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  • 1
    In: Clinical Nuclear Medicine, 2000, Vol.25(11), pp.939-940
    Description: The authors describe two patients with unusual elevated uptake of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) in the presence of nonmalignant diseases. Uptake of F-18 FDG as a result of granulomatous disease has been previously described. In one patient, we report a very high uptake F-18 FDG in the lungs, liver, and spleen in a 47-year-old woman as a result of sarcoidosis. The differential diagnosis included malignant lymphoma. F-18 FDG uptake has also been shown in inflammatory lesions. In the other case, high uptake of F-18 FDG in the epigastrium was evident in a 51-year-old man as a result of a foreign body (wooden toothpick), that had silently perforated the gastric wall.
    Keywords: Abdomen–Diagnostic Imaging ; Female–Diagnostic Imaging ; Fluorodeoxyglucose F18–Diagnostic Imaging ; Foreign Bodies–Diagnostic Imaging ; Humans–Diagnostic Imaging ; Male–Diagnostic Imaging ; Middle Aged–Diagnostic Imaging ; Radiopharmaceuticals–Diagnostic Imaging ; Sarcoidosis–Diagnostic Imaging ; Tomography, Emission-Computed–Diagnostic Imaging ; Radiopharmaceuticals ; Fluorodeoxyglucose F18;
    ISSN: 0363-9762
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Pediatrics, 2012, Vol.171(2), pp.337-345
    Description: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by rotavirus (RV) is a common disease among infants and toddlers, often leading to hospitalization and, in resource-poor countries, to death. However, little is known on specific complications of severe RV-positive (RV+) AGE and on the clinical course in chronically ill children. This was a retrospective analysis of data for children 〈5 years of age hospitalized due to AGE during six rotavirus seasons in three large German pediatric hospitals. The primary study end point was the incidence and type of complications in RV+ versus RV-negative (RV−) cases. A total of 6,884 episodes of AGE in hospitalized children aged 〈5 years were included in this analysis. Of the 4,880 stools tested for RV, 2,118 (43.4%) were RV+. Hypernatremia was significantly more common in RV+ AGE ( P  〈 0.001) and was associated with severe disease, need for intensive care treatment, and longer duration of hospitalization. Metabolic disorders, particularly hypoglycemia, were more common in RV+ AGE. In contrast, symptoms such as respiratory infections, neurological, and abdominal symptoms were more common in children with RV− AGE. Conclusions: hypernatremia is a specific complication of RV+ AGE. RV would therefore appear to be the cause of infant toxicosis, the traditional descriptive term for severe dehydration and clinical deterioration following AGE.
    Keywords: Acute gastroenteritis ; Rotavirus ; Hospitalized children ; Complications ; Hypernatremia
    ISSN: 0340-6199
    E-ISSN: 1432-1076
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Behavioural Brain Research, 2011, Vol.219(2), pp.291-301
    Description: ► Aggression towards a docile opponent depended on 5-HTT genotype and venue of a contest. ► Homozygous 5-HTT KO mice reacted to the venue and the opponent's behaviour. ► Heterozygous 5-HTT KO mice were only influenced by the venue of the contest. ► Wildtypes behaved always the same, irrespective of venue and opponent. ► Varying inborn levels of anxiety and perception of environmental adversity are seen as causal factors. Aggression can be modulated by both genetic and environmental factors. Here, we analyse how the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype and the environmental situation in which a contest takes place shape the display of offensive aggression. Therefore, male wildtype, heterozygous, and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice, which are known to differ in inborn levels of anxiety, were confronted three times with a docile opponent in one of three environmental situations: own territory, opponent's territory or neutral area. The main findings were: The frequency of the contestant in order to gather information about him depended significantly on the venue but not on the genotype with lowest frequencies in the opponent's territory. The the opponent was significantly influenced by the 5-HTT genotype but not by the venue: Homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice showed longest latencies. The was significantly influenced by the 5-HTT genotype, the environmental situation, and a genotype by environment interaction. It is likely that, due to their varying genetic predisposition for anxiety, mice of the three genotypes were differentially affected by the aversiveness of the respective venue and the opponent's behaviour, which influenced their decision to display offensive aggression. As a consequence, the amount of aggression shown by homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice was influenced by the venue and the opponent's behaviour, whereas heterozygotes reacted only to the venue. Strikingly, wildtypes behaved always the same way, irrespective of venue and opponent.
    Keywords: 5-Htt ; Genotype ; Anxiety ; Gene × Environment Interaction ; Risk Profile ; Cost/Benefit Ratio ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0166-4328
    E-ISSN: 0166-4328
    E-ISSN: 18727549
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, Vol.78(1), pp.105-119
    Description: Synthetic images of facial expression were used to assess whether judges can correctly recognize emotions exclusively on the basis of configurations of facial muscle movements. A first study showed that static, synthetic images modeled after a series of photographs that are widely used in facial expression research yielded recognition rates and confusion patterns comparable to posed photos. In a second study, animated synthetic images were used to examine whether schematic facial expressions consisting entirely of theoretically postulated facial muscle configurations can be correctly recognized. Recognition rates for the synthetic expressions were far above chance, and the confusion patterns were comparable to those obtained with posed photos. In addition, the effect of static versus dynamic presentation of the expressions was studied. Dynamic presentation increased overall recognition accuracy and reduced confusions between unrelated emotions.
