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  • 1
    In: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2015, Vol.40(6), pp.634-635
    Description: Reply to "Discussion: The kinetics of blood lactate in boys during and following a single and repeated all-out sprints of cycling are different than in men - Do children indeed release and remove lactate faster than adults?"
    Keywords: Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Recreation & Sports;
    ISSN: 1715-5312
    E-ISSN: 1715-5320
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2016, Vol.116(11), pp.2177-2186
    Description: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs high-volume training (HVT) on salivary stress markers [cortisol (sC), testosterone (sT), alpha-amylase (sAA)], metabolic and cardiorespiratory response in young athletes.Twelve young male cyclists (14 ± 1 years; 57.9 ± 9.4 mL min−1 kg−1 peak oxygen uptake) performed one session of HIIT (4 × 4 min intervals at 90–95 % peak power output separated by 3 min of active rest) and one session of HVT (90 min constant load at 60 % peak power output). The levels of sC, sT, their ratio (sT/sC) and sAA were determined before and 0, 30, 60, 180 min after each intervention. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress was characterized by blood lactate, blood pH, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake ( $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 ), ventilation (V E) and ventilatory equivalent (V E/ $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 ).sC increased 30 and 60 min after HIIT. However, 180 min post exercise, sC decreased below baseline levels in both conditions. sT increased 0 and 30 min after HIIT and 0 min after HVT. sAA and sT/sC ratio did not change significantly over time in HIIT nor HVT. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress, evidenced by blood lactate, HR, $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 , V E, and V E/ $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 was higher during HIIT compared to HVT.The metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress during HIIT was higher compared to HVT, but based on salivary analyses (cortisol, testosterone, alpha-amylase), we conclude no strong acute catabolic effects neither by HIIT nor by HVT.
    Keywords: Saliva ; Cortisol ; Testosterone ; Alpha-amylase ; Exercise
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 1439-6327
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2017, Vol.31(7), pp.1994-1999
    Description: ABSTRACT: Altmann, S, Spielmann, M, Engel, FA, Neumann, R, Ringhof, S, Oriwol, D, and Haertel, S. Validity of single-beam timing lights at different heights. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1994–1999, 2017—The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of different timing light heights on sprint time and the validity of measurement. Two single-beam timing gate systems were used to measure 30-m sprint time (splits at 5 and 10 m) in 15 healthy and physically active male subjects. System 1 was set up at a height of 0.64 m and system 2 at 0.25 m (initial timing light) and 1.00 m (each following timing light), respectively. Participants performed 3 valid trials. The recordings of a high-speed video camera were used as a reference. Sprint times of system 1 and system 2 differed significantly between each other and from the reference system at all distances (p 〈 0.001). Intraclass correlation coefficients and Pearsonʼs r values between both timing light systems and the reference system were low to moderate at 5 and 10 m and moderate to high at 30 m. Bland and Altman analysis revealed that the agreement intervals were considerably higher for the comparison between system 1 and the reference system than for system 2 and the reference system. A valid measurement of splits at 5 and 10 m via the systems used in this study is questionable, whereas 30-m times have an acceptable validity, especially when using system 2. This study confirms the influence of methodological approaches on sprint times. Coaches and researchers should consider that results gained by single-beam timing lights at different heights are not comparable.
    Keywords: Light ; Time ; Running -- Physiology;
    ISSN: 1064-8011
    E-ISSN: 15334287
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  • 4
    Language: German
    In: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 2014, Vol.164(11), pp.228-238
    Description: Um die Effektivität von (Hoch-)inten­sivem Intervalltraining (HIIT) im Nachwuchsleistungssport und bei untrainierten gesunden Kindern und Jugendlichen in der wissenschaftlichen Literatur einzuschätzen, wurde eine computerbasierte Literaturrecherche in den elektronischen Datenbanken PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus und Web of Science durchgeführt. Studien, welche die Auswirkungen von HIIT-Interventionen auf die Leistungsfähigkeit von Kindern und Jugendlichen (9–18 Jahre) anhand von Analysen der motorischen oder leistungsphysiologischen Kenngrößen der Probanden, vor und nach der Trainingsintervention, analysierten, wurden berücksichtigt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten eine Verbesserung aerober und anaerober Leistungsparameter bei einer Anwendung von zwei bis drei Einheiten HIIT pro Woche über einen Zeitraum von fünf bis zehn Wochen, zusätzlich zum normalen Training. Langzeitstudien zu HIIT, welche auf langfristige Trainingseffekte hinweisen, fehlen. Darüber hinaus wurde aufgrund von physiologischen Besonderheiten während HIIT-Protokollen eine verbesserte Ermüdungsresistenz bei Kindern im Vergleich zu Erwachsenen belegt, was als gute Voraussetzung für die Anwendbarkeit von HIIT bei Kindern interpretiert werden kann. A computer-based literature research during July 2013 using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed to assess the effect of the high intensity interval training (HIIT) on sport performance in healthy children and adolescents. Studies examining the effect of HIIT on aerobic and anaerobic performance pre and post to HIIT-Interventions in children and adolescents (9–18 years) were included. The results indicate increased aerobic and anaerobic performance following two or three HIIT sessions per week for a period of five to ten weeks, additional to normal training. Results regarding long term effects following HIIT have not been documented so far. In addition, due to the physiological characteris-tics during HIIT protocols improved fatigue resistance has been demonstrated in children as compared to adults, which may be interpreted as a prerequisite for the applicability of HIIT in children.
