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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Critical care (London, England), 2011, Vol.15(1), pp.R20
    Description: Deregulated apoptosis and overshooting neutrophil functions contribute to immune and organ dysfunction in sepsis and multiple organ failure (MOF). In the present study, we determined the role of soluble Fas (sFas) in the regulation of posttraumatic neutrophil extrinsic apoptosis and the development of sepsis. Forty-seven major trauma patients, 18 with and 29 without sepsis development during the first 10 days after trauma, were enrolled in this prospective study. Seventeen healthy volunteers served as controls. Blood samples from severely injured patients were analyzed at day 1, day 5 and day 9 after major trauma. sFas levels, plasma levels of neutrophil elastase (PMNE) and levels of interleukin (IL)-6 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and related to patients' Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODS). Neutrophil apoptosis was determined by propidium iodide staining of fragmented DNA and flow cytometry. sFas-mediated effects on neutrophil apoptosis were investigated in cells cultured with agonistic anti-Fas antibodies in the presence of recombinant sFas, sFas-depleted serum or untreated serum from septic patients. Serum levels of sFas in patients who later developed sepsis were significantly increased at day 5 (P 〈 0.01) and day 9 (P 〈 0.05) after trauma compared with patients with uneventful recovery. Apoptosis of patient neutrophils was significantly decreased during the observation period compared with control cells. Moreover, Fas-mediated apoptosis of control neutrophils was efficiently inhibited by recombinant sFas and serum from septic patients. Depletion of sFas from septic patient sera diminished the antiapoptotic effects. In septic patients, sFas levels were positively correlated with SOFA at day 1 (r = 0.7, P 〈 0.001), day 5 (r = 0.62, P 〈 0.01) and day 9 (r = 0.58, P 〈 0.01) and with PMNE and leukocyte counts (r = 0.49, P 〈 0.05 for both) as well as MODS at day 5 (r = 0.56, P 〈 0.01) after trauma. Increased sFas in patients with sepsis development impairs neutrophil extrinsic apoptosis and shows a positive correlation with the organ dysfunction scores and PMNE. Therefore, sFas might be a therapeutic target to prevent posttrauma hyperinflammation and sepsis.
    Keywords: Apoptosis -- Physiology ; Fas Ligand Protein -- Blood ; Neutrophils -- Physiology ; Sepsis -- Etiology ; Wounds and Injuries -- Blood
    ISSN: 13648535
    E-ISSN: 1466-609X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Turkish neurosurgery, 2017, Vol.27(5), pp.837-841
    Description: There are a number of different surgical approaches in middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm surgery. Evolution from the classical pterional approach towards smaller modified approaches took place over the years. In the present report, we describe a new modified approach in the treatment of MCA aneurysms, which is almost exclusively subfrontal. A modified approach was used on three patients with MCA bifurcation aneurysms. Craniotomy was subfrontal and suprapterional with minimal dissection of the temporal muscle and no drilling of the pterion. In all three cases, after establishing proximal control and dissecting the M1 carefully, retraction of the frontal lobe elevated the sylvian fissure and allowed opening of the fissure. The aneurysm could be identified easily and clips were applied. There was no infection and complete aneurysm clipping was achieved in all 3 patients. The described minimal craniotomy to the MCA through a subfrontal-suprapterional approach allows dissection of peripheral MCA bifurcation aneurysms without any problems.