    Keywords: Adult ; Analysis of Variance ; Emotions ; Facial Expression ; Female ; Humans ; Judgment ; Male ; Pattern Recognition, Visual ; Software ; Emotional Content ; Face Perception ; Facial Expressions ; Facial Muscles ; Motor Processes ; Computer Simulation ; Social Perception ; Social Perception & Cognition ; Perception of Emotion in Static Photos Vs Computer-Simulated Animations of Facial Muscle Movements, College Students ; Empirical Study ; Human ; Male ; Female ; Adulthood (18 Yrs & Older) ; Young Adulthood (18-29 Yrs) ; Article;
    ISSN: 0022-3514
    E-ISSN: 1939-1315
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  • 5
    In: Clinical Nuclear Medicine, 1999, Vol.24(7), pp.483-487
    Description: This prospective study evaluated the effects of different amounts of fluid intake on the bone-to-soft tissue (B:ST) ratio and image quality of bone scans performed using Tc-99m MDP. One hundred sixty patients with no renal disease were divided into three groups with different degrees of hydration in liters (group 1, 0.25 I; group 2, 1 I; group 3, 1.5 I), and image quality was assessed with a semiquantitative score. The B:ST ratio was calculated over the femoral diaphysis and adductor area, respectively. No significant differences in the B:ST ratio or image quality were demonstrated in all three patient groups with median values of 1.90 (group 1), 1.93 (group 2), and 1.84 (group 3). A filled urinary bladder was associated with greater fluid intake. The B:ST and image quality were correlated directly with the postinjection time interval and inversely with age. When patients drink a large volume of fluid, B:ST ratios do not necessarily increase and bone scintigraphy image quality does not improve.
    Keywords: Drinking ; Bone and Bones -- Diagnostic Imaging ; Radionuclide Imaging -- Methods;
    ISSN: 0363-9762
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Neurosurgical Review, 1992, Vol.15(4), pp.265-273
    Description: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with thallium-201-chloride ( 201 TI) was used in 22 patients to assess the grade of malignancy of brain tumors. Low- and high-grade malignant gliomas could be well differentiated by calculating the Grade Index (GI), i.e., TI uptake in the tumor area relative to a contralateral brain region. Low-grade gliomas (WHO-grade I–II) usually showed a GI of 〈1.5. Tumors classified histologically as high-grade malignant (WHO-grade III–IV) had GI values greater than 1.42 and a mean value of 1.89. Until labelled amino-acid tracers for gamma-cameras become commercially available, thallium-201 brain-SPECT can provide an independent and complementary method to CT/MRI for the differential diagnosis of grading of brain tumors. This simple technique can help to reduce sampling errors during needle biopsies of brain tumors, particularly of high-grade lesions incorrectly graded as low-grade tumors due to inadequate biopsy material. In addition, pre- and post-therapy studies can influence the strategy of therapy itself and allow an early detection of recurrences.
    Keywords: Brain tumors ; grading ; thallium-201-SPECT
    ISSN: 0344-5607
    E-ISSN: 1437-2320
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, 2005, Vol.23(3), pp.205-211
    Description: Resorption lacunae (RL) are discussed as stressors that can increase the risk of mechanical failure in a trabecular network. Quantification of RL has previously been described through the parameter eroded surface/bone surface (ES/BS) as established by light microscopy (LM) analysis, but the results have been inconsistent and contradictory. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a new study design for quantitative evaluation is introduced. To test its applicability a pilot study was executed with trabecular bone dissected from a femoral head of 28 autopsy subjects (14 female and 14 male). A 2.4 × 2.8 × 1.0 mm sample was excised 1.5 cm below the joint surface of each specimen in coronal medial slices of the femoral head and examined. A virtual grid with 1050 squares superimposed over the generated SEM image allowed determination of the ratio of squares containing R_L_ to squares with an u_naffected trabecular surface (RL/U). Classical ES/BS was assessed in parallel sections of the samples. The SEM, and to a lesser extent the qualitative different LM analysis, indicated a gender independent predominance of RL in subjects older than 50 years. This pilot study suggests that the new study design could be useful for acquiring quantitative RL data.
