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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(2), p.e32092
    Description: Circadian rhythms pre-adapt the physiology of most organisms to predictable daily changes in the environment. Some marine organisms also show endogenous circalunar rhythms. The genetic basis of the circalunar clock and its interaction with the circadian clock is unknown. Both clocks can be studied in the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera), as different populations have different local adaptations in their lunar and diurnal rhythms of adult emergence, which can be analyzed by crossing experiments. We investigated the genetic basis of population variation in clock properties by constructing the first genetic linkage map for this species, and performing quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on variation in both lunar and diurnal timing. The genome has a genetic length of 167–193 centimorgans based on a linkage map using 344 markers, and a physical size of 95–140 megabases estimated by flow cytometry. Mapping the sex determining locus shows that females are the heterogametic sex, unlike most other Chironomidae. We identified two QTL each for lunar emergence time and diurnal emergence time. The distribution of QTL confirms a previously hypothesized genetic basis to a correlation of lunar and diurnal emergence times in natural populations. Mapping of clock genes and light receptors identified ciliary opsin 2 ( cOps2 ) as a candidate to be involved in both lunar and diurnal timing; cryptochrome 1 ( cry1 ) as a candidate gene for lunar timing; and two timeless ( tim2, tim3 ) genes as candidate genes for diurnal timing. This QTL analysis of lunar rhythmicity, the first in any species, provides a unique entree into the molecular analysis of the lunar clock.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Genetics And Genomics ; Ecology ; Evolutionary Biology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, April 2014, Vol.20(4), pp.299-304
    Description: To establish the prevalence of reliable self-monitored blood glucose (r-SMBG) data at office visits for diabetes and to determine whether r-SMBG is associated with changes in glycemic control and other clinical parameters. We conducted a chart review of 500 patients followed in an Endocrinology Faculty/Commercial Insurance Practice (FP) or a Managed Medicare/Medicaid Diabetes Clinic (MDC). Follow-up visits for patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes from January 1, 2012 to June 30, 2012 were analyzed for anthropometric data, creatinine (Cr), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), medications, hemoglobin A1C (A1C), change in A1C from the previous visit (ΔA1C), and availability of r-SMBG data at the visit. Our sample was composed of 215 MDC patients (43%) and 285 FP patients (57%). Overall, 151 patients (30%) provided r-SMBG data at their visit, with no difference between MDC or FP patients. Mean A1C at MDC was 9.1%, while mean A1C at FP was 7.9% (P8.0% demonstrated an A1C reduction of 1.2% if they provided r-SMBG, compared to an increase of 0.1% for MDC patients who did not (P〈.05). Providing r-SMBG did not affect A1C in FP patients in any A1C range. Only a minority of diabetes patients, mostly insulin-treated, made r-SMBG data available to their providers. Insulin-requiring Managed Medicare/Medicaid patients with poorly controlled diabetes had an A1c reduction associated with r-SMBG. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether this patient population may be more likely to benefit from r-SMBG at their visits.
    Keywords: Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring ; Blood Glucose -- Analysis ; Diabetes Mellitus -- Blood
    ISSN: 1530-891X
    E-ISSN: 19342403
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 01 August 2016, Vol.13(8), p.809
    Description: The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent’s residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise.
    Keywords: Transportation Noise ; Sleep Disturbance ; Land Use Regression ; Public Health
    ISSN: 16617827
    E-ISSN: 1660-4601
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental health perspectives, November 2016, Vol.124(11), pp.1694-1699
    Description: The impact of heat waves on mortality and health inequalities is well documented. Very few studies have assessed the effectiveness of heat action plans (HAPs) on health, and none has used quasi-experimental methods to estimate causal effects of such programs. We developed a quasi-experimental method to estimate the causal effects associated with HAPs that allows the identification of heterogeneity across subpopulations, and to apply this method specifically to the case of the Montreal (Quebec, Canada) HAP. A difference-in-differences approach was undertaken using Montreal death registry data for the summers of 2000-2007 to assess the effectiveness of the Montreal HAP, implemented in 2004, on mortality. To study equity in the effect of HAP implementation, we assessed whether the program effects were heterogeneous across sex (male vs. female), age (≥ 65 years vs. 〈 65 years), and neighborhood education levels (first vs. third tertile). We conducted sensitivity analyses to assess the validity of the estimated causal effect of the HAP program. We found evidence that the HAP contributed to reducing mortality on hot days, and that the mortality reduction attributable to the program was greater for elderly people and people living in low-education neighborhoods. These findings show promise for programs aimed at reducing the impact of extreme temperatures and health inequities. We propose a new quasi-experimental approach that can be easily applied to evaluate the impact of any program or intervention triggered when daily thresholds are reached. Citation: Benmarhnia T, Bailey Z, Kaiser D, Auger N, King N, Kaufman J. 2016. A difference-in-differences approach to assess the effect of a heat action plan on heat-related mortality, and differences in effectiveness according to sex, age, and socioeconomic status (Montreal, Quebec). Environ Health Perspect 124:1694-1699; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP203.
    Keywords: Program Evaluation ; Socioeconomic Factors ; Heat Stress Disorders -- Mortality
    E-ISSN: 1552-9924
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 01 January 2010, Vol.26(3), pp.167-172
    Description: Many trigger point therapies, such as deep pressure massage and injection, are painful. Thermal ultrasound might be a comfortable procedure used to soften trigger points. Our objective was to compare thermal ultrasound with sham ultrasound in...
