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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, July 2013, Vol.92(5), pp.483-489
    Description: ► The invasive aquatic amphipod is more tolerant to lambda-cyhalothrin than the native one. ► Predation success on Baetis nymphs is substantially higher for than ► may contribute substantially to leaf litter decomposition. Invasive species are considered as one of the major threats for biodiversity worldwide. The Ponto-Caspian species , for instance, spread throughout continental Europe and was recorded for the first time also within Lake Constance in 2003. Although is a highly competitive species it was not capable of replacing the native completely in this ecosystem, especially in the riparian zones of the highly agriculturally used island “Reichenau”. As differences in pesticide sensitivity between both amphipod species may explain their distribution, the present study assessed the implication of the highly toxic pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin, which is authorized for application in the Lake Constance region, assuming the invasive species being more sensitive than the native one. However, both the feeding activity bioassays, which measured the leaf consumption over 7 d ( = 20), as well as the predation bioassay, which measured the predation rate upon nymphs in concert with the feeding activity on leaf material over 96 h ( = 13), revealed an up to 5-fold higher tolerance of towards lambda-cyhalothrin. These results suggest the investigated insecticide not being the trigger for the observed distribution pattern of both amphipod species. Hence, other factors like the diversity of habitat structures or the levels of ammonia may have facilitated the coexistence. Nevertheless, the present study uncovered a high leaf-shredding efficacy of the invasive species suggesting that its role in the leaf decomposition process may have been underestimated in the past.
    Keywords: Functional Feeding Group ; Insecticide ; Leaf Litter Decomposition ; Ecosystem Function ; Predator–Prey Interaction ; Freshwater Biodiversity ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2001, Vol.45(4), pp.543-551
    Description: Spray drift and edge-of-field runoff are regarded as important routes of nonpoint-source pesticide input into aquatic surface waters, with current regulatory risk assessment in Europe focussing largely on spray drift. However, the two routes of entry had rarely been compared directly in the same catchment. To this end, the concentrations and loads of the current-use insecticides azinphos-methyl (AZP) and endosulfan (END) were monitored in the Lourens River, South Africa downstream of a 400-ha fruit orchard area during normal farming practice. Spray drift-related peak pesticide levels in the tributaries were in the range of 95th-percentiles of standard drift values according to regulatory risk assessment procedures. Resulting concentrations in Lourens River water samples (n = 3) at a discharge of 0.28 m super(3)/s were as high as 0.04 plus or minus 0.01 mu g/l AZP and 0.07 plus or minus 0.02 mu g/l END. Pesticide levels at the same site during runoff following 3 storm events varying in rainfall between 6.8 and 18.4 mm/d (discharge: 7.5-22.4 m super(3)/s) were considerably higher: by factors between 6 and 37 for AZP (0.26-1.5 mu g/l) and between 2 and 41 for END (0.13-2.9 mu g/l). Levels of pesticides associated with suspended particles were increased during runoff only up to 1247 mu g/kg AZP and 12082 mu g/kg END. A possible reason for the relative importance of runoff is that runoff largely integrates potential pesticide input over both time and space, because the prerequisites for the occurrence of runoff in terms of application and plot characteristics as well as meteorological conditions are far less specific than for spray drift. A probability analysis based on pesticide application patterns and 10-yr rainfall data indicates that the frequencies of rainfall events greater than or equal to 10 and greater than or equal to 15 mm/d are 3.4 and 1.7 per spraying season, respectively.