    Keywords: Microfractures ; Trabecular bone architecture ; Menopause ; Remodeling ; Osteoporosis
    ISSN: 0914-8779
    E-ISSN: 1435-5604
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Behavioural Brain Research, 15 April 2015, Vol.283, pp.116-120
    Description: Over the past years, certain “vulnerability genes” have been identified that play a key role in the development of mood and anxiety disorders. In particular, a low-expressing variant of the human serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene has been described that renders individuals more susceptible to adverse experience and hence to the development of psychiatric diseases. However, some authors have recently argued that lower 5-HTT expression not only increases vulnerability to adverse experiences, but also enhances susceptibility to beneficial experiences, thus promoting phenotypic plasticity. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of 5-HTT expression on susceptibility to beneficial experience in a hypothesis-driven experimental approach. Using a well-established rodent model for the human polymorphism, male heterozygous 5-HTT knockout (HET) and 5-HTT wildtype (WT) mice were either provided with the beneficial experience of cohabitation with a female (mating experience) or kept as naïve controls in single-housing conditions. Following the experimental treatment, they were tested for their anxiety-like behaviour and exploratory locomotion in three widely used behavioural tests. Interestingly, while cohabitation reduced anxiety-like behaviour and increased exploratory locomotion in the open field test in HET mice, it did not affect WT mice, pointing to a genotype-dependent susceptibility to the beneficial experience. Thus, our results might support the view of the low expressing version of the 5-HTT gene as a “plasticity” rather than a “vulnerability” variant.
    Keywords: Serotonin Transporter ; Mice ; Beneficial Experience ; Anxiety-Like Behavior ; Gene-By-Environment Interaction ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0166-4328
    E-ISSN: 0166-4328
    E-ISSN: 18727549
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  • 9
    In: Nature, 2013, Vol.504(7480), p.432
    Description: Myocardial infarction, a leading cause of death in the Western world, usually occurs when the fibrous cap overlying an atherosclerotic plaque in a coronary artery ruptures. The resulting exposure of blood to the atherosclerotic material then triggers thrombus formation, which occludes the artery. The importance of genetic predisposition to coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction is best documented by the predictive value of a positive family history. Next-generation sequencing in families with several affected individuals has revolutionized mutation identification. Here we report the segregation of two private, heterozygous mutations in two functionally related genes, GUCY1A3 (p.Leu163Phefs*24) and CCT7 (p.Ser525Leu), in an extended myocardial infarction family. GUCY1A3 encodes the α1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase (α1-sGC), and CCT7 encodes CCTη, a member of the tailless complex polypeptide 1 ring complex, which, among other functions, stabilizes soluble guanylyl cyclase. After stimulation with nitric oxide, soluble guanylyl cyclase generates cGMP, which induces vasodilation and inhibits platelet activation. We demonstrate in vitro that mutations in both GUCY1A3 and CCT7 severely reduce α1-sGC as well as β1-sGC protein content, and impair soluble guanylyl cyclase activity. Moreover, platelets from digenic mutation carriers contained less soluble guanylyl cyclase protein and consequently displayed reduced nitric-oxide-induced cGMP formation. Mice deficient in α1-sGC protein displayed accelerated thrombus formation in the microcirculation after local trauma. Starting with a severely affected family, we have identified a link between impaired soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-dependent nitric oxide signalling and myocardial infarction risk, possibly through accelerated thrombus formation. Reversing this defect may provide a new therapeutic target for reducing the risk of myocardial infarction.
    Keywords: Signal Transduction ; Disease Susceptibility -- Metabolism ; Myocardial Infarction -- Metabolism ; Nitric Oxide -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLOS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(3), pp.urn:issn:1932-6203
    Description: The most prominent brain region evaluating the significance of external stimuli immediately after their onset is the amygdala. Stimuli evaluated as being stressful actuate a number of physiological processes as an immediate stress response. Variation in the serotonin transporter gene has been associated with increased anxiety- and depression-like behavior, altered stress reactivity and adaptation, and pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. In this study the instant reactions to an acute stressor were measured in a serotonin transporter knockout mouse model. Mice lacking the serotonin transporter were verified to be more anxious than their wild-type conspecifics. Genome-wide gene expression changes in the amygdala were measured after the mice were subjected to control condition or to an acute stressor of one minute exposure to water. The dissection of amygdalae and stabilization of RNA was conducted within nine minutes after the onset of the stressor. This extremely short protocol allowed for analysis of first wave primary response genes, typically induced within five to ten minutes of stimulation, and was performed using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. RNA profiling revealed a largely new set of differentially expressed primary response genes between the conditions acute stress and control that differed distinctly between wild-type and knockout mice. Consequently, functional categorization and pathway analysis indicated genes related to neuroplasticity and adaptation in wild-types whereas knockouts were characterized by impaired plasticity and genes more related to chronic stress and pathophysiology. Our study therefore disclosed different coping styles dependent on serotonin transporter genotype even directly after the onset of stress and accentuates the role of the serotonergic system in processing stressors and threat in the amygdala. Moreover, several of the first wave primary response genes that we found might provide promising targets for future therapeutic interventions of stress-related disorders also in humans.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Social And Behavioral Sciences;
    ISSN: 1932-6203
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