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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Health, 01 October 2008, Vol.7(1), p.47
    Description: Abstract Background The Yusho poisoning incident, which was caused by rice bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated quarterphenyls (PCQs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) generated by heat denaturation of PCB, occurred in 1968 in western Japan. Annual physical, dermatological, dental, ophthalmological and laboratory examinations were conducted for Yusho patients after the incident. From 2001, blood levels of individual PCDF congeners were also measured. The blood levels of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF), PCBs and PCQs in Yusho patients were found to be significantly higher than those of the general population. We investigated the relationships between blood concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCBs and PCQs in Yusho patients and the items measured in the annual medical examination. Methods Medical and laboratory examination data from 501 Yusho patients enrolled in the study from 2001 to 2004 were analyzed. The relationships between blood 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCB and PCQ concentrations and medical/laboratory examination data were investigated using principal components and logistic regression analyses. Results Serum Concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCBs and PCQs in blood tended to correlate with either acneform eruptions, black comedones, cutaneous and mucosal pigmentation, and hypersecretion of meibomian glands as well as general fatigue, headaches, cough/sputum, abdominal pain, arthralgia, increased blood sugar, increased serum γ-GTP and decreased total bilirubin. The majority of these signs and symptoms are included in the diagnostic criteria for Yusho. Conclusion After Yusho patients had suffered chronic exposure to these chlorinated compounds for more than 35 years, the serum concentration of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF in blood was significantly related to arthralgia and decreased albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio; the serum concentration of PCBs was significantly related to ophthalmologic symptoms; and the serum concentration of PCQ to increased total cholesterol. These findings suggest that the co-contaminants may affect other functions than those originally associated with Yusho.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1476-069X
    E-ISSN: 1476-069X
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  • 2
    In: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2017, Vol.376(11), pp.1038-1046
    Description: We assessed the feasibility of transplanting a sheet of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in a patient with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The iPSCs were generated from skin fibroblasts obtained from two patients with advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration and were differentiated into RPE cells. The RPE cells and the iPSCs from which they were derived were subject to extensive testing. A surgery that included the removal of the neovascular membrane and transplantation of the autologous iPSC-derived RPE cell sheet under the retina was performed in one of the patients. At 1 year after surgery, the transplanted sheet remained intact, best corrected visual acuity had not improved or worsened, and cystoid macular edema was present. (Funded by Highway Program for Realization of Regenerative Medicine and others; University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry [UMIN-CTR] number, UMIN000011929 .) A goal of regenerative medicine is to use induced pluripotent stem cells to generate an autologous graft for transplantation. This study tests the feasibility of the approach to treat age-related macular degeneration. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the most prevalent retinal diseases that threaten vision in older populations in developed countries. 1 – 4 Neovascular (also called “wet”) AMD is more prevalent than atrophic (or “dry”) AMD in Japan 5 and is associated with the ectopic development of a choroidal neovascular membrane in the subretinal space of the center of the retina (the macula). Physical disruption and functional impairment of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer sheet of cells that supports the overlying photoreceptors and underlying choroidal vasculature, occur in the course of wet AMD. 6 Current treatments of AMD that involve the . . .
