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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Microbial Pathogenesis, 2006, Vol.40(3), pp.110-115
    Description: express two porin proteins, termed OmpP2A and OmpP2B. To test whether expression of OmpP2A and OmpP2B was necessary for virulence in humans, eight volunteers were experimentally infected with the parent (35000HP) in one arm and a double OmpP2A OmpP2B mutant (35000HP::P2AB) in the other arm. The pustule formation rates were 58.3% (95% CI, 33.2–83.5%) for the parent and 41.7% (95% CI, 19.3–64.0%) for the mutant ( =0.25). Biopsy of 35000HP and 35000HP::P2AB-infected sites yielded similar amounts of bacteria in quantitative culture. These results indicate that expression of OmpP2A and OmpP2B is not necessary to initiate disease or to progress to pustule formation in humans.
    Keywords: Pustule Formation ; Haemophilus Ducreyi ; Porin Proteins ; Uirulence ; Human Challenge Model ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0882-4010
    E-ISSN: 1096-1208
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Biomaterials, February 2015, Vol.41, pp.97-105
    Description: Effective treatment options are often limited for implant-associated orthopedic infections. In this study we evaluated the antimicrobial effects of applying cathodic voltage-controlled electrical stimulation (CVCES) of -1.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) to commercially pure titanium (cpTi) substrates with preformed biofilm-like structures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The in vitro studies showed that as compared to the open circuit potential (OCP) conditions, CVCES of -1.8 V for 1 h significantly reduced the colony-forming units (CFU) of MRSA enumerated from the cpTi by 97% (1.89 × 106 vs 6.45 × 104 CFU/ml) and from the surrounding solution by 92% (6.63 × 105 vs. 5.15 × 104 CFU/ml). The in vivo studies, utilizing a rodent periprosthetic infection model, showed that as compared to the OCP conditions, CVCES at -1.8 V for 1 h significantly reduced MRSA CFUs in the bone tissue by 87% (1.15 × 105 vs. 1.48 × 104 CFU/ml) and reduced CFU on the cpTi implant by 98% (5.48 × 104 vs 1.16 × 103 CFU/ml). The stimulation was not associated with histological changes in the host tissue surrounding the implant. As compared to the OCP conditions, the −1.8 V stimulation significantly increased the interfacial capacitance (18.93 vs. 98.25 μF/cm ) and decreased polarization resistance (868,250 vs. 108 Ω-cm ) of the cpTi. The antimicrobial effects are thought to be associated with these voltage-dependent electrochemical surface properties of the cpTi.
    Keywords: Titanium ; Infection ; Electrical Stimulation ; Antimicrobial ; Bacteria ; Biofilm ; Medicine ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0142-9612
    E-ISSN: 1878-5905
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, March 2013, Vol.81(3), pp.915-22
    Description: The emergence of extremely resistant and panresistant Gram-negative bacilli, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, requires consideration of nonantimicrobial therapeutic approaches. The goal of this report was to evaluate the K1 capsular polysaccharide from A. baumannii as a passive immunization target. Its structure was determined by a combination of mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Molecular mimics that might raise the concern for autoimmune disease were not identified. Immunization of CD1 mice demonstrated that the K1 capsule is immunogenic. The monoclonal antibody (MAb) 13D6, which is directed against the K1 capsule from A. baumannii, was used to determine the seroprevalence of the K1 capsule in a collection of 100 A. baumannii strains. Thirteen percent of the A. baumannii isolates from this collection were seroreactive to MAb 13D6. Opsonization of K1-positive strains, but not K1-negative strains, with MAb 13D6 significantly increased neutrophil-mediated bactericidal activity in vitro (P 〈 0.05). Lastly, treatment with MAb 13D6 3 and 24 h after bacterial challenge in a rat soft tissue infection model resulted in a significant decrease in the growth/survival of a K1-positive strain compared to that of a K1-negative strain or to treatment with a vehicle control (P 〈 0.0001). These data support the proof of principle that the K1 capsule is a potential therapeutic target via passive immunization. Other serotypes require assessment, and pragmatic challenges exist, such as the need to serotype infecting strains and utilize serotype-specific therapy. Nonetheless, this approach may become an important therapeutic option with increasing antimicrobial resistance and a diminishing number of active antimicrobials.
    Keywords: Acinetobacter Infections -- Prevention & Control ; Acinetobacter Baumannii -- Metabolism ; Antibodies, Monoclonal -- Immunology ; Bacterial Capsules -- Metabolism ; Bacterial Vaccines -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 2008, Vol.5(1), pp.23-39
    Description: We tested the effect of a Rotated Protocol Immersion package on the emergence of observing responses as prerequisites for more complex verbal developmental capabilities. Three elementary aged students between the ages of 6 and 7 participated. They were diagnosed with autism spectrum disabilities. The treatment condition consisted of total immersion in a rotation of six pre-listener Protocols ( Greer & Ross, 2008 ), designed to induce foundations for verbal developmental capabilities. The participants were selected for their demonstrated lack of early observing responses ( Keohane, Delgado & Greer, in press ). The y did not respond when their names were called, orient toward voices in the environment, or follow instructions. They did not seek out the attention of others unless it was to fill an immediate need. The dependent variables in the study were observing responses; learn units to criterion, instructional objectives met, and incidental performances across instructional and non-instructional settings. We used a time-lagged multiple probe design and found significant increases in the dependent variables. Additionally, the post-probes demonstrated a range of increases in the number and level of complexity of students' observing responses. The results are discussed in terms of theoretical implications, as well as, in the context of behavioral research on child development, and the hierarchy of verbal developmental capabilities.
