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  • Leaching
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 November 2014, Vol.499, pp.560-573
    Description: Recycling composted organic residues in agriculture can reduce the need of mineral fertilizers and improve the physicochemical and biological properties of cultivated soils. However, some trace elements may accumulate in soils following repeated applications and impact other compartments of the agrosystems. This study aims at evaluating the long-term impact of such practices on the composition of soil leaching water, especially on trace metal concentrations. The field experiment QualiAgro started in 1998 on typical loess Luvisol of the Paris Basin, with a maize–wheat crop succession and five modalities: spreading of three different urban waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), and no organic amendment (CTR). Inputs of trace metals have been close to regulatory limits, but supplies of organic matter and nitrogen overpassed common practices. Soil solutions were collected from wick lysimeters at 45 and 100 cm in one plot for each modality, during two drainage periods after the last spreading. Despite wide temporal variations, a significant effect of treatments on major solutes appears at 45 cm: DOC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, nitrate, sulphate and chloride concentrations were higher in most amended plots compared to CTR. Cu concentrations were also significantly higher in leachates of amended plots compared to CTR, whereas no clear effect emerged for Zn. The influence of amendments on solute concentrations appeared weaker at 1 m than at 45 cm, but still significant and positive for major anions and DOC. Average concentrations of Cu and Zn at 1 m depth lied in the ranges [2.5; 3.8] and [2.5; 10.5 μg/L], respectively, with values slightly higher for plots amended with sewage sludge compost or FYM than for CTR. However, leaching of both metals was less than 1% of their respective inputs through organic amendments. For Cd, most values were 〈 0.05 μg/L. So, metals added through spreading of compost or manure during 14 years may have increased metal concentrations in leachates of amended plots, in spite of increased soil organic matter, factor of metal retention. Indeed, DOC, also increased by amendments, favours the mobility of Cu; whereas pH variations, depending on treatments, influence negatively the solubility of Zn. Generic adsorption functions of these variables partly explain the variations of trace metal concentrations and helped to unravel the numerous processes induced by regular amendments with organic waste products.
    Keywords: Heavy Metal ; Trace Element ; Organic Waste ; Organic Amendment ; Cultivated Soil ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 July 2018, Vol.628-629, pp.1508-1517
    Description: Conservation tillage practices mainly based on cover crops and no-tillage with accumulation of crop residues at the soil surface (mulch) modify the environmental fate of pesticides. However, only few pesticide fate models are able to consider mulch of crop residues as well as the effect of intermediate cover crops. Thus, the objective was to develop an approach to model the effects of crop residues left at the soil surface and cover crops on the fate of pesticides. This approach consisted in (1) considering the crop residues as a soil layer with specific physical, hydrodynamic and pesticide-reactivity properties close to that of a high organic content soil layer, and (2) introducing a correction factor of the potential evapotranspiration, estimated through a calibration step, to take into account the reduction of soil evaporation by the presence of a mulch. This approach was developed using MACRO as support pesticide model. To assess the model performances, we used the data from a field experiment designed in an irrigated maize monoculture under conservation tillage. Soil water content, water percolates, soil temperature and S-metolachlor herbicide concentrations in the leachate at 1 m depth were measured during two years. The approach chosen to simulate the mulch effects allowed MACRO to make acceptable predictions of the observed water percolation, soil temperature and to a less extent herbicide leaching. However, it showed a poor performance to simulate the soil water content. Results are discussed in terms of further modelling options to better assess the environmental risks of pesticides under conservation tillage. This approach remains to be tested against various soils, crops, pesticides and types of mulch.