    Keywords: Catchment ; Exposure Assessment ; Insecticides ; Nonpoint-Source Pollution ; Orchards ; Runoff ; Spray Drift ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2000, Vol.41(10), pp.1511-1517
    Description: Episodic pollution events such as runoff or spraydrift can lead to a short-term (few hours) contamination of aquatic ecosystems with pesticides. So far, different short-term exposures with respect to long-term effects have not been studied. In the present study, caddisfly larvae, typical for agricultural streams (Limnephilus lunatus Curtis, 2nd and 3rd instar) were exposed for 1- vs 10-h to three different equivalent doses ( mu g h) of fenvalerate. After transfer into an artificial stream microcosm with pesticide-free water, chronic effects were observed over 240 days. Comparison of 1- and 10-h exposure revealed that 1-h contamination leads to stronger effects. The differences were significant for the sublethal endpoints emergence pattern and dry weight of adults (ANOVA, Fisher's PLSD; P 〈 0.05). In terms of exposure dose, the difference between 1- and 10-h exposure equals a factor of 6 as a mean of all endpoints studied. The following significant effect levels for the 1-h exposure were obtained for the different endpoints investigated: reduced emergence success and production at 0.1 mu g l super(-1), temporal pattern of emergence at 0.001 mu g l super(-1), dry weight of adults at 0.01 mu g l super(-1).
    Keywords: Acute ; Production ; Pyrethroid ; Runoff ; Short-Term Exposure ; Spraydrift ; Trichoptera ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2003, Vol.51(6), pp.509-513
    Description: A water-sampling device to monitor the quality of water periodically and temporarily flowing out of concrete tubes, sewers or channels is described. It inexpensively and easily enables a qualitative characterization of contamination via these point-source entry routes. The water sampler can be reverse engineered with different sizes and materials, once installed needs no maintenance, passively samples the first surge, and the emptying procedure is short. In an agricultural catchment area in Germany we monitored an emergency overflow of a sewage sewer, an outlet of a rainwater sewer and two small drainage channels as input sources to a small stream. Seven inflow events were analysed for 20 pesticide agents (insecticides, fungicides and herbicides). All three entry routes were remarkably contaminated. We found parathion-ethyl concentrations of 0.3 mu g l super(-1), diuron up to 17.3 mu g l super(-1), ethofumesate up to 51.1 mu g l super(-1), metamitron up to 92 mu g l super(-1) and prosulfocarb up to 130 mu g l super(-1).
    Keywords: Herbicides ; Fungicides ; Insecticides ; Small Streams ; Point Sources ; Sewage Plant ; Rainwater Sewer ; Pipes ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, February 2019, Vol.216, pp.587-594
    Description: Understanding fate and transport of plant protection products (PPPs) that enter vegetated streams from agricultural fields is important for both exposure assessment and risk attenuation, yet limited knowledge is available. The present laboratory study investigated sorption processes governing mass transfer of three common PPPs between water and aquatic plant phases at flow-through exposure conditions (transient aqueous-phase PPP-peak of 4 h 25 min) using three temperature regimes. The exposure produced rapid sorption of PPPs to plants, followed by a gradual depuration from plants. Dynamic sorption kinetics depended on temperature, plant species, and physicochemical properties of the PPPs. Sorption to plants contributed to a 10% reduction of the water-phase peak concentrations of the PPPs. However, being reversible, the attenuation effect was limited to the residence time of the PPPs in the systems. Results of the present study highlight that effectivity of aquatic plants in the attenuation of PPP loads may vary greatly depending on hydrodynamic properties of aquatic systems.
    Keywords: Dynamic Sorption ; Plant Protection Product ; Pesticide ; Specific Surface Area ; Risk Attenuation ; Aquatic Plants ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2007, Vol.68(4), pp.605-612
    Description: Spraydrift and edge-of-field runoff are important routes of pesticide entry into streams. Pesticide contamination originating from spraydrift usually resides in the water phase, while pesticides in contaminated runoff are to a large extent associated with suspended particles (SPs). The effects of two organophosphorous insecticides (OPs), chloropyrifos (CPF) and azinphos-methyl (AZP), on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rainbow trout were compared between two exposure scenarios, simulating spraydrift- and runoff-borne contamination events in the Lourens River (LR), Western Cape, South Africa. NOECs of brain AChE inhibition, determined after 1 h of exposure followed by 24 h of recovery, were 0.33 μg l for aqueous CPF, 200 mg kg for SP-associated CPF and 20 mg kg for SP-associated AZP (at 0.5 g l SP). The highest aqueous AZP concentration tested (3.3 μg l ) was without significant effects. Previously reported peak levels of aqueous CPF in the LR (∼0.2 μg l ) are close to its NOEC (this study), suggesting a significant toxicological risk to fish in the LR. By contrast, reported levels of SP-associated OPs in the LR are 20–200-fold lower than their NOECs (this study). In a comparative in situ study, trout were exposed for seven days at agricultural (LR2, LR3) and upstream reference (LR1) sites. No runoff occurred during the study. Brain AChE was significantly inhibited at LR3. However, OP levels at LR3 (CPF 0.01 μg l ; AZP 0.14 μg l ) were minor compared to concentrations having effects in the laboratory (see above). Additionally, muscle AChE activity was significantly higher in caged trout from LR1 than in animals maintained in laboratory tanks.