    Keywords: Development ; Verbal Developmental Capabilities ; Behavioral Developmental Cusps ; Learn Units ; Observing Responses ; Developmental Delays ; Verbal Behavior
    E-ISSN: 1554-4893
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, December 2017, Vol.53(6), pp.818-828
    Description: Although comprehensive school-based physical activity interventions are efficacious when tested under research conditions, they often require adaptation in order for implementation at scale. This paper reports the effectiveness of an adapted efficacious school-based intervention in improving children’s moderate to vigorous physical activity. The impact of strategies to support program implementation was also assessed. A cluster RCT of low socioeconomic elementary schools in New South Wales, Australia. Consenting schools were randomized (25 intervention, 21 control) using a computerized random number function. Follow-up measures were taken at 6 months post-randomization (May–August 2015) by blinded research assistants. The multicomponent school-based intervention, based on an efficacious school-based physical activity program (Supporting Children’s Outcomes using Rewards, Exercise and Skills), consisted of four physical activity strategies and seven implementation support strategies. The intervention was adapted for scalability and delivery by a local health service over 6 months. The primary outcome was accelerometer assessed, student mean daily minutes spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Physical education lesson quality and other school physical activity practices were also assessed. Participants ( =1,139, 49% male) were third- through sixth-grade students at follow-up (May–August 2015). Valid wear time and analysis of data were provided for 989 (86%) participants (571 intervention, 568 control). At 6-month follow-up, there were no significant effects in overall daily minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity between groups (1.96 minutes, 95% CI= –3.49, 7.41, =0.48). However, adjusted difference in mean minutes of overall vigorous physical activity (2.19, 95% CI=0.06, 4.32, =0.04); mean minutes of school day moderate to vigorous physical activity (2.90, 95% CI=0.06, 5.85, =0.05); and mean minutes of school day vigorous physical activity (1.81, 95% CI=0.78, 2.83, ≤0.01) were significantly different in favor of the intervention group. Physical education lesson quality and school physical activity practices were significantly different favoring the intervention group (analyzed October 2015–January 2016). The modified intervention was not effective in increasing children’s overall daily minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, when adapted for implementation at scale. However, the intervention did improve daily minutes of vigorous physical activity and school day moderate to vigorous physical activity, lesson quality, and school physical activity practices. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615000437561.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0749-3797
    E-ISSN: 1873-2607
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(4), p.e35591
    Description: The genetic architecture of ischemic stroke is complex and is likely to include rare or low frequency variants with high penetrance and large effect sizes. Such variants are likely to provide important insights into disease pathogenesis compared to common variants with small effect sizes. Because a significant portion of human functional variation may derive from the protein-coding portion of genes we undertook a pilot study to identify variation across the human exome (i.e., the coding exons across the entire human genome) in 10 ischemic stroke cases. Our efforts focused on evaluating the feasibility and identifying the difficulties in this type of research as it applies to ischemic stroke. The cases included 8 African-Americans and 2 Caucasians selected on the basis of similar stroke subtypes and by implementing a case selection algorithm that emphasized the genetic contribution of stroke risk. Following construction of paired-end sequencing libraries, all predicted human exons in each sample were captured and sequenced. Sequencing generated an average of 25.5 million read pairs (75 bp×2) and 3.8 Gbp per sample. After passing quality filters, screening the exomes against dbSNP demonstrated an average of 2839 novel SNPs among African-Americans and 1105 among Caucasians. In an aggregate analysis, 48 genes were identified to have at least one rare variant across all stroke cases. One gene, CSN3 , identified by screening our prior GWAS results in conjunction with our exome results, was found to contain an interesting coding polymorphism as well as containing excess rare variation as compared with the other genes evaluated. In conclusion, while rare coding variants may predispose to the risk of ischemic stroke, this fact has yet to be definitively proven. Our study demonstrates the complexities of such research and highlights that while exome data can be obtained, the optimal analytical methods have yet to be determined.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Computer Science ; Medicine ; Genetics And Genomics ; Public Health And Epidemiology ; Computational Biology ; Computer Science ; Neurological Disorders
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, 10 April 2016, Vol.50(8), p.488
    Description: Adolescence is a recognised period of physical activity decline, particularly among low-income communities. We report the 12-month (midpoint) effects of a 2-year multicomponent physical activity intervention implemented in disadvantaged secondary schools.