    Keywords: Craniotomy -- Methods ; Intracranial Aneurysm -- Surgery ; Microsurgery -- Methods ; Temporal Muscle -- Surgery
    ISSN: 1019-5149
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Head & neck oncology, 05 July 2010, Vol.2, pp.16
    Description: The skull base surgery is one of the most demanding surgeries. There are different structures that can be injured easily, by operating in the skull base. It is very important for the neurosurgeon to choose the right approach in order to reach the lesion without harming the other intact structures. Due to the pioneering work of Cushing, Hirsch, Yasargil, Krause, Dandy and other dedicated neurosurgeons, it is possible to address the tumor and other lesions in the anterior, the mid-line and the posterior cranial base. With the transsphenoidal, the frontolateral, the pterional and the lateral suboccipital approach nearly every region of the skull base is exposable.In the current state many different skull base approaches are described for various neurosurgical diseases during the last 20 years. The selection of an approach may differ from country to country, e.g., in the United States orbitozygomaticotomy for special lesions of the anterior skull base or petrosectomy for clivus meningiomas, are found more frequently than in Europe.The reason for writing the review was the question: Are there keyhole approaches with which someone can deal with a vast variety of lesions in the neurosurgical field?In my opinion the different surgical approaches mentioned above cover almost 95% of all skull base tumors and lesions. In the following text these approaches will be described.These approaches are:1) pterional approach2) frontolateral approach3) transsphenoidal approach4) suboccipital lateral approachThese approaches can be extended and combined with each other. In the following we want to enhance this philosophy.
    Keywords: Neurosurgical Procedures -- Methods ; Skull Base -- Surgery
    E-ISSN: 1758-3284
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Surgery, September 2016, Vol.33, pp.72-77
    Description: Based upon our excellent previous experience with 151 adult patients and 39 children whom had the peritoneal catheter in ventriculoperitoneal shunting placed laparoscopically, we continued following this technique as a first-line-procedure in ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Now we analyzed our experience with additional 405 cases for a better comprehension of the complications, advantages and disadvantages of this procedure on this high number of patients. A strict interdisciplinary setting with the maximum of medical intraoperative competence was our goal and therefore better results. N = 405 patients with intraperitoneal shunt insertion from the years 2006–2013 (Follow-up period ranges from 2 to 9 years with a 5,9-year mean follow-up period) were retrospectively analyzed with a special focus on the possible peritoneal catheter complications after laparoscopical shunt insertion. In our department all the peritoneal catheters in ventriculoperitoneal shunting are inserted laparoscopically, when there is no contraindication for this technique. We had 0% peritoneal catheter misplacement rate with help of the laparoscopic technique. In two cases (0.49%) injury of the small bowel could be repaired immediately with no further action required. In two cases umbilical hernias have been accidently discovered and the repair of the hernias took place in the same surgical session. As this technique helps us to control the shunt position intraperitoneally by direct laparoscopic vision, the patients spared an extra radiation exposure, to control the position of the peritoneal catheter. A diagnostic laparoscopy is also possible if needed. The time of the operation is shortened in comparison with the needed time, which is mentioned in literature, for the open laparotomy and of course the needed anesthesia and its possible risks and complications decreased. No revision surgeries were required because of any misplacement of the peritoneal catheter, no additional technique related risks compared to the open surgical technique, no abdominal x-rays were needed, the operation time is shortened and the dose of anesthesia needed is decreased and of course its possible side effects' rate is also decreased. Another great benefit of this technique is the possibility of accidental diagnosis of intra-abdominal pathologies. Also, if a surgical treatment of this accidentally discovered intra-abdominal pathologies is needed, it can take place in the same surgical session. No prolonged surgery time as the laparoscopic technique is much easier, controllable and fast.