    Keywords: Biomonitoring ; Fish ; Biomarker ; Spraydrift ; Runoff ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2005, Vol.58(5), pp.683-691
    Description: Short-term pollution events via runoff are typical of streams in agricultural areas. Existing runoff models that simulate pesticide loss from agricultural fields require extensive input of information. There is thus a need for a simple model that can predict runoff-related pesticide concentrations in many streams on a landscape level when only limited data are available. To validate such a model, the runoff-related pesticide load of 18 small lowland streams was predicted with an extended version of the model "simplified formula for indirect loadings caused by runoff" (available from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD). The authors suggest that the model presented here is suitable for use in routine exposure assessment of pesticides on a landscape level, as all input data (soil, slope, precipitation, pesticide application) are readily available from public authorities or could be generated by simple regional flood hydrograph curves. The predicted concentrations were compared with measured concentrations obtained by runoff-triggered sampling. Fungicides, insecticides and herbicides were detected in 17 streams, with max. concentrations measuring up to 29.7 mu g/l for the fungicide azoxystrobin and 0.3 mu g/l for the insecticide parathion- ethyl. Herbicides were detected in 16 streams, with max. concentrations between 13.7 and 1.2 mu g/l. The linear regression between the predicted and measured concentrations (log-values) shows significant correlations for the following pesticides: azoxystrobin: r super(2)=0.43; p=0.03; epoxiconazole: r super(2)=0.71; p〈=0.01; tebuconazole: r super(2)=0.77; p〈=0.01. The present model successfully explains the pesticide concentrations associated with single entry events caused by runoff, especially at concentration levels above ([gt-or-equal, slanted]0.5 mu g/l).
    Keywords: Exposure Assessment ; Non-Point Source ; Gis-Model ; Agricultural Active Agents ; Validation ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, August 2004, Vol.23(8), pp.1984-1990
    Description: We investigated the acute (5 d) effects of particle‐associated azinphosmethyl (AZP) in multispecies microcosms and assessed the results in the context to data obtained from a parallel field study undertaken in the Lourens River, South Africa. A runoff simulation was carried out in stream microcosms containing the macroinvertebrate fauna of an uncontaminated Lourens River site exposed to particle‐associated AZP (control and 200, 1,000, 5,000, 20,000 μg/kg; three replicates each) for 1 h. Measured AZP concentrations in filtered microcosm water resulted in the following values: Not detectable (control) and 0.03, 0.2, 1.1, and 6.9 μg/L, respectively. The two highest treatments resulted in significantly (analysis of variance [ANOVA]) reduced total numbers of individuals, while the number of taxa was affected in the 20,000 μg/kg treatment only. A comparison with previous data suggests that observed effects partly resulted from particle‐associated AZP. Particularly affected were six out of 14 macroinvertebrate taxa such as mayfly and stonefly taxa. In parallel, the distribution of macroinvertebrates at a pesticide‐free and a contaminated stretch of the Lourens River was monitored five times during the spraying season in 2001 and 2002. Out of the 14 core taxa found in the microcosm study as well as in the field approach, 10 showed comparable reactions in the microcosm experiment and in their field distribution; they were either classified as affected or unaffected in both studies. Thus, we conclude that particle‐associated AZP has the potential to affect the invertebrate community structure of the Lourens River and that microcosm studies employing fieldrelevant exposure scenarios may be valuable for a local risk assessment of pesticide‐related community disruptions in the Lourens River.