    Keywords: Physical Therapy
    ISSN: 0959-3985
    E-ISSN: 1532-5040
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 01 January 2005, Vol.31(3), pp.455-469
    Description: This study examined whether an EEG biofeedback protocol could improve outcome measures for a mixed substance abusing inpatient population. Method: One hundred twenty-one volunteers undergoing an inpatient substance abuse program were randomly...
    Keywords: EEG ; Biofeedback ; EEG Biofeedback ; Addiction Treatment ; Chemical Dependency ; Alpha-Theta ; Tova ; Mmpi ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 0095-2990
    E-ISSN: 1097-9891
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Psychophysiology, 1996, Vol.23(1), pp.1-7
    Description: In a previous study of simulated vehicle performance we found that stationary visual attention and body movements alone produced selective effects on topographic EEG frequency patterns. In the present study we focus on an expanded set of these task components. EEG, EOG and ECG data were recorded from 21 subjects during instructed driving movements and during visual scanning tasks ranging from a stationary to a rapidly moving simulated driving display. Spectral analysis was calculated on ten 2-Hz, partially overlapped frequency bands between 6 and 17 Hz. Body movements produced a selective bilateral suppression of 11-15 Hz activity localized to medial somatosensory cortex, while both slow and rapid visual scanning tasks produced a similar bilateral suppression of 11-15 Hz activity localized to temporo-parietal sites. A generalized suppression of 7-11 Hz activity was also found during the fastest visual scanning task. There were no significant differences in ECG between tasks. Other human and animal findings consistent with these functional observations are discussed.
    Keywords: EEG ; Topographic ; Driving Simulation ; Visual Scanning ; Anatomy & Physiology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0167-8760
    E-ISSN: 1872-7697
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Health Promotion, May 2018, Vol.32(4), pp.963-970
    Description: Purpose: To estimate the effects of a workplace initiative to reduce work–family conflict on employee performance. Design: A group-randomized multisite controlled experimental study with longitudinal follow-up. Setting: An information technology firm. Participants: Employees randomized...
    Keywords: Work–Family Conflict ; Workplace Intervention ; Workplace Flexibility ; Supervisor Support ; Field Experiment ; Performance ; Productivity ; Well-Being ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0890-1171
    E-ISSN: 2168-6602
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 01 November 2017, Vol.12(1), pp.1-15
    Description: Abstract Background In 2010, the first comprehensive National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States was released and included three goals: (1) reducing the number of people who become infected with HIV, (2) increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for people living with HIV, and (3) reducing HIV-related health disparities and health inequities. In 2013, as part of its effort to help address the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded a type 2 effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial titled the Substance Abuse Treatment to HIV Care (SAT2HIV) Project. Aim 1 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based brief intervention (MIBI) for substance use as an adjunct to usual care within AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) as part of its MIBI Experiment. Aim 2 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF) as an adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) model for training staff in motivational interviewing as part of its ISF Experiment. The current paper describes the study protocol for the MIBI Experiment. Methods As part of a multisite randomized controlled trial, individuals with comorbid HIV/AIDS and problematic substance use are randomized to receive either the ASOs’ usual care (control condition) or usual care plus a MIBI for substance use (experimental condition) delivered by trained ASO case-management staff. Primary outcome measures are reductions in days of primary substance use, number of substance-related problems, times engaging in risky behaviors, days of non-adherence to HIV medications, and increases in substance use treatment. As part of this paper, we describe the trial protocol in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials guidelines. Discussion If successfully able to implement MIBI as an effective adjunct to usual care, the current trial may have a significant impact on increasing the capacity of ASOs to address problematic substance use among individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Reducing the prevalence of problematic substance use among individuals living with HIV/AIDS within the United States may lead to significant improvements on key performance measures (i.e., the HIV Care Continuum and the 90-90-90 target). Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02495402
    Keywords: Substance Use ; HIV ; AIDS ; Type 2 Hybrid Trial
    ISSN: 19400632
    E-ISSN: 1940-0640
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Psychophysiology, 1994, Vol.16(1), pp.49-56
    Description: Topographic EEG spectral magnitudes from 19 cortical sites were compared in 15 adult male subjects during performance of a simulated flight task and during control conditions which attempted to separately evaluate functional components of this task. Four conditions were studied, including eyes closed, a visual control, a motor control and a simulated landing task requiring integration of both visual and motor components. Each condition was repeated twice in a counterbalanced replicated measures design. A linked-ear EEG reference was used and spectral magnitudes calculated for 6 frequency bands. Decisions concerning band width and spectral transform were empirically determined. Findings indicated no significant differences between replications. A broad posterior cortical suppression of all frequencies was observed in the visual control condition. Anterior sites were affected only in the 7–12 Hz range. Additional suppression was seen during the motor control condition but limited to frontocentral sites in the 11–13 Hz band. The flight task, however, produced a further suppression at centroparietal cortex in the 9–13 Hz range. The extraction of both attentional and motor components from this task suggests that the parietal EEG activation was specific to cognitive processing.
    Keywords: Aviation ; Alpha Rhythm ; Cognition ; Performance ; Spectral Analysis ; Topographic EEG ; Anatomy & Physiology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0167-8760
    E-ISSN: 1872-7697
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