    Keywords: Hydrocephalus ; Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt ; Laparoscopy ; Peritoneal Catheter ; Complications
    ISSN: 1743-9191
    E-ISSN: 1743-9159
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Acta Neurochirurgica, 2013, Vol.155(2), pp.319-320
    Description: Byline: Athanasios K. Petridis (1), Homajoun Maslehaty (1), Thomas Eichenhofer (1), Sebastian Gillner (1), Martin Scholz (1) Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Duisburg, Academic Teaching Hospital of University Essen-Duisburg, Zu den Rehwiesen 9--11, 47055, Duisburg, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 05/12/2012 Received Date: 09/10/2012 Accepted Date: 05/12/2012 Online Date: 22/12/2012
    Keywords: Polymethyl Methacrylate ; Pulmonary Embolism ; Orthopedic Surgery;
    ISSN: 0001-6268
    E-ISSN: 0942-0940
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, April 2015, Vol.131, pp.64-68
    Description: There is a number of different methods to localize a glioma intraoperatively. Neuronavigation, intraoperative MRI, 5-aminolevulinic acid, as well as intraoperative sonography. Every method has its advantages and disadvantages. Low grade gliomas do not show a specific signal with 5-aminolevulinic acid and are difficult to distinguish macroscopically from normal tissue. In the present study we stress out the importance of intraoperative diagnostic ultrasound for localization of low grade gliomas. We retrospectively evaluated the charts and MRIs of 34 patients with low grade gliomas operated in our department from 2011 until December 2014. The efficacy of ultrasound as an intraoperative navigational tool was assessed. In 15 patients ultrasound was used and in 19 not. Only histologically proven low grades gliomas (astrocytomas grade II) were evaluated. In none of the patients where ultrasound (combined with neuronavigation) was used ( = 15) to find the tumors, the target was missed, whereas the exclusive use of neuronavigation missed the target in 5 of 19 cases of small subcortical low grade gliomas. Intraoperative ultrasound is an excellent tool in localizing low grade gliomas intraoperatively. It is an inexpensive, real time neuronavigational tool, which overcomes brain shift. Even when identifying the tumors with ultrasound is very reliable, the extend of resection and the decision to remove any residual tumor with the help of ultrasound is at the moment unreliable.
    Keywords: Intraoperative Sonography ; Low Grade Glioma ; Neuronavigation ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0303-8467
    E-ISSN: 1872-6968
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Acta neurochirurgica, June 2013, Vol.155(6), pp.1095-100; discussion 1100
    Description: International guidelines for the management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) recommend observation in aneurysms 〈10 mm due to the estimated low risk of rupture. The aim of our study was analyse the data of recently treated patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms with the special focus on size and configuration in view of the frequency scale in a daily routine setting. We reviewed the data of all patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) during the last 24 months at our institution. Configuration and size of the aneurysms were measured. Clinical data were collected using the following classifications for analysis: Hunt and Hess (H&H), modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Fisher classification. Data of 135 patients with aneurysmal SAH (98 women, 37 men; ratio 2.6:1) were analysed. Analysis showed that 19 aneurysms (14 %) were 〉10 mm (mean size, 19.2 mm) and 116 aneurysms (85.9 %) 10 mm), 18 as multi-lobar (n = 16 10 mm) and 5 as fusiform (n = 4 10 mm). Since the results of our study showed that the majority of the aneurysms are 〈10 mm (mean, 6.2 mm), it is justified to challenge the recommendations of the international guidelines in a daily routine setting. We believe that the published data are not convincing enough to play a guidance role in daily routine. Due to improving surgical and endovascular techniques with satisfying results and the high number of ruptured small aneurysms, we believe a change in attitude in management of small-sized aneurysms is needed. Further diagnostic models are needed to determine the risk of rupture of intracranial aneurysms properly to obtain adequate treatment for UIAs.
    Keywords: Aneurysm, Ruptured -- Surgery ; Intracranial Aneurysm -- Surgery ; Practice Guidelines As Topic -- Standards ; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage -- Surgery
    ISSN: 00016268
    E-ISSN: 0942-0940
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  • 8
    In: Neurology India, 2007, Vol.55(4), p.355-362
    Description: Background: Ventriculostomy is a common neuroendoscopic operation but one with disastrous complications in rare cases. Aims: The aim of this study was to perform an intravital analysis of the configuration at the floor of the third ventricle as a possible basis for selection of the ventriculostomy site. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 32 patients who underwent ventriculostomy for the treatment of hydrocephalus. Perforation of the floor of the third ventricle was carried out on an individual basis following evaluation of the anatomic situation. Video material and magnetic resonance images (MRI) were analyzed. Results: A classification system including three major groups was developed using the inner distance of the mamillary bodies as the key criterion. It was defined as narrow for values between 0 and 1 mm (observed range: 0-0.5 mm), medium for values between 1.1 and 3.4 mm (range 1.1-3.4 mm) and large for values greater than 3.4 mm (range: 3.8-6.9 mm). Statistical analysis of MR and video measurements revealed a good correlation. The ventriculostomy site was rostral of the mamillary bodies in 23 of the patients (n=27) and sligthly occipital in four. The ventriculostomy site was located more to the left in 22 patients and more to the right in five. Conclusion: As a conclusion the ventriculostomy site has to be chosen in each case following a careful review of all available information. A classification system for the anatomical variations as well as the exact size and site of ventriculostomy should be introduced.
