing 3B [ARID3B]) whose expression was enhanced by RTA and that relocalized to replication compartments upon lytic reactivation. We also show that small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or overexpression of ARID3B led to an enhancement or inhibition of lytic reactivation, respectively. Furthermore, DNA affinity and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that ARID3B specifically interacts with A/T-rich elements in the KSHV origin of lytic replication (oriLyt), and this was dependent on lytic cycle reactivation. Therefore, we have identified a novel cellular protein whose expression is enhanced by KSHV RTA with the ability to inhibit KSHV reactivation. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of fatal malignancies of immunocompromised individuals, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Herpesviruses are able to establish a latent infection, in which they escape immune detection by restricting viral gene expression. Importantly, however, reactivation of productive viral replication (the lytic cycle) is necessary for the pathogenesis of KS. Therefore, it is important that we comprehensively understand the mechanisms that govern lytic reactivation, to better understand disease progression. In this study, we have identified a novel cellular protein (AT-rich interacting domain protein 3B [ARID3B]) that we show is able to temper lytic reactivation. We showed that the master lytic switch protein, RTA, enhanced ARID3B levels, which then interacted with viral DNA in a lytic cycle-dependent manner. Therefore, we have added a new factor to the list of cellular proteins that regulate the KSHV lytic cycle, which has implications for our understanding of KSHV biology.
    Keywords: DNA-Binding Proteins -- Genetics ; Herpesvirus 8, Human -- Genetics ; Sarcoma, Kaposi -- Virology ; Viral Proteins -- Genetics
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Viruses, 01 November 2009, Vol.1(3), pp.760-779
    Description: The major immediate-early (IE) gene of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is believed to have a decisive role in acute infection and its activity is an important indicator of viral reactivation from latency. Although a variety of gene products are expressed from this region, the 72-kDa IE1 and the...
    Keywords: Cytomegalovirus ; Cmv ; Innate Immunity ; Intrinsic Defense ; Interferon Response ; Nuclear Domain 10 ; Apoptosis ; Immediate-Early Genes ; Ie1 ; Ie2 ; Biology
    ISSN: 1999-4915
    E-ISSN: 1999-4915
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, January 2014, Vol.88(2), pp.1228-48
    Description: The 72-kDa immediate early 1 (IE1) protein encoded by human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) is a nuclearly localized promiscuous regulator of viral and cellular transcription. IE1 has long been known to associate with host mitotic chromatin, yet the mechanisms underlying this interaction have not been specified. In this study, we identify the cellular chromosome receptor for IE1. We demonstrate that the viral protein targets human nucleosomes by directly binding to core histones in a nucleic acid-independent manner. IE1 exhibits two separable histone-interacting regions with differential binding specificities for H2A-H2B and H3-H4. The H2A-H2B binding region was mapped to an evolutionarily conserved 10-amino-acid motif within the chromatin-tethering domain (CTD) of IE1. Results from experimental approaches combined with molecular modeling indicate that the IE1 CTD adopts a β-hairpin structure, docking with the acidic pocket formed by H2A-H2B on the nucleosome surface. IE1 binds to the acidic pocket in a way similar to that of the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Consequently, the IE1 and LANA CTDs compete for binding to nucleosome cores and chromatin. Our work elucidates in detail how a key viral regulator is anchored to human chromosomes and identifies the nucleosomal acidic pocket as a joint target of proteins from distantly related viruses. Based on the striking similarities between the IE1 and LANA CTDs and the fact that nucleosome targeting by IE1 is dispensable for productive replication even in "clinical" strains of hCMV, we speculate that the two viral proteins may serve analogous functions during latency of their respective viruses.
    Keywords: Chromosomes, Human -- Virology ; Cytomegalovirus -- Metabolism ; Cytomegalovirus Infections -- Virology ; Immediate-Early Proteins -- Metabolism ; Nucleosomes -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
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