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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • 1
    In: The Journal of Bacteriology, 2001, Vol. 183(19), p.5756
    Description: DNA sequence and Southern blot analyses were used to determine the genetic defect of a Haemophilus ducreyi pyocin-resistant lipooligosaccharide (LOS) mutant, HD35000R. The region of the HD35000R chromosome containing the suspected mutation was amplified, and sequence analysis detected a 3,189-bp deletion. This deletion resulted in the loss of the entire waaQ gene, another open reading frame that encodes a putative homolog to a hypothetical protein (HI0461) of H. influenzae, the gene encoding an argininosuccinate synthase homolog, and a change in the 3' sequence of the lgtF gene. Southern blot analysis confirmed that no genomic rearrangements had occurred. Isogenic LOS mutants and the respective complemented mutants were evaluated for susceptibility to pyocin C. The mutants expressing truncated LOS were resistant to lysis by pyocin C, and complementation restored sensitivity to the pyocin. We conclude that HD35000R is defective in both glycosyltransferase genes and that pyocin resistance is due to truncation of the full-length LOS molecule.
    Keywords: Mutation ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Drug Effects ; Lipopolysaccharides -- Metabolism ; Pyocins -- Pharmacology;
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 2
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2007, Vol. 75(1), p.113
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi is a gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of chancroid. Strain 35000HP has been well characterized and is representative of the majority of H. ducreyi strains. Strain 35000HP produces a lipooligosaccharide (LOS) that contains D-glycero-D-manno-heptose in the main oligosaccharide chain extension; the lbgB gene has been shown to encode the DD-heptosyltransferase. The lbgB gene is found in a gene cluster together with the lbgA gene, which encodes for the galactosyltransferase I. These two genes are flanked by two housekeeping genes, rpmE and xthA, encoding the ribosomal protein L31 and the exonuclease III, respectively. Recently, a second group of H. ducreyi strains have been identified. Strain 33921, a representative of the class II strains, produces an LOS that lacks DD-heptose in the oligosaccharide portion of its LOS. To better understand the biosynthesis of the DD-heptose-deficient 33921 LOS, we cloned and sequenced the corresponding lbgAB genomic region from strain 33921. Similar to strain 35000HP, the 33921 genome contains xthA and rpmE. However, between these two genes we identified genes encoding two putative glycosyltransferases that were not highly homologous to the 35000HP lbgAB genes. In this study, we demonstrate that the product of one of these genes encodes a galactosyltransferase. In addition, dot blot hybridization determined that 3 of 35 strains tested had the atypical transferases present, as did 4 strains characterized as class II strains by other criterion. These data indicate that the lbgAB genes can serve as one indicator of the classification of H. ducreyi strains.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 3
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2005, Vol. 73(10), p.6727
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid, produces a lipooligosaccharide (LOS) which terminates in N-acetyllactosamine. This glycoform can be further extended by the addition of a single sialic acid residue to the terminal galactose moiety. H. ducreyi does not synthesize sialic acid, which must be acquired from the host during infection or from the culture medium when the bacteria are grown in vitro. However, H. ducreyi does not have genes that are highly homologous to the genes encoding known bacterial sialic acid transporters. In this study, we identified the sialic acid transporter by screening strains in a library of random transposon mutants for those mutants that were unable to add sialic acid to N-acetyllactosamine-containing LOS. Mutants that reacted with the monoclonal antibody 3F11, which recognizes the terminal lactosamine structure, and lacked reactivity with the lectin Maackia amurensis agglutinin, which recognizes alpha2,3-linked sialic acid, were further characterized to demonstrate that they produced a N-acetyllactosamine-containing LOS by silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analyses. The genes interrupted in these mutants were mapped to a four-gene cluster with similarity to genes encoding bacterial ABC transporters. Uptake assays using radiolabeled sialic acid confirmed that the mutants were unable to transport sialic acid. This study is the first report of bacteria using an ABC transporter for sialic acid uptake.
