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  • Indiana  (8)
  • Chlamydia Trachomatis
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  • 1
    In: Sex Transm Dis, 2001, Vol.28(5), pp.247-251
    Description: BACKGROUND: The temporal pattern of partners and sexual encounters may be key factors in the acquisition and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Behavior among adolescent women is of particular interest because they frequently have the highest prevalence and incidence of infection. GOAL: To examine coital diary data collected during a 7-month longitudinal study of young women at high risk of STDs and to describe their sexual behaviors, with particular attention to issues of partner sequence and overlap. STUDY DESIGN: A 7-month longitudinal study of young women infected with or having a sexual contact infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Trichomonas vaginalis attending the STD clinic or one of four neighborhood adolescent health clinics. Data were collected at enrollment and at 1, 3, 5, and 7-month follow-up visits. Coital diaries were kept between visits. RESULTS: The average frequency of coital events was 0.94 per week. The median number of sexual partners during the follow-up period was one, and overlapping of partnerships was an uncommon occurrence. The number of days between the last coital event of a current relationship and the first encounter of a new relationship differed for those choosing a new partner (mean, 20.6 days) and those who returned to a previous partner (mean, 7.9 days;P 〈 0.001). CONCLUSION: Although at high risk for STDs, high-risk behavior was not common among the study population. Partner choice and the behavior of these partners may be more important elements than personal high-risk behavior in accounting for the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among inner-city adolescent women.
    Keywords: Teenage Girls -- Sexual Behavior ; Sexually Transmitted Diseases -- Research;
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    E-ISSN: 15374521
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e36298
    Description: Lactobacillus- dominated vaginal microbiotas are associated with reproductive health and STI resistance in women, whereas altered microbiotas are associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), STI risk and poor reproductive outcomes. Putative vaginal taxa have been observed in male first-catch urine, urethral swab and coronal sulcus (CS) specimens but the significance of these observations is unclear. We used 16 S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota of the CS and urine collected from 18 adolescent men over three consecutive months. CS microbiotas of most participants were more stable than their urine microbiotas and the composition of CS microbiotas were strongly influenced by circumcision. BV-associated taxa, including Atopobium , Megasphaera , Mobiluncus , Prevotella and Gemella , were detected in CS specimens from sexually experienced and inexperienced participants. In contrast, urine primarily contained taxa that were not abundant in CS specimens. Lactobacilllus and Streptococcus were major urine taxa but their abundance was inversely correlated. In contrast, Sneathia , Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma were only found in urine from sexually active participants. Thus, the CS and urine support stable and distinct bacterial communities. Finally, our results suggest that the penis and the urethra can be colonized by a variety of BV-associated taxa and that some of these colonizations result from partnered sexual activity.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Public Health And Epidemiology ; Infectious Diseases ; Microbiology ; Urology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 01 January 2010, Vol.201(1), pp.42-51
    Description: Repeated Chlamydia trachomatis infections are common among young sexually active women. The relative frequency of reinfection and antibiotic treatment failure is undefined. Adolescent women enrolled in a longitudinal cohort had behavioral and sexually transmitted infection assessments performed every 3 months, including amplification tests for C. trachomatis, ompA genotyping, and interviews and diary entries to document sex partner-specific coitus and event-specific condom use. Repeated infections were classified as reinfection or treatment failure by use of an algorithm. All infections for which treatment outcomes were known were used to estimate the effectiveness of antibiotic use. We observed 478 episodes of infection among 210 study participants; 176 women remained uninfected. The incidence rate was 34 episodes/100 woman-years. Of the women who were infected, 121 experienced 1 repeated infections, forming 268 episode pairs; 183 pairs had complete data available and were classified using the algorithm. Of the repeated infections, 84.2% were definite, probable, or possible reinfections; 13.7% were probable or possible treatment failures; and 2.2% persisted without documented treatment. For 318 evaluable infections, we estimated 92.2% effectiveness of antibiotic use. Most repeated chlamydial infections in this high-incidence cohort were reinfections, but repeated infections resulting from treatment failures occurred as well. Our results have implications for male screening and partner notification programs and suggest the need for improved antibiotic therapies.
