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  • Inflammation
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 05 January 2014, Vol.369(1633), pp.20130162
    Description: Approximately half of all patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience cognitive dysfunction, including learning and memory impairment. Recent studies suggest that hippocampal pathology is involved, although the mechanisms underlying these deficits remain poorly understood. Evidence obtained from a mouse model of MS, the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), suggests that in the hippocampus of EAE mice long-term potentiation (LTP) is favoured over long-term depression in response to repetitive synaptic activation, through a mechanism dependent on enhanced IL-1β released from infiltrating lymphocytes or activated microglia. Facilitated LTP during an immune-mediated attack might underlie functional recovery, but also cognitive deficits and excitotoxic neurodegeneration. Having identified that pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β can influence synaptic function and integrity in early MS, it is hoped that new treatments targeted towards preventing synaptic pathology can be developed.
    Keywords: Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis ; Hippocampus ; Interleukin-1β ; Long-Term Potentiation ; Multiple Sclerosis ; Synaptic Plasticity ; Models, Neurological ; Cytokines -- Metabolism ; Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental -- Physiopathology ; Hippocampus -- Pathology ; Long-Term Potentiation -- Physiology ; Multiple Sclerosis -- Physiopathology ; Synapses -- Physiology
    ISSN: 09628436
    E-ISSN: 1471-2970
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Diabetologia, 2014, Vol.57(5), pp.980-990
    Description: Byline: Ivana Nikolic (1), Tamara Saksida (1), Katia Mangano (2), Milica Vujicic (1), Ivana Stojanovic (1), Ferdinando Nicoletti (2), Stanislava Stosic-Grujicic (1) Keywords: Beta cell apoptosis; Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-A1; Cytokines; Type 1 diabetes Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Recent studies have identified carbon monoxide (CO) as a potential therapeutic molecule for the treatment of autoimmune diseases owing to its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. We explored the efficacy and the mechanisms of action of the CO-releasing molecule (CORM)-A1 in preclinical models of type 1 diabetes. Methods The impact of CORM-A1 on diabetes development was evaluated in models of spontaneous diabetes in NOD mice and in diabetes induced in C57BL/6 mice by multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDS). Ex vivo analysis was performed to determine the impact of CORM-A1 both on T helper (Th) cell and macrophage differentiation and on their production of soluble mediators in peripheral tissues and in infiltrates of pancreatic islets. The potential effect of CORM-A1 on cytokine-induced apoptosis in pancreatic islets or beta cells was evaluated in vitro. Results CORM-A1 conferred protection from diabetes in MLDS-induced mice and reduced diabetes incidence in NOD mice as confirmed by preserved insulin secretion and improved histological signs of the disease. In MLDS-challenged mice, CORM-A1 attenuated Th1, Th17, and M1 macrophage response and facilitated Th2 cell differentiation. In addition, CORM-A1 treatment in NOD mice upregulated the regulatory arm of the immune response (M2 macrophages and FoxP3.sup.+ regulatory T cells). Importantly, CORM-A1 interfered with in vitro cytokine-induced beta cell apoptosis through the reduction of cytochrome c and caspase 3 levels. Conclusions/interpretation The ability of CORM-A1 to protect mice from developing type 1 diabetes provides a valuable proof of concept for the potential exploitation of controlled CO delivery in clinical settings for the treatment of autoimmune diabetes. Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Immunology, Institute for Biological Research 'Sinisa Stankovic', University of Belgrade, Bul. Despota Stefana 142, 11060, Belgrade, Serbia (2) Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Via Androne 83, 95124, Catania, Italy Article History: Registration Date: 10/01/2014 Received Date: 19/07/2013 Accepted Date: 18/12/2013 Online Date: 02/02/2014 Article note: Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00125-014-3170-7) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
    Keywords: Beta cell apoptosis ; Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-A1 ; Cytokines ; Type 1 diabetes
    ISSN: 0012-186X
    E-ISSN: 1432-0428
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Pharmacology, 10 January 2010, Vol.626(1), pp.64-71