    Keywords: High intensity training ; Endurance ; Adaptions ; Children and adolescents ; Performance improvements
    ISSN: 0043-5341
    E-ISSN: 1563-258X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Experimental Psychology, 2018, Vol.65(4), pp.201-209
    Description: In the current study, we tested if stimulus-response (SR) compatibility effects of spatially ambiguous words depend on a semantic priming context. Although many words, including spatial words, can take on several meanings, this is an open question. From Experiments 1 to 3, we manipulated the likelihood that the vertical meaning of the German particles auf and ab was processed by (1) instructing the processing of vertical meaning in Experiment 1, but not in Experiments 2 and 3, and (2) by using verbs that either primed (Experiments 1 and 2) or did not prime (Experiments 1–3) the targets’ vertical meanings. Spatial SR compatibility effects resulted, regardless of whether or not the processing of the vertical meaning was instructed and the vertical meaning was primed. Results suggest that the selection between vertically discriminated responses could be sufficient to elicit the participants’ extraction of the vertical meaning of the ambiguous particles.
    Keywords: Spatial Stimulus-Response Compatibility ; Semantic Ambiguity ; Spatial Priming ; German Particles
    ISSN: 1618-3169
    E-ISSN: 2190-5142
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  • 6
    In: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2015, Vol.40(6), pp.623-631
    Description: This study characterized the impact of high-intensity interval training on the kinetics of blood lactate and performance in trained boys and men. Twenty-one boys (11.4 ± 0.8 years) and 19 men (29.4 ± 5.0 years) performed a set of four 30-s sprints with 2-min of rest and a single 30-s sprint on 2 separate occasions (randomized order) with assessment of performance. Blood lactate was assayed after each sprint and during 30 min of recovery from both tests. The individual time-curves of blood lactate concentration were fitted to the biexponential function as follows: [LA] ( t ) = [ LA] ( 0 ) + A 1 ( 1 − e − γ 1 t ) + A 2 ( 1 − e − γ 2 t ) , where the velocity parameters γ 1 and γ 2 reflect the capacity to release lactate from the previously active muscle into the blood and to subsequently eliminate lactate from the organism, respectively. In both tests, peak blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in the boys (four 30-s sprints: 12.2 ± 3.6 mmol·L −1 ; single 30-s sprint: 8.7 ± 1.8 mmol·L −1 ) than men (four 30-s sprints: 16.1 ± 3.3 mmol·L −1 ; single 30-s sprint: 11.5 ± 2.1; p 〈 0.001). The boys exhibited faster γ 1 (1.4531 ± 0.65 min; p 〈 0.001) and γ 2 (0.059 ± 0.023 min; p = 0.01) in the single 30-s sprint and faster γ 2 (0.049 ± 0.016 min; p = 0.01) in the four 30-s sprints. The worsening of performance from the first to the last of the four 30-s sprints was less pronounced in boys (9.2% ± 13.9%) than men (19.2% ± 11.5%; p = 0.01). In the present study boys, when compared with men, exhibited lower Peak blood lactate concentration; less pronounced decline in performance during the sprints concomitantly with more rapid release and elimination during the single 30-s sprint; and faster elimination of lactate following the four 30-s sprints.