    Keywords: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells -- Cytology ; Macular Degeneration -- Therapy ; Retinal Pigment Epithelium -- Cytology;
    ISSN: 0028-4793
    E-ISSN: 1533-4406
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Atherosclerosis, December 2013, Vol.231(2), pp.365-370
    Description: Intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, and pulse wave velocity of the central artery (PWV) have been widely used to evaluate progression of atherosclerosis. Our previous work has revealed that IMT, FMD and PWV are related to each other, and the combination of these measurements was useful in identifying patients with atherosclerotic disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether combination of these measurements would predict future cardiovascular events better than each test alone. From November 2000 to March 2008, 274 consecutive elderly subjects (men/women; 114/160, mean age; 71 ± 12 years) were enrolled in this study. We measured IMT, FMD, and PWV in all of these subjects and followed them for a mean of 41 ± 28 months. During the follow-up period, vascular events occurred in 42 patients (15.3%). IMT (hazard ratio = 1.28 [95%CI, 1.09–1.50],  = 0.002 per 0.1 mm increase in mean IMT) and brachial-ankle (ba) PWV (hazard ratio = 1.06 [95%CI, 1.01–1.10],  = 0.015 per 1 m/s increase in baPWV) were independent predictors of future vascular events by Cox proportional hazard analysis, although FMD did not reach statistical significance (hazard ratio = 0.85 [95%CI, 0.72–1.01],  = 0.062 per 1% increase in %FMD). Importantly, the number of tests showing results in the worst tertile was a more powerful predictor (hazard ratio = 2.21 [95%CI, 1.42–3.43],  = 0.0004 for number of tests showing worst tertile) of future vascular events than either IMT, baPWV, or FMD alone. When both IMT and baPWV (with respective cut-off values of 0.98 mm and 19.1 m/s) were taken into consideration, the efficacy increased as compared with each test alone (odds ratio 4.9). These results indicate that IMT and baPWV, especially when combined, are useful in predicting future vascular events in elderly subjects.
    Keywords: Intima-Media Thickness ; Flow-Mediated Dilation ; Pulse Wave Velocity ; Vascular Event ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0021-9150
    E-ISSN: 1879-1484
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Japanese journal of clinical oncology, 01 August 2018, Vol.48(8), pp.777-780
    Description: A randomized phase III trial comparing watchful waiting with first-line rituximab for advanced stage follicular lymphoma commenced in Japan in December 2016. Watchful waiting is the current standard treatment for stages III and IV (Ann Arbor classification) follicular lymphoma with low tumour burden. This study aimed to confirm the superiority of early administration of first-line rituximab in terms of event-free survival to watchful waiting for stages III and IV follicular lymphoma with low tumour burden. A total of 290 patients will be accrued from 50 Japanese institutions within 5 years. The primary endpoint is event-free survival defined as the period from registration to diagnosis of high tumour burden, therapy using cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, or death. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, progression-free survival, cytotoxic chemotherapy/radiotherapy-free survival, histological transformation-free survival, response rate, adverse events and serious adverse events. This trial has been registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000025187 (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm).
    Keywords: Tumor Burden ; Watchful Waiting ; Lymphoma, Follicular -- Drug Therapy ; Rituximab -- Therapeutic Use
    ISSN: 03682811
    E-ISSN: 1465-3621
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  • 5
    Language: Japanese
    In: Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology, December 2013, Vol.61(12), pp.1147-52
    Description: Networking among regional hospitals recently became required for infection control activities in Japan. In Akita prefecture, we developed a microbiology data warehouse for networking hospital laboratories in 2010. Designated users can easily obtain microbiology data and compare it with other participating hospitals using this system. For example, users are able to compare the MRSA/MSSA ratio in Staphylococcus aureus with other participating hospitals in Akita-ReNICS. The effectiveness and assignment of this system were shown by a questionnaire administrated in 2013. In this paper, we clarify the current state and assignment of Akita-ReNICS and consider its effective application for better infection control activities.
    Keywords: Hospitals ; Infection Control ; Cross Infection -- Prevention & Control
    ISSN: 0047-1860
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 2006, Vol.225(1), pp.257-261
    Description: Stream and soil solution chemistry, fine root biomass and soil nitrogen processing before and after clear-cutting of trees and subsequent strip-cutting of understory vegetation, dwarf bamboo ( ), were investigated to understand the effect of these disturbances on biogeochemical processes on forested watershed in northern Japan. Tree-cutting did not cause a significant increase of nitrate (NO ) concentration in stream water during the growing season after the cutting. Subsequent -cutting caused significant increase of stream NO concentration to ca. 15 μmol L . There was no significant change of stream pH following both cuttings. NO concentration in soil solution increased after both cutting, but the change of concentration was higher (〉100 μmol L ) after the -cutting than after the tree-cutting. In a riparian conserved area, on the other hand, NO in soil solution remained low after tree-cutting, suggesting the riparian area acted as a NO sink after the tree-cutting. There was no significant change in total biomass of fine roots after the tree-cutting because of an increase in root biomass despite a decrease in tree roots. The subsequent -cutting caused a 50% decrease of fine root biomass compared to that in the un-cut site. These results suggested that nitrogen uptake by was very important in preventing nitrogen leaching after tree-cutting, and decline of this nitrogen uptake after -cutting lead to marked NO leaching to the stream.
