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  • 1
    In: Emerging Microbes & Infections, 2017, Vol.6(9), p.e79
    Description: Central to the One Health approach and any disease eradication program is the question of whether a pathogen has a non-human reservoir. Despite well-established conceptual frameworks that define a reservoir of infection, empirical characterization of reservoirs often remains controversial, challenging and sometimes misleading. What is essentially missing are applicable requirements that standardize the use of the term 'reservoir of infection' across multiple disciplines. We propose an empirical framework, considering maintenance and feasible transmission of a pathogen, to standardize the acceptance of a disease reservoir across multiple disciplines. We demonstrate the intended use of these requirements by applying them to different diseases that are known to infect both humans and animals.
    Keywords: Public Health;
    ISSN: 2222-1751
    E-ISSN: 2222-1751
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(12)
    Description: It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with Treponema pallidum , the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. pallidum ), yaws (subsp. pertenue ), and bejel (subsp. endemicum ) in humans. Recently, a form of T. pallidum infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using T. pallidum strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with T. pallidum infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated T. pallidum was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed T. pallidum -associated lesions severe enough to cause major structural damage to the genitalia. Finally, we found that T. pallidum strains from Lake Manyara National Park and Serengeti National Park were genetically distinct, and a phylogeny suggested that baboon strains may have diverged prior to the clade containing human strains. We conclude that T. pallidum infection associated with genital lesions appears to be common in the wild baboons of the regions studied in Tanzania. Further study is needed to elucidate the infection's transmission mode, its associated morbidity and mortality, and the relationship between baboon and human strains.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Veterinary Science
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: 2015, Vol.9(3), p.e0003637
    Description: There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium ( Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue ) may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO) recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti- T . pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs) and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs) were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T . pallidum -infected olive baboons ( Papio anubis ) from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T . pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T . pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG), however, could be considered as a confirmatory test. ; The success of any disease eradication campaign depends on considering possible non-human reservoirs of the disease. Although the first report of . infection in baboons was published in the 1970’s and the zoonotic potential was demonstrated by inoculation of a West African simian strain into humans, nonhuman primates have not yet been considered as a possible reservoir for re-emerging yaws in Africa. Simian strains are genetically most closely related to the strains that cause yaws in humans. The identification of baboons as a reservoir for human infection in Africa would be revolutionary and aid important aspects to yaws eradication programs. Reliable serological tests and a useful standardized test algorithm for the screening of wild baboon populations are essential for studying potential transmission events between monkeys and humans.
    Keywords: Research Article
    ISSN: 19352727
    E-ISSN: 1935-2735
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 01 April 2018, Vol.12(4), p.e0006396
    Description: We show proof of concept for gene targets (polA, tprL, and TP_0619) that can be used in loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays to rapidly differentiate infection with any of the three Treponema pallidum subspecies (pallidum (TPA), pertenue (TPE), and endemicum (TEN)) and which...
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1935-2727
    E-ISSN: 1935-2735
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, May 2017, Vol.23(5), pp.816-819
    Description: Survey results showed treponemal infection among pet macaques in Southeast Asia, a region with a high prevalence of human yaws. This finding, along with studies showing treponemal infection in nonhuman primates in Africa, should encourage a One Health approach to yaws eradication and surveillance activities, possibly including monitoring of nonhuman primates in yaws-endemic regions.
    Keywords: Asia ; Indonesia ; Macaca Spp. ; One Health ; Southeast Asia ; Sulawesi ; Treponema Pallidum ; Treponema Pallidum Subsp. Pertenue ; Bacteria ; Eradication ; Macaques ; Mammalian Host Reservoirs ; Nonhuman Primates ; Nontreponemal ; Pets ; Surveillance ; Yaws ; Monkey Diseases -- Epidemiology ; Treponemal Infections -- Veterinary
    ISSN: 10806040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, June 2018, Vol.24(6), pp.1002-1009
    Description: We investigated Treponema pallidum infection in 8 nonhuman primate species (289 animals) in Tanzania during 2015-2017. We used a serologic treponemal test to detect antibodies against the bacterium. Infection was further confirmed from tissue samples of skin-ulcerated animals by 3 independent PCRs (polA, tp47, and TP_0619). Our findings indicate that T. pallidum infection is geographically widespread in Tanzania and occurs in several species (olive baboons, yellow baboons, vervet monkeys, and blue monkeys). We found the bacterium at 11 of 14 investigated geographic locations. Anogenital ulceration was the most common clinical manifestation; orofacial lesions also were observed. Molecular data show that nonhuman primates in Tanzania are most likely infected with T. pallidum subsp. pertenue-like strains, which could have implications for human yaws eradication.
    Keywords: Africa ; One Health ; Tanzania ; Treponema Pallidum ; Bacteria ; Eradication ; Infection ; Nonhuman Primates ; Spirochetes ; Yaws ; Treponema Pallidum ; Primate Diseases -- Epidemiology ; Yaws -- Veterinary
    ISSN: 10806040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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