Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

and
and

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Male
Type of Medium
Language
Year
Topic
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 13 December 2016, Vol.113(50), pp.14414-14419
    Description: The number of joints and muscles in a human arm is more than what is required for reaching to a desired point in 3D space. Although previous studies have emphasized how such redundancy and the associated flexibility may play an important role in path planning, control of noise, and optimization of motion, whether and how redundancy might promote motor learning has not been investigated. In this work, we quantify redundancy space and investigate its significance and effect on motor learning. We propose that a larger redundancy space leads to faster learning across subjects. We observed this pattern in subjects learning novel kinematics (visuomotor adaptation) and dynamics (force-field adaptation). Interestingly, we also observed differences in the redundancy space between the dominant hand and nondominant hand that explained differences in the learning of dynamics. Taken together, these results provide support for the hypothesis that redundancy aids in motor learning and that the redundant component of motor variability is not noise.
    Keywords: Minimum-Intervention Principle ; Motor Control ; Motor Noise ; Reaching ; Supervised Learning ; Learning -- Physiology ; Motor Skills -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Social Science & Medicine, September 2011, Vol.73(6), pp.889-896
    Description: This article investigates the social and moral dimensions of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, asking what ADHD means in UK children’s everyday lives, and what children do with this diagnosis. Drawing on interviews with over 150 children, the analysis examines the influence of a UK state school-based culture of aggression on the form and intensity of diagnosed children’s difficulties with behavioral self-control. Diagnosed children’s mobilization of ADHD behaviors and their exploitation of the diagnosis shows how children’s active moral agency can support and compromise cognitive, behavioral and social resilience. The findings support a proposal for a complex sociological model of ADHD diagnosis and demonstrate the relevance of this model for national policy initiatives related to mental health and wellbeing in children. ► In the UK, ADHD is understood to be a disorder of anger and aggression. ► A UK state school-based culture of aggression intensifies children’s difficulty controlling their behavior. ► Children use ADHD diagnosis and symptomatic behaviors to social and moral ends. ► Children rely on friendships to help manage their difficulty with self-control. ► Mental health policy should address the social and moral, as well as the cognitive aspects of ADHD diagnosis.
    Keywords: United Kingdom ; Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ; ADHD ; Diagnosis ; Stigma ; Aggression ; Bullying ; Mental Capital ; Children ; Medicine ; Social Sciences (General) ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0277-9536
    E-ISSN: 1873-5347
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    In: Child Development, March 2014, Vol.85(2), pp.755-766
    Description: The interconnectedness of bilingual memory remains a topic of great debate. Semantic priming provides a powerful methodological tool with which to investigate this issue in early bilingual toddlers. Semantic priming effects were investigated in 21 bilingual toddlers (2.5 years) within and across each of their languages. Results revealed the first evidence of cross‐language and within‐language semantic priming in bilingual toddlers. However, priming effects were only observed when the prime was presented in the dominant language and were comparable in magnitude within and across languages. Findings point to high interconnectivity across languages; however, there appear to be strong influences of language dominance on semantic facilitation. Findings serve to inform and refine developmental models of bilingual memory.
    Keywords: Toddlers -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 0009-3920
    E-ISSN: 1467-8624
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Article
    Article
    BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and Institute of Medical Ethics
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Medical Ethics, 28 June 2013, Vol.39(6), p.359
    Description: In this article, I examine children's reported experiences with stimulant drug treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in light of bioethical arguments about the potential threats of psychotropic drugs to authenticity and moral agency. Drawing on a study that involved over 150 families in the USA and the UK, I show that children are able to report threats to authenticity, but that the majority of children are not concerned with such threats. On balance, children report that stimulants improve their capacity for moral agency, and they associate this capacity with an ability to meet normative expectations. I argue that although under certain conditions stimulant drug treatment may increase the risk of a threat to authenticity, there are ways to minimise this risk and to maximise the benefits of stimulant drug treatment. Medical professionals in particular should help children to flourish with stimulant drug treatments, in good and in bad conditions.
    Keywords: Children ; Neuroethics ; Psychiatry ; Psychopharmacology ; Open Access ; Editor'S Choice
    ISSN: 0306-6800
    ISSN: 03066800
    E-ISSN: 1473-4257
    E-ISSN: 14734257
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    In: Child Development, July 2018, Vol.89(4), pp.e397-e413
    Description: Prior research suggests that bilingualism may endow infants with greater phonological flexibility. This study investigated whether this flexibility facilitates word learning in additional languages ( = 96). Experiment 1 compared 18‐ to 20‐month‐old monolingual (English) and bilingual (English/Mandarin) infants on their ability to learn words distinguished by click consonants from a Southern African language, Ndebele. English–Mandarin bilingual infants were sensitive to Ndebele click contrasts, but monolingual English infants were not. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we investigated whether enhanced bilingual sensitivity extended to analogous nonlinguistic labels: hand claps and finger snaps. Although discriminated by infants, neither group distinguished words labeled by hand claps and finger snaps. Results suggest that bilingual infants' sustained openness to non native contrast may facilitate the uptake of words in distant languages.
