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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 30 April 2012, Vol.206(1), pp.15-22
    Description: ► We described the multichannel preamplifier for neuronal recordings in small animals. ► The device may be used in any kinds of tasks including swimming in Morris water maze. ► Reusable headstage can adopt both chronically implanted and movable wire electrodes. ► For the first time multichannel recordings of neuronal activity were made in swimming mice. The design of a miniature multichannel preamplifier for extracellular recordings of single unit activity in freely moving and swimming small animals is presented. The advantages of this design include perfect protection of the critical components and electric contacts from water. Thus, neuronal activity and EEG may be recorded differentially in any kinds of behavioral tasks including swimming in Morris water maze. Recordings are stable even if an animal is diving and swimming under the water surface. The reusable dismountable base can adopt different types of chronically implanted fine wire electrodes and movable arrays. Electrodes may be implanted to any desired depth. The assembly weight is less than 240 mg. Thus, the construction is light enough even for mice. This work is the first successful attempt for multichannel recording of neuronal activity in mice performing spatial task in Morris water maze.
    Keywords: Multichannel Preamplifier ; Reusable Base ; Microdrive ; Fine Wire Electrodes ; Single Unit Activity ; Freely Moving Animals ; Swimming Mice and Rats ; Water Maze ; Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0165-0270
    E-ISSN: 1872-678X
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  • 2
    In: Circulation, 2012, Vol.126(20), pp.2418-2427
    Description: BACKGROUND—: Carotid intima-media thickening is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in humans. We discovered that intima formation and cell proliferation in response to carotid injury is greater in SJL/J (SJL) in comparison with C3HeB/FeJ (C3H/F) mice. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate genes contributing to intima formation. METHODS AND RESULTS—: We performed microarray and bioinformatic analyses of carotid arteries from C3H/F and SJL mice. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis showed that the ribosome pathway was significantly up-regulated in C3H/F in comparison with SJL mice. Expression of a ribosomal protein, RpL17, was 〉40-fold higher in C3H/F carotids in comparison with SJL. Aortic vascular smooth muscle cells from C3H/F grew slower in comparison to SJL. To determine the role of RpL17 in vascular smooth muscle cell growth regulation, we analyzed the relationship between RpL17 expression and cell cycle progression. Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from mice, rats, and humans showed that RpL17 expression inversely correlated with growth as shown by decreased cells in S phase and increased cells in G0/G1. To prove that RpL17 acted as a growth inhibitor in vivo, we used pluronic gel delivery of RpL17 small interfering RNA to C3H/F carotid arteries. This resulted in an 8-fold increase in the number of proliferating cells. Furthermore, following partial carotid ligation in SJL mice, RpL17 expression in the intima and media decreased, but the number of proliferating cells increased. CONCLUSIONS—: RpL17 acts as a vascular smooth muscle cell growth inhibitor (akin to a tumor suppressor) and represents a potential therapeutic target to limit carotid intima-media thickening.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology;
    ISSN: 0009-7322
    E-ISSN: 15244539
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 2018, Vol.165(5), pp.695-697
    Description: Antitumor effects of glycolysis inhibitors monoiodoacetate and 2-deoxyglucose were studied on Lewis lung carcinoma model. Monoiodoacetate exhibited antitumor and antimetastatic activities, being not inferior of methotrexate (reference drug); however, the preparation also demonstrated high systemic toxicity. 2-Deoxyglucose exhibited only antitumor effect, while its antimetastatic activity did not differ from the result in the group without treatment.
    Keywords: Warburg effect ; glycolysis inhibitors ; tumor
    ISSN: 0007-4888
    E-ISSN: 1573-8221
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Blood, 23 May 2013, Vol.121(21), pp.4417-27
    Description: Activated platelets release many inflammatory molecules with important roles in accelerating vascular inflammation. Much is known about platelet and platelet-derived mediator interactions with endothelial cells and leukocytes, but few studies have examined the effects of platelets on components of the vascular wall. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) undergo phenotypic changes in response to injury including the production of inflammatory molecules, cell proliferation, cell migration, and a decline in the expression of differentiation markers. In this study, we demonstrate that the platelet-derived chemokine platelet factor 4 (PF4/CXCL4) stimulates VSMC injury responses both in vitro and in vivo in a mouse carotid ligation model. PF4 drives a VSMC inflammatory phenotype including a decline in differentiation markers, increased cytokine production, and cell proliferation. We also demonstrate that PF4 effects are mediated, in part, through increased expression of the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4. Our data indicate an important mechanistic role for platelets and PF4 in VSMC injury responses both in vitro and in vivo.