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins -- Genetics ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Metabolism ; N-Acetylneuraminic Acid -- Metabolism ; Organic Anion Transporters -- Genetics ; Symporters -- Genetics;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
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  • 4
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2002, Vol. 70(10), p.5887
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi is the causative agent of chancroid, a sexually transmitted ulcerative disease. In the present study, the Neisseria gonorrhoeae lgtA lipooligosaccharide glycosyltransferase gene was used to identify a homologue in the genome of H. ducreyi. The putative H. ducreyi glycosyltransferase gene (designated lgtA) was cloned and insertionally inactivated, and an isogenic mutant was constructed. Structural studies demonstrated that the lipooligosaccharide isolated from the mutant strain lacked N-acetylglucosamine and distal sugars found in the lipooligosaccharide produced by the parental strain. The isogenic mutant was transformed with a recombinant plasmid containing the putative glycosyltransferase gene. This strain produced the lipooligosaccharide glycoforms produced by the parental strain, confirming that the lgtA gene encodes the N-acetylglucosamine glycosyltransferase.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 5
    In: The Journal of Bacteriology, 2000, Vol. 182(8), p.2292
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi is the etiologic agent of chancroid, a genital ulcer disease. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is considered to be a major virulence determinant and has been implicated in the adherence of H. ducreyi to keratinocytes. Strain A77, an isolate from the Paris collection, is serum sensitive, poorly adherent to fibroblasts, and deficient in microcolony formation. Structural analysis indicates that the los of strain A77 lacks the galactose residue found in the N- acetyllactosamine portion of the strain 35000HP los as well as the sialic acid substitution. From an H. ducreyi 35000HP genomic DNA library, a clone complementing the defect in A77 was identified by immunologic screening with monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3F11, a MAb which recognizes the N-acetyllactosamine portion of strain 35000HP LOS. The clone contained a 4-kb insert that was sequenced. One open reading frame which encodes a protein with a molecular weight of 33,400 was identified. This protein has homology to glycosyltransferases of Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus somnus Neisseria species, and Pasteurella haemolytica. The putative H. ducreyi glycosyltransferase gene was insertionally inactivated, and an isogenic mutant of strain 35000HP was constructed. The most complex los glycoform produced by the mutant has a mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel identical to that of the los of strain A77 and lacks the 3F11- binding epitope. Structural studies confirm that the most complex glycoform of the LOS isolated from the mutant lacks the galactose residue found in the N-acetyllactosamine portion of the strain 35000HP LOS. Although previously published data suggested that the serum-sensitive phenotype of A77 was due to the los mutation, we observed that the complemented A77 strain retained its serum-sensitive phenotype and that the galactosyltransferase mutant retained its serum- resistant phenotype. Thus, the serum sensitivity of strain A77 cannot be attributed to the galactosyltransferase mutation in strain A77.
    Keywords: Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Chancroid ; Genetic Analysis ; Etiology ; Virulence ; N-Acetyllactosaminide a-1,3-Galactosaminyltransferase ; Genetics and Evolution;
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 6
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2000, Vol. 68(6), p.3352
    Description: To begin to understand the role of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) molecule in chancroid infections, we constructed mutants defective in expression of glycosyltransferase genes. Pyocin lysis and immunoscreening was used to identify a LOS mutant of Haemophilus ducreyi 35000. This mutant, HD35000R, produced a LOS molecule that lacked the monoclonal antibody 3F11 epitope and migrated with an increased mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Structural studies indicated that the principal LOS glycoform contains lipid A, Kdo, and two of the three core heptose residues. HD35000R was transformed with a plasmid library of H. ducreyi 35000 DNA, and a clone producing the wild-type LOS was identified. Sequence analysis of the plasmid insert revealed one open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a protein with homology to the WaaQ (heptosyltransferase III) of Escherichia coli. A second ORF had homology to the LgtF (glucosyltransferase) of Neisseria meningitidis. Individual isogenic mutants lacking expression of the putative H. ducreyi heptosyltransferase III, the putative glucosyltransferase, and both glycosyltransferases were constructed and characterized. Each mutant was complemented with the representative wild-type genes in trans to restore expression of parental LOS and confirm the function of each enzyme. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE analysis identified several unique LOS glycoforms containing di-, tri-, and poly-N-acetyllactosamine repeats added to the terminal region of the main LOS branch synthesized by the heptosyltransferase III mutant. These novel H. ducreyi mutants provide important tools for studying the regulation of LOS assembly and biosynthesis.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 7
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2001, Vol. 69(6), p.4180
    Description: The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of Haemophilus ducreyi contains a major glycoform that is immunochemically identical to paragloboside, a glycosphingolipid precursor of major human blood group antigens. We recently identified the gene responsible for the glucosyltransferase activity and constructed an isogenic mutant (35000glu-) deficient in this activity. 35000glu- makes an LOS that consists only of the heptose trisaccharide core and 2-keto-deoxyoctulosonic acid (KDO). For this study, the mutant was reconstructed in the 35000HP (human passaged [HP]) background. Five human subjects were inoculated with 35000HP and 35000HPglu- in a dose-response trial. The pustule formation rates were 40% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7 to 72.6%) at 10 sites for 35000HP and 46.7% (95% CI, 24.8 to 69.9%) at 15 sites for 35000HPglu-. The histopathology and recovery rates of H. ducreyi from surface cultures and biopsies obtained from mutant and parent sites were similar. These results indicate that the expression of glycoforms with sugar moieties extending beyond the heptose trisaccharide core is not required for pustule formation by H. ducreyi in humans.