    Keywords: Pesticide Fate Model ; Macro ; Crop Residue ; Cover Crop ; Field Experiment ; Pesticide ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 15 April 2016, Vol.268, pp.29-40
    Description: Compost amendments and tillage practices can modify soil structure and create heterogeneities at the local scale. Tillage affects soil physical properties and consequently water and solute transport in soil, while compost addition to soil influences pesticide sorption and degradation processes. Based on the long-term field experiment QualiAgro (a INRA–Veolia partnership), a modeling study was carried out using HYDRUS-2D to evaluate how two different compost types combined with the presence of heterogeneities due to tillage affect water and isoproturon dynamics in soil compared to a control plot. A municipal solid waste compost (MSW) and a co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes (SGW) have been applied to experimental plots. In each plot, wick lysimeters, TDR probes, and tensiometers were installed to monitor water and solute dynamics. In the plowed layer, four zones differing in their structure were identified: compacted clods, non-compacted soil, interfurrows, and the plow pan. From 2004 to 2010, the unamended control (CONT) plot had the largest cumulative water outflow (1388 mm) compared to the MSW plot (962 mm) and SGW plot (979 mm). After calibration, the model was able to describe cumulative water outflow for the whole 2004–2010 period with a model efficiency value of 0.99 for all three plots. The CONT plot had the largest isoproturon cumulated leaching (21.31 μg) while similar cumulated isoproturon leaching was measured in the SGW (0.663 μg) and MSW (0.245 μg) plots. The model was able to simulate isoproturon leaching patterns except for the large preferential flow events that were observed in the MSW and CONT plots. The timing of these preferential flow events could be reproduced by the model but not their magnitude. Modeling results indicate that spatial and temporal variations in pesticide degradation rate due to tillage and compost application play a major role in the dynamics of isoproturon leaching. Both types of compost were found to reduce isoproturon leaching on the 6 year duration of the experiment.
    Keywords: Soil Heterogeneity ; Compost Amendments ; Conventional Tillage ; Water Flow ; Isoproturon ; Hydrus-2d ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Soil Science, 2011, Vol.62(6), pp.797-810
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2011.01402.x Byline: V. Pot (a), P. Benoit (a), V. Etievant (a), N. Bernet (a), C. Labat (a), Y. Coquet (a), S. Houot (a) Abstract: We quantified the effects of tillage practice and repeated compost (municipal solid waste compost, MSW, and co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes, SGW, compared with a control plot without compost addition, CONT) application on bromide and isoproturon transport into the tilled horizon of a loamy Albeluvisol. To do this we conducted field measurements of near-saturated hydraulic conductivity (K), bromide and isoproturon leaching in column experiments and batch isoproturon sorption measurements. While the K measurements showed that tillage practice had the major effect compared with the different organic amendments, with greater conductivities measured after ploughing and smaller Kvalues measured after sowing, the column leaching experiments showed no statistically significant effect of either the tillage practice or the compost amendments. The batch sorption coefficient, K.sub.d, of isoproturon increased in the order CONT 〈 MSW 〈 SGW, while the leaching of isoproturon for the MSW and SGW was either equal, retarded or quicker compared with CONT. Rate-limited sorption of isoproturon in the CONT and SGW treatments columns was found, and the overall dissipation of isoproturon increased in the order CONT 〈 SGW 〈 MSW. It was suggested that irreversible sorption as well as degradation occured during isoproturon leaching. Author Affiliation: (a)INRA, AgroParisTech , UMR 1091 EGC, F-78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France Article History: Received 3 January 2011; revised version accepted 30 August 2011 Article note: V. Pot. E-mail: vpot@grignon.inra.fr
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Agricultural Sciences ; Sciences Du Sol  ; Tillage Practice ; Isoproturon Transport ; Soil Science ; Agriculture ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 1351-0754
    E-ISSN: 1365-2389
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2016, Vol.23(7), pp.6907-6918
    Description: Compost amendment on agricultural soil is a current practice to compensate the loss of organic matter. As a consequence, dissolved organic carbon concentration in soil leachates can be increased and potentially modify the transport of other solutes. This study aims to characterize the processes controlling the mobility of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in deep soil layers and their potential impacts on the leaching of organic contaminants (pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds) potentially present in cultivated soils receiving organic waste composts. We sampled undisturbed soil cores in the illuviated horizon (60–90 cm depth) of an Albeluvisol. Percolation experiments were made in presence and absence of DOM with two different pesticides, isoproturon and epoxiconazole, and two pharmaceutical compounds, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole. Two types of DOM were extracted from two different soil surface horizons: one sampled in a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge applied once every 2 years since 1998 and one sampled in an unamended plot. Results show that DOM behaved as a highly reactive solute, which was continuously generated within the soil columns during flow and increased after flow interruption. DOM significantly increased the mobility of bromide and all pollutants, but the effects differed according the hydrophobic and the ionic character of the molecules. However, no clear effects of the origin of DOM on the mobility of the different contaminants were observed.