    Keywords: Blood Platelets -- Immunology ; Carotid Artery Injuries -- Immunology ; Muscle, Smooth, Vascular -- Immunology ; Platelet Factor 4 -- Metabolism ; Vasculitis -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00064971
    E-ISSN: 1528-0020
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The American Journal of Pathology, May 2012, Vol.180(5), pp.2134-2143
    Description: Cellular mechanisms of carotid intima-media thickening (IMT) are largely unknown. The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is essential for function of both bone marrow (BM) and non-BM cells. We studied the mechanisms by which expression in BM-derived cells (compared with non-BM-derived cells) mediates carotid IMT. Partial ligation of the left carotid artery resulted in a similar carotid blood flow reduction in chimeras. Neither irradiation nor bone marrow transplantation had any effect on the 40% difference in carotid IMT between genotypes. Axl-dependent survival is very important for intimal leukocytes; however, expression in BM cells contributes to 〈30% of carotid IMT. Axl in non-BM cells has a greater effect on carotid remodeling. Expression of in non-BM cells is crucial for the up-regulation of several key proinflammatory signals (eg, IL-1) in the carotid. We found that Axl is involved in immune activation of cultured smooth muscle cells and in immune heterogeneity of medial cells (measured by major histocompatibility complex class II) after carotid injury. Finally, a lack of Axl in non-BM cells increased collagen Iα expression, which may play a critical role in carotid remodeling. Our data suggest that Axl contributes to carotid remodeling not only by inhibition of apoptosis but also via regulation of immune heterogeneity of vascular cells, cytokine/chemokine expression, and extracellular matrix remodeling.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0002-9440
    E-ISSN: 1525-2191
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Cancer, 15 August 2005, Vol.104(4), pp.825-32
    Description: In patients with glioblastoma, age 〈 50 years was identified as a consistent prognostic variable. In addition, the prognosis for these patients may be determined by a complex interaction between age and genetic alterations. The objective of the current study was the molecular analysis of glioblastomas from adult patients age 〈 50 years ("young adults"). The authors analyzed a set of 189 glioblastoma specimens. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed with a set of 10 chromosome probes (1p36, 1q25, centomere probe 7 [CEP7], 7p12/epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR), CEP9, 9p21/p16, CEP10, 10q23/phosphatase and tesnin homolog gene (PTEN), 19p13, and 19q13). Patient age or = 40 years frequently showed EGFR amplification, loss of 9p, loss of 10q, and gain of chromosome 19. The patients with - 19q were age 40 years were examined separately. Consequently, EGFR amplification, - 9p, and + 9 were significant for both age groups, whereas gain of chromosome 7 and loss of 10q showed clinical importance only among patients age 〉 40 years. Adult patients age 〈 50 years with glioblastoma had molecularly distinct disease, and the age-dependent heterogeneity seen on the chromosomal level also applied at the clinical level.
    Keywords: Brain Neoplasms -- Genetics ; Glioblastoma -- Genetics
    ISSN: 0008-543X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: World Neurosurgery, 2010, Vol.74(4), pp.532-537
    Description: A less favorable outcome is usually claimed for ETV in formerly shunted patients, and continuous bias exists on using endoscopy in cases with malfunctioning CSF shunts. A cohort of 60 patients with obstructive triventricular hydrocephalus (mean age 22 years, range 1–68) underwent an ETV instead of shunt revision. Fourteen patients had a history of multiple shunt-related surgeries (more than three times). Median follow-up lasted 2 years (range 1 month–8 years). Data on patients' preoperative condition and their history, including particularities of the surgery, were studied to define the impact of any given variable on the outcome. The Mann-Whitney test was used to assess differences among groups. Sixteen patients did not improve and needed permanent shunts anyway. The remaining 44 patients improved and became free of shunt (72%). No reliable correlation has been found regarding final outcome and data, characterizing patients' profile, for example, etiology of hydrocephalus, the history of intraventricular bleeding and/or CNS infection, age at onset and age at the first shunting, number of shunt surgeries, the origin of shunt malfunction, and complicated ventricular anatomy. There were no deaths, and overall cases with morbidity comprised 20% (12 cases); among them, serious complications with neurologic deficit were noted in three (5%) patients. Patients with obstructive hydrocephalus could benefit from ETV in case of their shunt malfunction and if carefully selected have about 70% probability to become shunt free. In formerly shunted patients, endoscopy has somewhat greater risk of serious complications; thus a wider experience is essential when offering them an ETV.