    Keywords: Fine Root Biomass ; Nitrate ; Sasa Dwarf Bamboo ; Soil Solution ; Stream Chemistry ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 7
    Language: Japanese
    In: Journal of UOEH, 2016, Vol.38(2), pp.163-173
    Description: 社会保険労務士(社労士)は,顧問先から産業精神保健分野の相談を受けているが,社労士に必要な産業精神保健の能力について明確にされているものはないため,我々は産業精神保健分野の相談に社労士が対応するために必要な能力を標準化し,これらを学ぶことができる討論型研修を設計した.医師,産業看護職,社労士,教育設計専門家,経営コンサルタントで構成される研究班会議で,ブレインストーミング法を用いて社労士が産業精神保健に関わるために必要な能力をまとめ,能力を身につけるための学習目標と討論型研修で使用する4事例を,計9時間30分の研修として作成した. 研究班員の紹介によって19名の受講者が参加し,本研修の有効性評価として研修直前と直後に集団法で7問の論述式試験を実施した.研修の全項目に参加した16名を調査対象とし試験の回収率は100% であった.社労士に必要な能力として,厚生労働省の通達など知識だけでなく,情報収集や助言や復職時の対応などがあげられた.本研修の評価では,設問の合計点と7設問について,Wilcoxonの符号付順位検定を行ったところ,いずれも研修前後で有意差が認められ,本研修の有効性が示唆された.
    Description: Labor and Social Security Attorneys (LSSAs) advise their clients about occupational mental health, but the competencies necessary in this field are not clear to them. We standardized the necessary competencies as a counseling guide for LSSAs, and we also designed a related discussion training program. These competencies were summarized in a brainstorming session at a research conference comprised of physicians, an occupational health nurse, LSSAs, an instructional design expert, and a management consultant, and then a training program (lasting 9 hours 30 minutes) was developed. Nineteen trainees who were introduced by members of the research conference collectively completed a seven-question written test, both before and after the training, in order to assess its effectiveness. Sixteen trainees who completed the training were surveyed, with a recovery rate of 100%. The necessary competencies that they identified were: information about circular notices from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare; behavior such as the gathering of information; and dealing with the reinstatement of employees. The scores were subjected to the Wilcoxon signed-rank test in order to evaluate the training, and the answers from the pre-training were compared with those from the post-training. A significant difference (〈i〉P〈/i〉 〈 0.05) was seen for each question. These results show the effectiveness of the developed training program for the learning of the competencies necessary for LSSAs.
    Keywords: 産業精神保健 ; 教育 ; 産業医 ; 社会保険労務士 ; 小規模事業場 ; Mental Health ; Education ; Occupational Health Physicians ; Labor And Social Security Attorneys ; Small-Scale Enterprises
    ISSN: 0387-821X
    E-ISSN: 21872864
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Vaccine, 05 September 2018, Vol.36(37), pp.5510-5518
    Description: We assessed the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in children 6 months to 15 years of age during the 2016/17 season. In addition, we estimated the impact of repeated vaccination in children on VE. Our study for VEs in preventing influenza and admission due to influenza were conducted according to a test-negative case-control design (TNCC) based on influenza rapid diagnostic test results. We also analyzed the VE by vaccine status in the current and previous seasons for the impact of repeated vaccination. During the 2016/17 season, the quadrivalent IIV was used in Japan. The adjusted VE in preventing influenza illness was 38% (95% CI, 29–46) against influenza A and 39% (95% CI, 18–54) against influenza B. Infants showed no significant VE. The VE in preventing hospitalization was not demonstrated. For the analysis of repeated vaccination, the vaccine was effective only when immunization occurred in the current season. The children who were immunized in two consecutive seasons were more likely to develop influenza compared to those immunized in the current season only (odds ratio, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.05–2.38], adjusted odds ratio, 1.53 [95% CI, 0.99–2.35]). However, the odds ratio of repeated vaccination was not significant when the analysis excluded those who developed influenza in the previous season. VE in children in the 2016/17 season was similar to values previously reported. Repeated vaccination interfered with the VE against any influenza infection in the 2016/17 season. The results of our study suggest that decreased VE by repeat vaccination phenomenon was associated with immunity by influenza infection in the previous season. However, the influenza vaccine should be recommended every season for children.