    Keywords: Bilingualism ; Infants;
    ISSN: 0009-3920
    E-ISSN: 1467-8624
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, 07 November 2015, Vol.386(10006), pp.1800-1802
    Description: The cluster randomisation design of the trial,5 in which clinical practices were randomised to an intervention, allowed for large-scale evaluation of comparative effectiveness of treatment strategies in a real-world community practice, as opposed to previous explanatory trials in highly selected patients seen in tertiary centres.3,4 It is encouraging to see that an algorithm-based approach of early aggressive therapy, even in established, treatment-exposed patients with Crohn's disease, can modify the natural history of disease with decrease in rates of surgery and Crohn's-related serious complications.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    E-ISSN: 1474-547X
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Cognition, August 2012, Vol.124(2), pp.128-142
    Description: ► We investigated sensitivity to pitch and tone variation in bilingual infants. ► Like monolinguals, younger infants defined words by pitch and tone characteristics. ► By 11 months, infants demonstrated language-specific sensitivities. ► Sensitivity to tone contrasts in word recognition emerges by 11 months. Infants’ abilities to discriminate native and non-native phonemes have been extensively investigated in monolingual learners, demonstrating a transition from language-general to language-specific sensitivities over the first year after birth. However, these studies have mostly been limited to the study of vowels and consonants in monolingual learners. There is relatively little research on other types of phonetic segments, such as lexical tone, even though tone languages are very well represented across languages of the world. The goal of the present study is to investigate how Mandarin Chinese–English bilingual learners contend with non-phonemic pitch variation in English spoken word recognition. This is contrasted with their treatment of phonemic changes in lexical tone in Mandarin spoken word recognition. The experimental design was cross-sectional and three age-groups were sampled (7.5 months, 9 months and 11 months). Results demonstrated limited generalization abilities at 7.5 months, where infants only recognized words in English when matched in pitch and words in Mandarin that were matched in tone. At 9 months, infants recognized words in Mandarin Chinese that matched in tone, but also falsely recognized words that contrasted in tone. At this age, infants also recognized English words whether they were matched or mismatched in pitch. By 11 months, infants correctly recognized pitch-matched and – mismatched words in English but only recognized tonal matches in Mandarin Chinese.
    Keywords: Bilingualism ; Infant Tone Perception ; Infant Word Recognition ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0010-0277
    E-ISSN: 18737838
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2012, Vol.27(12), pp.1721-1721
    Description: An elderly male with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and no prior history of pedal edema presented with painful, confluent, macular erythema on bilateral lower extremities with grade III lower extremity edema for 1 week following two cycles of gemcitabine. He was afebrile with local warmth and tenderness and a total leukocyte count of 5000 cells/mm3. An initial diagnosis of cellulitis was made after a negative Doppler ultrasound for DVT was completed. The patient was started on cefazolin. However, failure of the antibiotic trial and absent systemic manifestations led to the presumptive diagnosis of gemcitabine associated pseudocellulitis. The symptoms promptly resolved with withdrawal of the offending agent (Fig. 1).
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0884-8734
    E-ISSN: 1525-1497
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    In: European Journal of Neuroscience, December 2013, Vol.38(11), pp.3644-3649
    Description: Local field potentials (s) recorded from deep brain stimulation electrodes implanted in the globus pallidus internus (i) of patients with hyperkinetic movement disorders (dystonia and Tourette's syndrome) have shown desynchronized activity at 8–20 Hz and synchronized activity at 30–90 Hz during voluntary movements. However, the impact of the speed of the motor task on these frequency shifts is still unclear. In the current study, we recorded s bilaterally from the i in seven patients with hyperkinetic movement disorders during normal/slow and fast horizontal line drawing movements as well as during rest. In comparison with rest, the low beta band showed a significant decrease in power during the motor tasks. Low beta power was more suppressed with increasing speed of the movement on the contralateral side. In contrast, a significant increase in power was induced by movements in the high beta and gamma bands on the contralateral side. When comparing slow and fast movements, the power of the low gamma frequency band was significantly elevated on the contralateral side with fast movements. In conclusion, an increase in movement speed changes the power of i oscillations by means of a reduction of the activity in the low beta band and an elevation of activity in the gamma band. The current study yields new insights into the physiological mechanism of i during the execution of the motor task at low and high speed. This study showed the nature of GPi oscillations during motor tasks, which were executed with the same movement amplitude but different speeds. Our results show a suppression of GPi low beta rhythm and elevation of gamma frequency rhythms during motor tasks in the contralateral side. The changes in these frequency bands were more prominent when speed of the task was increased. We conclude that GPi encodes the information of kinematic/scaling of movements.
    Keywords: Deep Brain Stimulation ; Dystonia ; Frequency Bands ; Local Field Potentials ; Movements
    ISSN: 0953-816X
    E-ISSN: 1460-9568
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 14 August 2015, Vol.349(6249), pp.747-50
    Description: The evolution of sexual reproduction is often explained by Red Queen dynamics: Organisms must continually evolve to maintain fitness relative to interacting organisms, such as parasites. Recombination accompanies sexual reproduction and helps diversify an organism's offspring, so that parasites cannot exploit static host genotypes. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster plastically increases the production of recombinant offspring after infection. The response is consistent across genetic backgrounds, developmental stages, and parasite types but is not induced after sterile wounding. Furthermore, the response appears to be driven by transmission distortion rather than increased recombination. Our study extends the Red Queen model to include the increased production of recombinant offspring and uncovers a remarkable ability of hosts to actively distort their recombination fraction in rapid response to environmental cues.
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Genetic Fitness ; Recombination, Genetic ; Drosophila Melanogaster -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. Further information can be found on the KOBV privacy pages