    Keywords: Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts ; Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy ; Obstructive Hydrocephalus ; Outcome
    ISSN: 1878-8750
    E-ISSN: 1878-8769
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  • 8
    In: Nature, 2016
    Description: Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour, often inflicting devastating consequences on the developing child. Genomic studies have revealed four distinct molecular subgroups with divergent biology and clinical behaviour. An understanding of the regulatory circuitry governing the transcriptional landscapes of medulloblastoma subgroups, and how this relates to their respective developmental origins, is lacking. Here, using H3K27ac and BRD4 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) coupled with tissue-matched DNA methylation and transcriptome data, we describe the active cis-regulatory landscape across 28 primary medulloblastoma specimens. Analysis of differentially regulated enhancers and super-enhancers reinforced inter-subgroup heterogeneity and revealed novel, clinically relevant insights into medulloblastoma biology. Computational reconstruction of core regulatory circuitry identified a master set of transcription factors, validated by ChIP-seq, that is responsible for subgroup divergence, and implicates candidate cells of origin for Group 4. Our integrated analysis of enhancer elements in a large series of primary tumour samples reveals insights into cis-regulatory architecture, unrecognized dependencies, and cellular origins.
    Keywords: Medulloblastoma -- Genetic Aspects ; Cancer Genetics -- Research ; Cancer Research;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Cancer, 15 March 2004, Vol.100(6), pp.1230-1237
    Description: BACKGROUND: Ependymomas account for 3-5% of all intracranial malignancies and occur most often in children and young adults. These neoplasms continue to generate considerable controversy with regard to their rational clinical management. It has been shown that the histologic classification of ependymoma is a significant predictor of clinical outcome in patients with ependymoma.METHODS: Ependymomas from 258 patients who underwent microsurgery at a single institution were evaluated histologically to elucidate the prognostic utility of a recently proposed grading scheme. Pathologic and clinical data then were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses.RESULTS: Increasing grade of ependymoma malignancy was found to be associated strongly and independently with worse clinical outcomes in terms of both event-free survival and overall survival. The effect of radiotherapy also was found to be related to histologic grade and was more beneficial for patients who had anaplastic ependymomas and had undergone complete tumor removal.CONCLUSIONS: The application of a uniform diagnostic criteria for grading ependymomas highlighted the key role of tumor histology in clinical outcome in a cohort of patients who were treated in the microsurgical era. The recently proposed grading scheme is likely to be practically useful, reproducible, and clinically applicable.
    Keywords: Ependymoma ; Histology ; Malignancy Grade ; Prognosis ; Radiotherapy
    ISSN: 0008-543X
    E-ISSN: 1097-0142
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, 2010, Vol.40(3), pp.315-323
    Description: Current concepts hold that during learning in waking animals, new information is transmitted from the neocortex to the hippocampus, where it leaves a temporary trace in the form of a mosaic of modified synapses. During sleep, reactivation of the neuron population initially activated by the new stimulus has the result that this information is returned to the neocortex, ensuring consolidation of a permanent memory trace. Exchange of information between the neocortex and hippocampal formation is mediated mainly by the entorhinal cortex, whose internal connections, in principle, allow “messages” from the output of the hippocampal formation to return to its inputs. Our experiments in awake and sleeping rabbits demonstrated that waves of excitation can return to hippocampal field CA1 and the dentate gyrus via fibers of the perforant path, these waves having initially entered field CA1 via potentiated synapses of Schäffer collaterals; during sleep, re-entrant waves of excitation reach a maximum and have a high probability of evoking discharges of dentate gyrus neurons. Thus, the new stimulus, potentiating synaptic connections in the hippocampus and, probably, the entorhinal cortex during waking, create conditions for reactivation of the corresponding hippocampal neuron populations during sleep by waves of excitation returning via the entorhinal cortex.
    Keywords: rats ; hippocampus ; CA1 ; Schäffer collaterals ; long-term potentiation ; entorhinal cortex ; waking and sleep ; reactivation of neuron populations ; memory
    ISSN: 0097-0549
    E-ISSN: 1573-899X
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