    Description: Depression is one of the most prevalent and life-threatening forms of mental illnesses, whereas Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects more than 37 million people worldwide. Recent evidence suggests a strong relationship between depression and Alzheimer's disease. A lifetime history of major depression has been considered as a risk factor for later development of Alzheimer's disease. The presence of depressive symptoms can affect the conversion of mild cognitive impairment into Alzheimer's disease. Neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the two major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease brain, are more pronounced in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients with comorbid depression as compared with Alzheimer's disease patients without depression. On the other hand, neurodegenerative phenomena have been observed in different brain regions of patients with a history of depression. Recent evidence suggests that molecular mechanisms and cascades that underlie the pathogenesis of major depression, such as chronic inflammation and hyperactivation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, are also involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In particular, a specific impairment in the signaling of some neurotrophins such as transforming-growth-factor β1 (TGF-β1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been observed both in depression and Alzheimer's disease. In the present review we will examine the evidence on the common molecular pathways between depression and Alzheimer's disease and we will discuss these pathways as new pharmacological targets for the treatment of both major depression and Alzheimer's disease.
    Keywords: Major Depression ; Alzheimer'S Disease ; Chronic Inflammation ; Β-Amyloid ; Transforming-Growth-Factor-Β1 ; Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor ; Neuroprotection ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0014-2999
    E-ISSN: 1879-0712
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Current Opinion in Pharmacology, February 2012, Vol.12(1), pp.28-34
    Description: ► Chronic pain is a severe and debilitating condition with a very high impact in the general population. ► mGlu receptors have been involved in the modulation of many forms of chronic pain, including inflammatory and neuropathic pain. ► Recent findings coming from the use of subtype-selective mGlu receptor ligands, together with the knockout strategy, have shed more light about the role of specific mGlu receptor subtypes in the modulation of pain processing. ► Pharmacological and epigenetic approaches to manage chronic pain through mGlu receptors are discussed here. Over the past two decades metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor ligands have been investigated for their potential therapeutic effects in different disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), including anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, it has been widely demonstrated that mGlu receptors are able to modulate pain transmission both in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. A large number of preclinical studies combining the use of selective ligands with the knockout strategy have revealed more details about the role of the different mGlu receptor subtypes in the modulation of pain information. This review will address the role of mGlu receptors in pain sensitivity focusing on different strategies to achieve pain control by targeting specific mGlu receptor subtypes. Specifically, pharmacological interventions aimed at inhibiting group I mGlu receptor-mediated signaling and/or potentiating groups II and III mGlu receptor signaling together with an epigenetic approach leading to an increased expression of mGlu2 receptors will be discussed.
    Keywords: Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 1471-4892
    E-ISSN: 1471-4973
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  • 5
    In: Nature Medicine, 2010, Vol.16(8), p.897
    Description: High amounts of glutamate are found in the brains of people with multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory disease marked by progressive demyelination. Glutamate might affect neuroinflammation via effects on immune cells. Knockout mice lacking metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 (mGluR4) were markedly vulnerable to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis) and developed responses dominated by interleukin-17-producing T helper ([T.sub.H]17) cells. In dendritic cells (DCs) from those mice, defective mGluR4 signaling--which would normally decrease intracellular cAMP formation--biased [T.sub.H] cell commitment to the [T.sub.H]17 phenotype. In wild-type mice, mGluR4 was constitutively expressed in all peripheral DCs, and this expression increased after cell activation. Treatment of wild-type mice with a selective mGluR4 enhancer increased EAE resistance via regulatory T ([T.sub.reg]) cells. The high amounts of glutamate in neuroinflammation might reflect a counterregulatory mechanism that is protective in nature and might be harnessed therapeutically for restricting immunopathology in multiple sclerosis.
    Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis -- Risk Factors ; Multiple Sclerosis -- Care And Treatment ; Multiple Sclerosis -- Research ; Neurotransmitter Receptors -- Physiological Aspects ; Neurotransmitter Receptors -- Research ; T Cells -- Physiological Aspects ; T Cells -- Research;
    ISSN: 1078-8956
    E-ISSN: 1546170X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2013, Vol.8(1), p.e54666
    Description: Abnormal use-dependent synaptic plasticity is universally accepted as the main physiological correlate of memory deficits in neurodegenerative disorders. It is unclear whether synaptic plasticity deficits take place during neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and its mouse model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In EAE mice, we found significant alterations of synaptic plasticity rules in the hippocampus. When compared to control mice, in fact, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) induction was favored over long-term depression (LTD) in EAE, as shown by a significant rightward shift in the frequency-synaptic response function. Notably, LTP induction was also enhanced in hippocampal slices from control mice following interleukin-1β (IL-1β) perfusion, and both EAE and IL-1β inhibited GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC) without affecting glutamatergic transmission and AMPA/NMDA ratio. EAE was also associated with selective loss of GABAergic interneurons and with reduced gamma-frequency oscillations in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Finally, we provided evidence that microglial activation in the EAE hippocampus was associated with IL-1β expression, and hippocampal slices from control mice incubated with activated microglia displayed alterations of GABAergic transmission similar to those seen in EAE brains, through a mechanism dependent on enhanced IL-1β signaling. These data may yield novel insights into the basis of cognitive deficits in EAE and possibly of MS.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Pain, 14 January 2011, Vol.7
    Description: Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) couple to the inhibitory G-protein Gi. The group II mGluRs include two subtypes, mGlu2 and mGlu3, and their pharmacological activation produces analgesic effects in inflammatory and neuropathic pain states. However, the specific contribution of each one of the two subtypes has not been clarified due to the lack of selective orthosteric ligands that can discriminate between mGlu2 and mGlu3 subtypes. In this study we used mGlu2 or mGlu3 knock-out mice to dissect the specific role for these two receptors in the endogenous control of inflammatory pain and their specific contribution to the analgesic activity of mixed mGlu2/3 receptor agonists. Our results showed that mGlu2−/− mice display a significantly greater pain response compared to their wild type littermates. Interestingly the increased pain sensitivity in mGlu2−/− mice occurred only in the second phase of the formalin test. No differences were observed in the first phase. In contrast, mGlu3−/− mice did not significantly differ from their wild type littermates in either phase of the formalin test. When systemically injected, a single administration of the mGlu2/3 agonist, LY379268 (3 mg/kg, ip), showed a significant reduction of both phases in wild-type mice and in mGlu3−/− but not in mGlu2−/− mice. However tolerance to the analgesic effect of LY379268 (3 mg/kg, ip) in mGlu3−/− mice developed following 5 consecutive days of injection. Taken together, these results demonstrate that: (i) mGlu2 receptors play a predominant role over mGlu3 receptors in the control of inflammatory pain in mice; (ii) the analgesic activity of mixed mGlu2/3 agonists is entirely mediated by the activation of the mGlu2 subtype and (iii) the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of mGlu2/3 agonists develops despite the lack of mGlu3 receptors.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 1744-8069
    E-ISSN: 1744-8069
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  • 8
    In: Annals of Neurology, May 2013, Vol.73(5), pp.667-678