    Keywords: Influenza Vaccine ; Children ; Effectiveness ; Hospitalization ; Test-Negative Case Control Design ; Repeated Vaccination ; Medicine ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0264-410X
    E-ISSN: 1873-2518
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  • 9
    Language: Japanese
    In: Shokuhin eiseigaku zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan, 2016, Vol.57(5), pp.169-178
    Description: Using polystyrene, acrylonitrile-styrene resin and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin pellets as samples, an interlaboratory study was performed to evaluate the volatiles test method, based on the specifications described in the Japanese Food Sanitation Law for food-contacting polystyrene products. The study was conducted with the participation of twenty-one laboratories. Each laboratory quantified the contents of styrene, toluene, ethylbenzene, isopropylbenzene and propylbenzene in three test pellets using GC-FID, GC-MS or headspace-GC-FID. Statistical analysis revealed that the repeatability (RSDr) and reproducibility (RSDr) were 1.0-2.6 and 2.5-5.5% for the GC-FID method. The values of the performance parameters fulfilled the requirements (RSDr: 10%, RSDr: 25%), and the performance is sufficient for specifications testing. The RSDr and RSDr of results obtained using the GC-MS and HS-GC methods were 1.4-7.8 and 4.9-13%(GC-MS), and 2.0-2.6 and 3.3-6.9%(HS-GC-FID), respectively. The quantified levels were similar to those obtained with GC-FID. The study suggests that the GC-MS and HS-GC methods can be employed as alternative methods to the GC-FID method.
    Keywords: Cooking and Eating Utensils ; Food Packaging ; Acrylic Resins -- Chemistry ; Butadienes -- Chemistry ; Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry -- Methods ; Polystyrenes -- Chemistry ; Volatile Organic Compounds -- Analysis
    E-ISSN: 1882-1006
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 10
    Language: Japanese
    In: 食品衛生学雑誌, 2018, Vol.59(1), pp.55-63
    Description: 〈p〉水,4%酢酸および20%エタノールの3種類の浸出用液で調製した試験溶液を用い,器具・容器包装の蒸発残留物試験における試験室間共同試験を行い,公定法と公定法変法の性能を評価した.試験には23機関が参加し,濃度非明示の試験溶液9種類の蒸発残留物量を測定した.蒸発乾固の際の加熱装置として,公定法では水浴を,公定法変法ではホットプレートを使用した.ほとんどの試験機関では,蒸発乾固の際,試験溶液を乾固直前まで加熱したのち,余熱で乾固させていた.その結果,加熱装置にかかわらず,両法の性能には大きな差はないことが判明した.それにより,公定法変法は公定法と同様に規格試験法として適用できると判断された.〈/p〉
    Description: 〈p〉An interlaboratory study was performed to evaluate the equivalence between an official method and a modified method of evaporation residue test using three food-simulating solvents (water, 4% acetic acid and 20% ethanol), based on the Japanese Food Sanitation Law for food contact products. Twenty-three laboratories participated, and tested the evaporation residues of nine test solutions as blind duplicates. For evaporation, a water bath was used in the official method, and a hot plate in the modified method. In most laboratories, the test solutions were heated until just prior to evaporation to dryness, and then allowed to dry under residual heat. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the two methods, regardless of the heating equipment used. Accordingly, the modified method provides performance equal to the official method, and is available as an alternative method.〈/p〉
    Keywords: 蒸発残留物 ; 器具・容器包装 ; 溶出試験 ; 性能評価 ; 試験室間共同試験 ; Evaporation Residue ; Food Contact Product ; Migration Test ; Performance Evaluation ; Interlaboratory Study
    ISSN: 0015-6426
    E-ISSN: 18821006
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