    Keywords: Aquatic Macroinvertebrates ; Community Structure ; Microcosms ; Particle‐Associated Azinphosmethyl ; Runoff
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2001, Vol.20(9), p.2088
    Description: We studied the chronic effects of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on reproductive status of medaka (Oryzias latipes) over two generations of continuous exposure. The exposure study of the parental (F0) medaka was begun on embryos within 24 h post-fertilization and continued with monitoring through embryological development, hatching, posthatch survival, growth, sexual differentiation, and reproduction under flow-through exposures to mean measured 4-NP concentrations of 4.2, 8.2, 17.7, 51.5, and 183 µg/litre for up to 104 d. Eggs spawned from the F0 fish at 102 and 103 d posthatch were also examined for hatchability, survival after hatching, growth, and sexual differentiation until 60 d posthatch. The 183-µg/litre treatment significantly reduced the embryo survival and swim-up success of the F0 fish. The cumulative mortality after swim-up of the F0 fish exposed to 17.7 and 51.5 µg/litre were significantly higher than the control mortality. No concentration-related effect of 4-NP was observed on the growth of surviving F0 fish at 60 d posthatch. However, the sex ratio estimated from the appearance of their secondary sex characteristics was skewed toward female in the 51.5-µg/litre treatment. Additionally, gonadal histology showed that 20% of the fish in the 17.7-µg/litre treatment and 40% in the 51.5-µg/litre treatment had testis-ova, indicating that 4-NP affects the gonadal development and survival of medaka at similar concentrations in juveniles. The sex ratio of the F0 fish in the 51.5-µg/litre treatment was completely skewed toward female; subsequently, the effects on fecundity and fertility in this generation were monitored at mean measured concentrations of 4.2, 8.2, and 17.7 µg/litre from 71 to 103 d posthatch. Fecundity was unaffected by any of the treatments examined. The mean fertility in the 17.7-µg/litre treatment was reduced to 76% of that in the controls, although no statistically significant differences were determined. Overall, these results indicate that the lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) and no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of 4-NP through the life cycle of the F0 medaka were 17.7 and 8.2 µg/litre, respectively. In the F1 medaka, no significant effects were observed on hatching success, posthatch mortality, or growth, but sexual differentiation at 60 d posthatch was affected. Induction of testis-ova in the gonads of the F1 fish was observed in both the 8.2- and the 17.7-µg/litre concentrations. The results indicate that 4-NP can have significant effects on reproductive potential of medaka at concentrations as low as 17.7 µg/litre.
    Keywords: Aquatic Animals ; Aquatic Organisms ; Embryonic Development ; Embryos ; Growth ; Mortality ; Nontarget Effects ; Ovaries ; Reproduction ; Sex Differentiation ; Survival ; Testes ; Toxic Substances ; Toxicity ; Toxicology ; Aquatic Species ; Death Rate ; Embryo Development ; Embryo Growth ; Nonylphenols ; Poisons ; Testicles ; Oryzias Latipes ; Oryzias ; Adrianichthyidae ; Beloniformes ; Osteichthyes ; Fishes ; Vertebrates ; Chordata ; Animals ; Eukaryotes;
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 1998, Vol.36(15), pp.3071-3082
    Description: A field method is described, which allows the qualitative estimation of pesticide contamination in the edge-of-field runoff. The method employs cheap and easy-to-use runoff sampling bottles, which were installed in an agricultural stream catchment over a period of three growing seasons. During this time 18 runoff events were detected, in nine of which insecticide contamination was measured (maximum concentrations: lindane 0.7 mu g l super(-1) and 12.7 mu g kg super(-1), parathion 20 mu g l super(-1) and 728 mu g kg super(-1), fenvalerate 18.4 mu g l super(-1) and 924 mu g kg super(-1)). These insecticides were detected mainly as particle-bound chemicals. On about 80 % of the occasions the presence or absence of runoff measured in the field was in agreement with a simulation of runoff presence or absence using the runoff model KINEROS.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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