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  • Doerr, Hans  (6)
  • Cinatl, J.
  • Medicine
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Phytomedicine, 2011, Vol.18(5), pp.384-386
    Description: The extract EPs 7630 is an approved drug for the treatment of acute bronchitis in Germany. The postulated mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of EPs 7630 in bronchitis patients include immunomodulatory and cytoprotective effects, inhibition of interaction between bacteria and host cells, and increase of cilliary beat frequency on respiratory cells. Here, we investigated the influence of EPs 7630 on replication of a panel of respiratory viruses. Determination of virus-induced cytopathogenic effects and virus titres revealed that EPs 7630 at concentrations up to 100 μg/ml interfered with replication of seasonal influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2), respiratory syncytial virus, human coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, and coxsackie virus but did not affect replication of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1), adenovirus, or rhinovirus. Therefore, antiviral effects may contribute to the beneficial effects exerted by EPs 7630 in acute bronchitis patients.
    Keywords: Pelargonium Sidoides ; Respiratory Viruses ; Acute Bronchitis ; Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0944-7113
    E-ISSN: 1618-095X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e36506
    Description: Oncolytic influenza A viruses with deleted NS1 gene (delNS1) replicate selectively in tumour cells with defective interferon response and/or activated Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling pathway. To develop a delNS1 virus with specific immunostimulatory properties, we used an optimised technology to insert the interleukin-15 (IL-15) coding sequence into the viral NS gene segment (delNS1-IL-15). DelNS1 and delNS1-IL-15 exerted similar oncolytic effects. Both viruses replicated and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis in interferon-defective melanoma cells. Virus replication was required for their oncolytic activity. Cisplatin enhanced the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses. The cytotoxic drug increased delNS1 replication and delNS1-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interference with MEK/ERK signalling by RNAi-mediated depletion or the MEK inhibitor U0126 did not affect the oncolytic effects of the delNS1 viruses. In oncolysis sensitive melanoma cells, delNS1-IL-15 (but not delNS1) infection resulted in the production of IL-15 levels ranging from 70 to 1140 pg/mL in the cell culture supernatants. The supernatants of delNS1-IL-15-infected (but not of delNS1-infected) melanoma cells induced primary human natural killer cell-mediated lysis of non-infected tumour cells. In conclusion, we constructed a novel oncolytic influenza virus that combines the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses with immunostimulatory properties through production of functional IL-15. Moreover, we showed that the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses can be enhanced in combination with cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Molecular Biology ; Oncology ; Dermatology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2007, Vol. 60(5), pp.981-986
    Description: OBJECTIVES: West Nile virus (WNV) infection causes severe meningitis and encephalitis in a subset of patients. WNV-induced apoptosis has been suggested to contribute to WNV pathogenesis. Tetracyclines exert antiviral effects against HIV and inhibit apoptosis in different models of neuronal disease. Here, the effects of the tetracyclines minocycline, demeclocycline and chlortetracycline were observed on WNV replication and WNV-induced apoptosis in different human CNS-derived cell types (primary human brain neurons, primary human retinal pigment epithelial cells and T98G human glioma cell line). METHODS: WNV replication was studied by cytopathic effects and virus yield reduction assay. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was investigated by immunostaining for activated caspase 3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Expression and phosphorylation of cellular proteins were examined by western blot. RESULTS: Minocycline exerted the strongest anti-WNV activity. Non-toxic minocycline concentrations that can be achieved in human tissues significantly reduced WNV titres in all cell types tested. Minocycline inhibited WNV-induced apoptosis and suppressed virus-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and its target c-jun. The JNK inhibitor L-JNKi exerted similar effects to minocycline. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that minocycline-induced inhibition of JNK activation contributes to minocycline-induced inhibition of WNV replication and WNV-induced apoptosis. Minocycline is a clinically available, inexpensive and generally very well-tolerated drug. It could be readily evaluated for the treatment of humans with serious WNV infection.
    Keywords: Antiviral Therapy ; Brain ; Central Nervous System ; Antibiotic ; Encephalitis
    ISSN: 0305-7453
    E-ISSN: 1460-2091
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  • 4
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2008, Vol. 46(6), p.2122
    Description: Here we describe for the first time the productive in vitro infection of human retinal pigment epithelial cells by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), resulting in a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) that is characterized by enlarged cells with increased granularity. Depending on the CPE dissemination, high titers of up to 1.6 x 10 super(6) PFU of cell-free and cryostable VZV/ml can be recovered.
    Keywords: Retinal Pigment Epithelium ; Retina ; Replication ; Pigments ; Infection ; Varicella-Zoster Virus ; Replication;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cancer, 01 September 2009, Vol.8(1), p.80
    Description: Abstract Background Chemoresistance acquisition may influence cancer cell biology. Here, bioinformatics analysis of gene expression data was used to identify chemoresistance-associated changes in neuroblastoma biology. Results Bioinformatics analysis of gene expression data revealed that expression of angiogenesis-associated genes significantly differs between chemosensitive and chemoresistant neuroblastoma cells. A subsequent systematic analysis of a panel of 14 chemosensitive and chemoresistant neuroblastoma cell lines in vitro and in animal experiments indicated a consistent shift to a more pro-angiogenic phenotype in chemoresistant neuroblastoma cells. The molecular mechanims underlying increased pro-angiogenic activity of neuroblastoma cells are individual and differ between the investigated chemoresistant cell lines. Treatment of animals carrying doxorubicin-resistant neuroblastoma xenografts with doxorubicin, a cytotoxic drug known to exert anti-angiogenic activity, resulted in decreased tumour vessel formation and growth indicating chemoresistance-associated enhanced pro-angiogenic activity to be relevant for tumour progression and to represent a potential therapeutic target. Conclusion A bioinformatics approach allowed to identify a relevant chemoresistance-associated shift in neuroblastoma cell biology. The chemoresistance-associated enhanced pro-angiogenic activity observed in neuroblastoma cells is relevant for tumour progression and represents a potential therapeutic target.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 1476-4598
    E-ISSN: 1476-4598
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Letters, 2007, Vol.250(1), pp.107-116
    Description: The efficacy of Onconase on the growth of a panel of chemosensitive and chemoresistant neuroblastoma cell lines was investigated. Onconase decreased cell viability of chemosensitive (IMR-32, UKF-NB-3) and chemoresistant neuroblastoma cell lines characterised by high expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (UKF-NB-3 DOX ) or by high P-gp expression in combination with mutated p53 (UKF-NB-3 VCR , Be(2)-C), in a similar manner. Moreover, Onconase caused cell cycle block in G1 phase and induced caspase-independent cell death. Transmission electron microscope investigations suggested that Onconase-induced autophagy contributes to Onconase-induced cell death. Antitumour activity of Onconase against naïve and drug-resistant neuroblastoma xenografts was confirmed in animals.
    Keywords: Onconase ; Neuroblastoma ; Multi-Drug-Resistance ; P-Glycoprotein ; P53 ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0304-3835
    E-ISSN: 1872-7980
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