    Keywords: Dissolved organic matter ; Pesticides ; Pharmaceutical compounds ; Undisturbed soil columns ; Non-equilibrium transport
    ISSN: 0944-1344
    E-ISSN: 1614-7499
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Pest Management Science, 2011, Vol.67(4), pp.397-407
    Description: Mobility of pesticides in soils is often evaluated and characterised in the surface soil layers rather than at different depths where soil characteristics such as soil organic matter, microbial biomass or clay contents can strongly change pesticide behaviour. The objective of this work was...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Agricultural Sciences ; Metribuzin ; Transport ; Deep Horizons ; Sorption ; Model  ; Science DES Sols ; Agriculture ; Engineering
    ISSN: 1526-498X
    E-ISSN: 1526-4998
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Vadose Zone Journal, 2016, Vol.15(12)
    Description: Two experimental plots amended with a co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes (SGW) or with a municipal solid waste compost (MSW) were compared with a control plot without organic amendment (CONT) in terms of trace metals mobility. These plots were equipped with wick lysimeters, time-domain...
    Keywords: Sciences of the Universe ; Sciences of the Universe ; Continental Interfaces, Environment ; Agriculture
    E-ISSN: 1539-1663
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 2014, Vol.499, pp.533-545
    Description: The ability of three models (PEARL, MACRO and PRZM) to describe the water transfer and leaching of the herbicides S-metolachlor and mesotrione as observed in an irrigated maize monoculture system in Toulouse area (France) was compared. The models were parameterized with field, laboratory and...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Pesticide Fate Models ; Model Comparison ; Field Experiment ; Herbicide ; S-Metolachlor ; Mesotrione ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, August 2019, Vol.225, p.103498
    Description: Agroforestry practices have been acknowledged for reducing pesticide losses while maintaining land productivity. Pesticide removal from overland flow results from great infiltration capacities of the buffer soils. This can in turn threaten the quality of groundwater in case of poor pesticide sorption and degradation in the root-influenced zone. These mechanisms and their balance are likely to be influenced by plant species. However, little is known about the role of agroforestry species in the infiltration of herbicides. The aim of this study was thereby to evaluate how popular agroforestry species modulate the infiltration of water and of a widely used herbicide. We established large buffer microcosms by planting Brome grass, Black walnut, Pin oak and Poplar trees in repacked soil columns. After a growth season of 4 months, we performed ponded infiltration experiments with bromide and S-Metolachlor. We used then the HYDRUS 1D model to compare the hydrodynamic properties and S-Metolachlor transport patterns between the microcosms. In addition, we compared the sorption properties of the rhizosphere and bulk soils. We found that the tree species increased the sorption of S-Metolachlor in soil with K being 3 times greater than in the un-vegetated and Brome grass microcosms. Poplar trees increased the hydraulic conductivity (K ) compared to the control and was associated to a low retardation of S-metolachlor, which increases the risk of groundwater contamination. With slightly reduced K and retardation factor in the root zone, 1.6 to 1.8 times greater than in the control treatment, Black walnut appears as an optimal species for mitigating S-Metolachlor. The Brome grass and oak microcosms had the lowest K of all treatments and S-Metolachlor retardation factors were equal and slightly increased compared to the control, respectively. These results show that agroforestry buffer's efficiency can be optimized by selecting appropriate species.
    Keywords: Agroforestry ; Herbicide ; Leaching ; Non-Point Source Pollution ; Plant ; Soil ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Geography
    ISSN: 0169-7722
    E-ISSN: 1873-6009
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 2007, Vol.42(3), pp.241-248
    Description: A field experiment to determine the available bensulfuron-methyl (BSM) in the upper soil layer was conducted in an agricultural area in the South of Spain. To facilitate herbicide analysis, two application rates were employed, 200 g ha(-1) and 5 kg ha(-1). Samples of upper soil and soil solution...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Bensulfuron Methyl ; Mobility ; Field Test ; Soil Solution Samplers ; Model Prediction ; Preferential Flow ; Engineering ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0360-1234
    E-ISSN: 1532-4109
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