    Keywords: Hydrocephalus; neuroendoscopy; third ventricle; ventriculostomy
    ISSN: 0028-3886
    E-ISSN: 1998-4022
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Acta Neuropathologica, 2009, Vol.117(5), pp.591-593
    Description: Byline: Martin Scholz (1), Alexander Hoischen (2), Bernhard Radlwimmer (3), Ruthild G. Weber (2), Albrecht Harders (1), Guido Reifenberger (4), Markus J. Riemenschneider (4) Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Neurosurgery, Ruhr-University, Knappschaftskrankenhaus, Bochum, Germany (2) Department of Human Genetics, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University, Bonn, Germany (3) Division of Molecular Genetics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany (4) Department of Neuropathology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Moorenstr. 5, 40225, Duesseldorf, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 27/02/2009 Received Date: 09/02/2009 Accepted Date: 27/02/2009 Online Date: 06/03/2009 Article note: This work was supported by the Sander Stiftung (Grant no. 2008.014.1 to RGW).
    Keywords: Tumors ; Molecular Genetics ; Cancer Research;
    ISSN: 0001-6322
    E-ISSN: 1432-0533
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Immunobiology, 2011, Vol.216(3), pp.334-342
    Description: Posttrauma apoptosis resistance of neutrophils (PMN) is related to overshooting immune responses, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF). Recently, we have shown that the apoptosis resistance in circulating PMN from severely injured patients which is known to be mediated by high serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines can be overcome by the activation of Fas death receptor. Here, we aimed to study whether stimulation of surface Fas leads to the inactivation of hyperactivated PMN from critically ill patients with SIRS. PMN from 23 multiple trauma patients (mean injury severity score (ISS) 34 ± 1.9) were isolated at day 1 after admission to the trauma center. PMN from 17 volunteer blood donors served as controls. Neutrophil activity has been determined after short (1 h) and long-term (4 h) stimulation of freshly isolated PMN with immobilized agonistic anti-Fas antibodies. We found neutrophil chemotactic migration in response to IL-8, phagocytosis and oxidative burst to be significantly inhibited in control cells already after short-term (1 h) Fas stimulation. In contrast, inactivation of trauma PMN by agonistic anti-Fas antibodies was found to be efficient only after long-term (4 h) incubation of cells with agonistic antibodies. Thus, in trauma PMN down-regulation of neutrophil activity seems to be delayed when compared to cells isolated from healthy controls, suggesting impaired susceptibility for Fas stimulation in these cells. Interestingly, whereas Fas-mediated inhibition of phagocytosis and oxidative burst could be prevented by the broad range caspase inhibitor t-butoxycarbonyl-aspartyl(O-methyl)-fluoromethyl ketone (BocD-fmk), the chemotactic activity in response to IL-8 was unaffected. In conclusion, we demonstrate that stimulation of neutrophil Fas does not only initiate apoptosis but also induces inhibition of neutrophil functions, partially by non-apoptotic signaling.
    Keywords: Caspases ; Chemotaxis ; Neutrophils ; Oxidative Burst ; Phagocytosis ; Sirs ; Biology
    ISSN: 0171-2985
    E-ISSN: 1878-3279
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