    Keywords: Physical Activity ; Adolescent ; School ; Research
    ISSN: 0306-3674
    ISSN: 03063674
    E-ISSN: 1473-0480
    E-ISSN: 14730480
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: BMC Public Health, 01 January 2013, Vol.13(1), p.57
    Description: Abstract Background Adolescence is an established period of physical activity decline. Multi-component school-based interventions have the potential to slow the decline in adolescents’ physical activity; however, few interventions have been conducted in schools located in low-income or disadvantaged communities. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention in reducing the decline in physical activity among students attending secondary schools located in disadvantaged communities. Methods/Design The cluster randomised trial will be conducted with 10 secondary schools located in selected regions of New South Wales, Australia. The schools will be selected from areas that have a level of socio-economic status that is below the state average. Five schools will be allocated to receive an intervention based on the Health Promoting Schools framework, and will be supported by a part-time physical activity consultant placed in intervention schools who will implement a range of intervention adoption strategies. Study measures will be taken at baseline when students are in Year 7 (12–13 years) and again after 12- and 24-months. The primary outcome, minutes of moderate- to-vigorous- intensity physical activity per day and percentage of time in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), will be objectively assessed using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3x+). Group allocation and intervention delivery will commence after baseline data collection. The intervention will continue during school terms through to 24-month follow-up. Discussion The study will provide evidence regarding the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based intervention that includes an in-school physical activity consultant targeting the physical activity levels of adolescents in disadvantaged Australian secondary schools. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000382875.
    Keywords: Physical Activity ; Adolescents ; School ; Randomized Controlled Trial ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1471-2458
    E-ISSN: 1471-2458
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  • 9
    In: PLoS ONE, 2016, Vol.11(7)
    Description: This work aimed to develop an in vivo approach for measuring the duration of human bioaerosol infectivity. To achieve this, techniques designed to target short-term and long-term bioaerosol aging, were combined in a tandem system and optimized for the collection of human respiratory bioaerosols, without contamination. To demonstrate the technique, cough aerosols were sampled from two persons with cystic fibrosis and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Measurements and cultures from aerosol ages of 10, 20, 40, 900 and 2700 seconds were used to determine the optimum droplet nucleus size for pathogen transport and the airborne bacterial biological decay. The droplet nuclei containing the greatest number of colony forming bacteria per unit volume of airborne sputum were between 1.5 and 2.6 μm. Larger nuclei of 3.9 μm, were more likely to produce a colony when impacted onto growth media, because the greater volume of sputum comprising the larger droplet nuclei, compensated for lower concentrations of bacteria within the sputum of larger nuclei. Although more likely to produce a colony, the larger droplet nuclei were small in number, and the greatest numbers of colonies were instead produced by nuclei from 1.5 to 5.7 μm. Very few colonies were produced by smaller droplet nuclei, despite their very large numbers. The concentration of viable bacteria within the dried sputum comprising the droplet nuclei exhibited an orderly dual decay over time with two distinct half-lives. Nuclei exhibiting a rapid biological decay process with a 10 second half-life were quickly exhausted, leaving only a subset characterized by a half-life of greater than 10 minutes. This finding implied that a subset of bacteria present in the aerosol was resistant to rapid biological decay and remained viable in room air long enough to represent an airborne infection risk.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Physical Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Physical Sciences ; Physical Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Physical Sciences ; Physical Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, August 2016, Vol.51(2), pp.195-205
    Description: Few interventions have been successful in reducing the physical activity decline typically observed among adolescents. The aim of this paper is to report the 24-month effectiveness of a multicomponent school-based intervention (Physical Activity 4 Everyone) in reducing the decline in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among secondary school students in disadvantaged areas of New South Wales, Australia. A cluster RCT was conducted in five intervention and five control schools with follow-up measures taken at 24 months post-randomization. The trial was undertaken within secondary schools located in disadvantaged communities in New South Wales, Australia. A multicomponent school-based intervention based on the Health Promoting Schools Framework was implemented. The intervention consisted of seven physical activity promotion strategies that targeted the curriculum (teaching strategies to increase physical activity in physical education lessons, student physical activity plans, and modification of school sport program); school environment (recess/lunchtime activities, school physical activity policy); parents (parent newsletters); and community (community physical activity provider promotion). Six additional strategies supported school implementation of the physical activity intervention strategies. Minutes per day spent in MVPA, objectively measured by accelerometer. Participants (N=1,150, 49% male) were a cohort of students aged 12 years (Grade 7) at baseline (March–June 2012) and 14 years (Grade 9) at follow-up (March–July 2014). At 24-month follow-up, there were significant effects in favor of the intervention group for daily minutes of MVPA. The adjusted mean difference in change in daily MVPA between groups was 7.0 minutes (95% CI=2.7, 11.4, 〈0.002) (analysis conducted December 2014–February 2015). Sensitivity analyses based on multiple imputation were consistent with the main analysis (6.0 minutes, 95% CI=0.6, 11.3, 〈0.031). The intervention was effective in increasing adolescents’ minutes of MVPA, suggesting that implementation of the intervention by disadvantaged schools has the potential to slow the decline in physical activity. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000382875.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0749-3797
    E-ISSN: 1873-2607
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