    Keywords: Anti-Bacterial Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Azithromycin -- Therapeutic Use ; Chlamydia Infections -- Drug Therapy
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Pediatrics, 1996, Vol.128(2), pp.288-295
    Description: To determine whether condom use among high-risk female adolescents could be increased by a behavioral intervention, with the use of infection with as a biomarker of condom practices. Prospective, randomized, controlled intervention. Urban family planning and sexually transmitted disease clinics. Two hundred nine female adolescents, aged 15 through 19 years, who were treated for genitourinary infection, were randomly assigned to standard (control) or experimental (behavioral intervention) groups. One hundred twelve subjects returned for follow-up 5 to 7 months after enrollment and comprise the study subjects. Subjects completed a multiinstrument questionnaire measuring sexual behavior, condom practices, attitudes and beliefs, cognitive complexity, sociodemographics, and motivation at enrollment and follow-up. Endourethral and endocervical sites were sampled for . Among the 112 subjects who returned for repeated examination, those who had received the experimental intervention reported increased use of condoms by their sexual partners for protection against sexually transmitted diseases (odds ratio = 2.4; = 0.02) and for vaginal intercourse (odds ratio = 3.1; = 0.005) at the 6-month follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression analysis controlling for condom use at enrollment demonstrated that the experimental intervention (odds ratio = 2.8; = 0.03) and the higher cognitive complexity (odds ratio = 4.6; = 0.02) independently contributed to greater condom use at follow-up. Despite greater use of condoms among the group who had received the intervention, use remained inconsistent and rates of reinfection with were not significantly different (26% vs 17%; = 0.3). Although a brief behavioral intervention among high-risk female adolescents can increase condom use by their sexual partners, incident infection does not appear to be reduced, because condom use remained inconsistent. (J P 1996;128:288-95 )
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-3476
    E-ISSN: 1097-6833
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Statistics in Medicine, 1992, Vol.11(5), pp.565-577
    Description: Estimates of transmission probabilities for sexually transmitted diseases historically come from studies of uninfected individuals exposed to those with a high disease prevalence (for example, prostitutes). However, changes in sexual behaviour, much of which relates to concerns about AIDS, has made identification of populations suitable for such studies extremely difficult. This paper presents a method for estimating these probabilities that utilizes a deterministic model and routinely collected data available in many clinics. Variance estimates for the estimators are also derived. Data for chlamydial infection and sensitivity analyses for the input parameters and assumptions illustrate the method.
    Keywords: Chlamydia Trachomatis ; Models, Statistical ; Chlamydia Infections -- Transmission ; Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial -- Transmission;
    ISSN: 0277-6715
    E-ISSN: 1097-0258
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Pediatrics, 1988, Vol.112(6), pp.1000-1004
    Description: Five hundred sixty-eight adolescent female patients receiving routine gynecologic care at urban clinics were screened by culture for infection at both the urethra and endocervix. Culture results for 562 were available from either or both sites. Positive cultures were obtained from 139 (25%). Urethral infection was not associated with either urinary tract symptoms or sterile pyuria, but urethral or endocervical infection was associated with cervical friability (P=〈0.0001), endocervical mucopus (P=0.0001), cervical erythema (P=0.0002), and cervical ectopy or erosion (P=0.01). Increased chlamydial infection rates were associated with older age (P=0.01), history of more frequent intercourse (P=0.01), and history of more than one lifetime partner (P=0.023), with a marginal association for being black (P=0.05). Method of contraception, reason for attending clinic, age at menarche, age at first intercourse, years sexually active, number of sexual partners in preceding 6 months, parity, and prior history of sexually transmitted disease were not associated with having chlamydial genitourinary infection.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-3476
    E-ISSN: 1097-6833
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  • 7
    In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 1996, Vol.23(3), pp.226-229
    Description: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:: GOALS:: STUDY DESIGN:: The study population consisted of all 4,329 sexually active girls between the ages of 13 and 19 attending the four adolescent health clinics in Indianapolis, Indiana, during the period beginning October 1, 1985, and ending June 30, 1994. All girls were cultured for Chlamydia trachomatis, and behavioral data were collected for those attending the clinics before 1989. The trend in quarterly isolation rates was examined using linear regression analysis. RESULTS:: Results showed that there was a significant decrease (P = 0.0001), from 25.9% to 9.7%, in the first-visit chlamydial isolation rate over the study period. Behavioral data showed decreases in the frequency of sexual intercourse and in lifetime years of sexual activity, as well as an increase in condom use. CONCLUSIONS::
    Keywords: Chlamydia Infections ; Demographic Aspects ; Teenage Girls ; Health Aspects ; Medicine;
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    E-ISSN: 15374521
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  • 8
    In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 1999, Vol.26(1), pp.26-32
    Description: OBJECTIVE:: To identify factors associated with subsequent sexually transmitted infection (STI) (within 1 year of initial infection) due to Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis. DESIGN:: SETTING:: PARTICIPANTS:: MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: RESULTS:: CONCLUSIONS::
    Keywords: Chlamydia ; Demographic Aspects ; Trichomonas Vaginalis ; Gonorrhea ; Teenage Girls ; Sexual Behavior ; Sexually Transmitted Diseases ; Risk Factors ; Medicine;
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    E-ISSN: 15374521
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