    Description: Cette étude décrit l’effet d’un entraînement par intervalle d’intensité élevée sur la cinétique du lactate sanguin et la performance chez des garçons et des hommes entraînés. Vingt-et-un garçons (11,4 ± 0,8 ans) et 19 hommes (29,4 ± 5,0 ans) effectuent une série de 4 sprints d’une durée de 30 s avec 2 min de repos et un seul sprint d’une durée de 30 s en deux occasions distinctes (ordre aléatoire) et on évalue la performance. On évalue la concentration sanguine de lactate après chaque sprint et au cours des 30 min de récupération à chaque test. Les courbes individuelles concentration-temps de lactate sanguin sont ajustées à une fonction biexponentielle comme suit : [LA] ( t ) = [ LA] ( 0 ) + A 1 ( 1 − e − γ 1 t ) + A 2 ( 1 − e − γ 2 t ) où les paramètres de la vélocité γ 1 et γ 2 reflètent respectivement la capacité des muscles précédemment actifs à libérer le lactate dans le sang et à l’éliminer de l’organisme par la suite. Dans les deux tests, la concentration sanguine de pointe de lactate est significativement plus faible chez les garçons (4 × 30-s sprint: 12,2 ± 3,6 mmol·L –1 ; 1 sprint de 30 s: 8,7 ± 1,8 mmol·L –1 ) comparativement aux hommes (4 sprints de 30 s: 16,1 ± 3,3 mmol·L –1 ; 1 sprint de 30 s: 11,5 ± 2,1 mmol·L –1 ; p 〈 0,001). Chez les garçons, on observe des valeurs plus élevées de γ 1 (1,4531 ± 0,65 min; p 〈 0,001) et de γ 2 (0,059 ± 0,023 min; p = 0,01) au sprint de 30 s et des valeurs plus élevées de γ 2 (0,049 ± 0,016 min; p = 0,01) aux 4 sprints de 30 s. La diminution de la performance du 1 er au 4 e sprint de 30 s est moins prononcée chez les garçons (9,2 ± 13,9 %) que chez les hommes (19,2 ± 11,5 %; p = 0,01). Comparativement aux hommes, les garçons présentent une plus faible concentration sanguine de pointe de lactate, une diminution moins importante de la performance au sprint concomitamment à une libération et une élimination plus rapide du lactate au cours du sprint isolé de 30 s et une élimination plus rapide de lactate à la suite des 4 sprints de 30 s. [Traduit par la Rédaction]
    Keywords: High Intensive Interval Training ; Children ; Elimination ; Recovery ; Entraînement Par Intervalle D’intensité Élevée ; Enfants ; Élimination ; Récupération
    ISSN: 1715-5312
    E-ISSN: 1715-5320
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Pediatric exercise science, November 2014, Vol.26(4), pp.485-94
    Description: This study aimed to determine the effects of a single high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session on salivary cortisol (SC) levels, physiological responses, and performance in trained boys and men. Twenty-three boys (11.5 ± 0.8 years) and 25 men (29.7 ± 4.6 years) performed HIIT (4 consecutive Wingate Anaerobic Tests). SC in boys and men increased after HIIT from 5.55 ± 3.3 nmol/l to 15.13 ± 9.7 nmol/l (+173%) and from 7.07 ± 4.7 nmol/l to 19.19 ± 12.7 nmol/l (+171%), respectively (p 〈 .01). Pretest SC as well as posttest changes were comparable in both groups (both p 〈 .01). Peak blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in boys (12.6 ± 3.5 mmol/l) than in men (16.3 ± 3.1 mmol/l; p 〈 .01). Throughout the HIIT, mean heart rates in boys were higher (p 〈 .001) but relative peak oxygen uptake (ml·min-1·kg-1; p 〈 .05) and performance were lower (p 〈 .001) in boys than in men. HIIT in young athletes is associated with a higher activation of the hormonal stress axis than other types of exercise regimes as described in the literature. This study is the first to show a pronounced SC increase to HIIT in trained boys accompanied by elevated levels of blood lactate concentrations and heart rate suggesting a high cardio-respiratory, metabolic, and hormonal response to HIIT in 11-year-old boys.