    Keywords: Mutation ; Chancroid -- Physiopathology ; Glucosyltransferases -- Metabolism ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Pathogenicity ; Lipopolysaccharides -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 8
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2002, Vol. 70(6), p.2853
    Description: All Haemophilus ducreyi strains examined contain a lipooligosaccharide (LOS) consisting of a single but variable branch oligosaccharide that emanates off the first heptose (Hep-I) of a conserved Hep(3)-phosphorylated 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid-lipid A core. In a previous report, identification of tandem genes, lbgA and lbgB, that are involved in LOS biosynthesis was described (Stevens et al., Infect. Immun. 65:651-660, 1997). In a separate study, the same gene cluster was identified and the lbgB (losB) gene was found to be required for transfer of the second sugar, D-glycero-D-manno-heptose (DD-Hep), of the major branch structure (Gibson et al., J. Bacteriol. 179:5062-5071, 1997). In this study, we identified the function of the neighboring upstream gene, lbgA, and found that it is necessary for addition of the third sugar in the dominant oligosaccharide branch, a galactose-linked beta1--〉4, to the DD-Hep. LOS from an lbgA mutant and an lbgAB double mutant were isolated and were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, carbohydrate analysis, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that the mutant strains synthesize truncated LOS glycoforms that terminate after addition of the first glucose (lbgAB) or the disaccharide DD-Hepalpha1--〉6Glcbeta1 (lbgA) that is attached to the heptose core. Both mutants show a significant reduction in the ability to adhere to human keratinocytes. Although minor differences were observed after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of total proteins from the wild-type and mutant strains, the expression levels of the vast majority of proteins were unchanged, suggesting that the differences in adherence and invasion are due to differences in LOS. These studies add to the mounting evidence for a role of full-length LOS structures in the pathophysiology of H. ducreyi infection.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 9
    In: Infection and Immunity, 1999, Vol. 67(12), p.6335
    Description: The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, chemically and immunologically resembles human glycosphingolipid antigens. To test whether LOS that contains paragloboside-like structures was required for pustule formation, an isogenic mutant (35000HP-RSM2) was constructed in losB, which encodes D-glycero-D-manno-heptosyltransferase. 35000HP-RSM2 produces a truncated LOS whose major glycoform terminates in a single glucose attached to a heptose trisaccharide core and 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid. Five human subjects were inoculated with 35000HP and 35000HP-RSM2 in a dose-response trial. For estimated delivered doses (EDDs) of greater than or equal to 25 CFU, the pustule formation rates were 80% for 35000HP and 58% for 35000HP-RSM2. Preliminary data indicated that a previously described Tn916 losB mutant made a minor glycoform that does not require DD-heptose to form the terminal N-acetyllactosamine. If 35000HP-RSM2 made this glycoform, then 35000HP-RSM2 could theoretically make a sialylated glycoform. To test whether sialylated LOS was required for pustule formation, a second trial comparing an isogenic sialyltransferase mutant (35000HP-RSM203) to 35000HP was performed in five additional subjects. For EDDs of greater than or equal to 25 CFU, the pustule formation rates were 30% for both 35000HP and 35000HP-RSM203. The histopathology and recovery rates of H. ducreyi from surface cultures and biopsies obtained from mutant and parent sites in both trials were similar. These results indicate that neither the expression of a major glycoform resembling paragloboside nor sialylated LOS is required for pustule formation by H. ducreyi in humans.
    Keywords: Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Mutants ; Empyema ; Antigens ; Genetic Analysis ; Chancroid ; Lipopolysaccharide Composition ; Carbohydrates;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Microbial Pathogenesis, February 1999, Vol.26(2), pp.93-102
    Description: A bactericidal assay was developed in order to test the effect of hyperimmune rabbit sera on the viability of serum-resistant Haemophilus ducreyi 35000HP. Testing of several lots of rabbit complement and time course experiments showed that the serum-sensitive H. ducreyi CIPA77 was killed efficiently by 25% complement at 35°C in 3 h. We hypothesized that incubation of 35000HP under these conditions with the appropriate bactericidal antibody would kill this strain. A panel of high titre rabbit antisera was developed and tested against 35000HP. The panel included antisera raised to whole cells, total membranes, Sarkosyl-insoluble outer membrane proteins, the H. ducreyi lipoprotein, and the peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein. None of the antisera convincingly showed bactericidal activity. The bactericidal assay was also used to determine the effect of normal human serum (NHS) on isogenic mutants of 35000HP. 35000HP-RSM2, an kan insertion mutant that expresses a truncated lipooligosaccharide, was as resistant to NHS as its parent. A mutant deficient in expression of the major outer membrane protein (35000.60) was sensitive to NHS. We conclude that 35000HP is relatively resistant to normal and hyperimmune sera, and that the major outer membrane protein contributes to this resistance. Copyright 1999 Academic Press
    Keywords: Haemophilus Ducreyi, Bactericidal Activity, Chancroid ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0882-4010
    E-ISSN: 1096-1208
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