    Description: Objective The concept of inflammation-induced sensitization is emerging in the field of perinatal brain injury, stroke, Alzheimer disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, mechanisms underpinning this process remain unidentified. Methods We combined in vivo systemic lipopolysaccharide-induced or interleukin (IL)-1[beta]-induced sensitization of neonatal and adult rodent cortical neurons to excitotoxic neurodegeneration with in vitro IL-1[beta] sensitization of human and rodent neurons to excitotoxic neurodegeneration. Within these inflammation-induced sensitization models, we assessed metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) signaling and regulation. Results We demonstrate for the first time that group I mGluRs mediate inflammation-induced sensitization to neuronal excitotoxicity in neonatal and adult neurons across species. Inflammation-induced G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) downregulation and genetic deletion of GRK2 mimicked the sensitizing effect of inflammation on excitotoxic neurodegeneration. Thus, we identify GRK2 as a potential molecular link between inflammation and mGluR-mediated sensitization. Interpretation Collectively, our findings indicate that inflammation-induced sensitization is universal across species and ages and that group I mGluRs and GRK2 represent new avenues for neuroprotection in perinatal and adult neurological disorders. Ann Neurol 2013; 73:667-678
    Keywords: Age ; Glutamic Acid Receptors (Metabotropic) ; Double Prime G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 ; Brain Injury ; Neurological Diseases ; Multiple Sclerosis ; Alzheimer'S Disease ; Stroke ; Animal Models ; Neuroprotection ; Inflammation ; Neurodegenerative Diseases ; Cortex ; Beta -Adrenergic-Receptor Kinase ; Neonates ; Excitotoxicity ; Neurology & Neuropathology ; Natural Toxins;
    ISSN: 0364-5134
    E-ISSN: 1531-8249
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Drug Design, Development and Therapy, Annual, 2014, Vol.8, p.555(13)
    Description: New oral drugs have considerably enriched the therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. This review focuses on the molecular pharmacodynamics of fingolimod, dimethyl fumarate (BG-12), laquinimod, and teriflunomide. We specifically comment on the action of these drugs at three levels: 1) the regulation of the immune system; 2) the permeability of the blood-brain barrier; and 3) the central nervous system. Fingolimod phosphate (the active metabolite of fingolimod) has a unique mechanism of action and represents the first ligand of G-protein-coupled receptors (sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors) active in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Dimethyl fumarate activates the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 pathway of cell defense as a result of an initial depletion of reduced glutathione. We discuss how this mechanism lies on the border between cell protection and toxicity. Laquinimod has multiple (but less defined) mechanisms of action, which make the drug slightly more effective on disability progression than on annualized relapse rate in clinical studies. Teriflunomide acts as a specific inhibitor of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. We also discuss new unexpected mechanisms of these drugs, such as the induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by fingolimod and the possibility that laquinimod and teriflunomide regulate the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. Keywords: demyelinating diseases, pharmacotherapy, fingolimod, dimethyl fumarate, laquinimod, teriflunomide
    Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis -- Drug Therapy ; Multiple Sclerosis -- Research ; Fingolimod -- Health Aspects ; Fingolimod -- Research ; Dimethyl Fumarate -- Health Aspects ; Dimethyl Fumarate -- Research
    ISSN: 1177-8881
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Pharmacology, 2011, Vol.658(2), pp.257-262
    Description: 5-Androstene-3β,7β,17β-triol (AET) is a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory adrenal steroid that limits acute and chronic inflammation. HE3286 (17α-ethynyl-5-androstene-3β,7β,17β-triol) is a synthetic derivative of AET with improved pharmaceutical properties and efficacy in some animal models of autoimmunity. Here, daily oral doses of HE3286 led to a suppression of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes in the non-obese diabetic mouse model of type 1 diabetes mellitus when administered either shortly before or after the first incidence of disease onset. Efficacy was associated with reduced insulitis and a suppression of the pathogenic T helper cell type 1 and type 17 phenotypes in peripheral lymphoid organs. These results demonstrate that daily oral treatment with HE3286 administrated relatively late in the destructive autoimmune process led to a suppression of type 1 diabetes mellitus onset and of the pathological inflammatory status, supporting its clinical evaluation in type 1 diabetes mellitus subjects.
    Keywords: Diabetes ; Il-17 ; Androstene ; Nod ; Steroid ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0014-2999
    E-ISSN: 1879-0712
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