    Keywords: Bicycling -- Physiology ; Physical Exertion -- Physiology
    ISSN: 08998493
    E-ISSN: 1543-2920
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Radiation oncology (London, England), 15 April 2013, Vol.8, pp.90
    Description: Preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) with 5-FU or capecitabine is the standard of care for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Preoperative RCT achieves pathological complete response rates (pCR) of 10-15%. We conducted a single arm phase II study to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of addition of bevacizumab and oxaliplatin to preoperative standard RCT with capecitabine. Eligible patients had LARC (cT3-4; N0/1/2, M0/1) and were treated with preoperative RCT prior to planned surgery. Patients received conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions) and simultaneous chemotherapy with capecitabine 825 mg/m2 bid (d1-14, d22-35) and oxaliplatin 50 mg/m2 (d1, d8, d22, d29). Bevacizumab 5 mg/kg was added on days 1, 15, and 29. The primary study objective was the pCR rate. 70 patients with LARC (cT3-4; N0/1, M0/1), ECOG 〈 2, were enrolled at 6 sites from 07/2008 through 02/2010 (median age 61 years [range 39-89], 68% male). At initial diagnosis, 84% of patients had clinical stage T3, 62% of patients had nodal involvement and 83% of patients were M0. Mean tumor distance from anal verge was 5.92 cm (± 3.68). 58 patients received the complete RCT (full dose RT and full dose of all chemotherapy). During preoperative treatment, grade 3 or 4 toxicities were experienced by 6 and 2 patients, respectively: grade 4 diarrhea and nausea in one patient (1.4%), respectively, grade 3 diarrhea in 2 patients (3%), grade 3 obstipation, anal abscess, anaphylactic reaction, leucopenia and neutropenia in one patient (1.4%), respectively. In total, 30 patients (46%) developed postoperative complications of any grade including one gastrointestinal perforation in one patient (2%), wound-healing problems in 7 patients (11%) and bleedings in 2 patients (3%). pCR was observed in 12/69 (17.4%) patients. Pathological downstaging (ypT 〈 cT and ypN ≤ cN) was achieved in 31 of 69 patients (44.9%). All of the 66 operated patients had a R0 resection. 47 patients (68.1%) underwent sphincter preserving surgery. The addition of bevacizumab and oxaliplatin to RCT with capecitabine was well tolerated and did not increase perioperative morbidity or mortality. However, the pCR rate was not improved in comparison to other trials that used capecitabine or capecitabine/oxaliplatin in preoperative radiochemotherapy.
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols -- Therapeutic Use ; Chemoradiotherapy -- Methods ; Neoadjuvant Therapy -- Methods ; Rectal Neoplasms -- Therapy
    E-ISSN: 1748-717X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: BMC infectious diseases, 22 October 2015, Vol.15, pp.441
    Description: Nosocomial infections are the most common complication during inpatient hospital care. An increasing proportion of these infections are caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). This report describes an intervention study which was designed to address the practical problems encountered in trying to avoid and treat infections caused by MDROs. The aim of the HARMONIC (Harmonized Approach to avert Multidrug-resistant Organisms and Nosocomial Infections) study is to provide comprehensive support to hospitals in a defined study area in north-east Germany, to meet statutory requirements. To this end, a multimodal system of hygiene management was implemented in the participating hospitals. HARMONIC is a controlled intervention study conducted in eight acute care hospitals in the 'Health Region Baltic Sea Coast' in Germany. The intervention measures include the provision of written recommendations on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MRGN), supplemented by regional recommendations for antibiotic prescriptions. In addition, there is theoretical and practical training of health care workers (HCWs) in the prevention and handling of MDROs, as well as targeted and critically gauged applications of antibiotics. The main outcomes of the implementation and analysis of the HARMONIC study are: (i) screening rates for MRSA, VRE and MRGN in high-risk patients, (ii) the frequency of MRSA decolonization, (iii) the level of knowledge of HCWs concerning MDROs, and (iv) specific types and amounts of antibiotics used. The data are predominantly obtained by paper-based questionnaires and documentation sheets. A computer-assisted workflow-based documentation system was developed in order to provide support to the participating facilities. The investigation includes three nested studies on risk profiles of MDROs, health-related quality of life, and cost analysis. A six-month follow-up study investigates the quality of life after discharge, the long-term costs of the treatment of infections caused by MDROs, and the sustainability of MRSA eradication. The aim of this study is to implement and evaluate an area-wide harmonized hygiene program to control the nosocomial spreading of MDROs. Comparability between the intervention and control group is ensured by matching the hospitals according to size (number of discharges per year/number of beds) and level of care (standard or maximum). The results of the study may provide important indications for the implementation of regional MDRO management programs.
    Keywords: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial ; Cross Infection -- Microbiology ; Infection Control -- Methods
    E-ISSN: 1471-2334
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  • 10
    In: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 2011, Vol.199(4), pp.276-279
    Description: The use of highly experienced expert judges was suggested for the assessment of therapistsʼ adherence and competence. However, such an approach implies high costs. It can be questioned whether only experts are able to evaluate therapistsʼ adherence and competence reliably. To test this, 4 judges evaluated therapist adherence and competence in 30 randomly selected videotapes of cognitive therapy sessions for depression. In that, 2 judges exhibited high clinical experience (experts), whereas 2 judges did not (novices). We could demonstrate that novices evaluated an aggregated adherence and competence measure with high reliability. However, several adherence and competence aspects were not assessed with satisfactory reliability by novices. Although adherence ratings of experts and novices showed high concordance, the concordance of competence ratings was only moderate. Results revealed that therapistsʼ adherence could be evaluated satisfactorily by trained novices with some restrictions, but not their competence.
    Keywords: Clinical Competence -- Standards ; Cognitive Behavioral Therapy -- Standards ; Guideline Adherence -- Standards;
    ISSN: 0022-3018
    E-ISSN: 1539736X
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