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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, August 2014, Vol.28(4), pp.637-653
    Description: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now recognized as the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Its prevalence has increased to more than 30% of adults in developed countries and its incidence is still rising. The majority of patients with NAFLD have simple steatosis but in up to one third of patients, NAFLD progresses to its more severe form nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterized by liver inflammation and injury thereby determining the risk to develop liver fibrosis and cancer. NAFLD is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. However, the liver is not only a passive target but affects the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and its complications. Conversely, pathophysiological changes in other organs such as in the adipose tissue, the intestinal barrier or the immune system have been identified as triggers and promoters of NAFLD progression. This article details the pathogenesis of NAFLD along with the current state of its diagnosis and treatment.
    Keywords: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (Nafld) ; Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (Nash) ; Metabolic Syndrome ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1521-6918
    E-ISSN: 1532-1916
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Urology, April 2016, Vol.195(4), pp.e744-e745
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2016.02.613 Byline: Michael Avallone, Peter Dietrich, Shanta Shepherd, Mona Lalehzari, R. Corey O'Connor, Michael Guralnick Author Affiliation: Milwaukee, WI Article Note: (footnote) Source of Funding: None
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-5347
    E-ISSN: 1527-3792
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Gut, 12 August 2011, Vol.60(8), p.1122
    Description: Splanchnic vasodilation triggers the development of the hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome in portal hypertension. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic co-transmitter of norepinephrine, improves contractility in mesenteric arteries of pre-hepatic portal hypertensive rats. Therefore, we investigated the effect of NPY on mesenteric arterial contractility in vitro and in vivo in cirrhotic ascitic rats, as well as the vasoactive pathways involved.
    Keywords: Portal Hypertension ; Splanchnic Circulation ; Neuropeptide Y ; Rho-Kinase ; No ; Gastrointestinal Blood Flow ; Hepatic Haemodynamics ; Liver Cirrhosis ; Portal Hypertension
    ISSN: 0017-5749
    ISSN: 00175749
    E-ISSN: 1468-3288
    E-ISSN: 14683288
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 27 February 2013, Vol.67(2), p.194
    Description: To analyse the relationship between objectively measured daily walking duration and cardiovascular biomarkers of inflammation, cardiac dysfunction and renal impairment.
    Keywords: Activity ; Elderly ; Walking ; Cardiovascular ; Biomarker ; Epidemiology ; Methodology ; Physical Activity ; Ageing ; Cancer: Breast ; Coronary Heart Disease ; Diabetes ; Epidemiology ; Renal ; Press Releases
    ISSN: 0143-005X
    ISSN: 0143005X
    E-ISSN: 1470-2738
    E-ISSN: 14702738
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(6), p.e39909
    Description: The current vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), BCG, has failed to control TB worldwide and the protective efficacy is moreover limited to 10–15 years. A vaccine that could efficiently boost a BCG-induced immune response and thus prolong protective immunity would therefore have a significant impact on the global TB-burden. ; In the present study we show that the fusion protein HyVac4 (H4), consisting of the mycobacterial antigens Ag85B and TB10.4, given in the adjuvant IC31® or DDA/MPL effectively boosted and prolonged immunity induced by BCG, leading to improved protection against infection with virulent (M.tb). Increased protection correlated with an increased percentage of TB10.4 specific IFNγ/TNFα/IL-2 or TNFα/IL-2 producing CD4 T cells at the site of infection. Moreover, this vaccine strategy did not compromise the use of ESAT-6 as an accurate correlate of disease development/vaccine efficacy. Indeed both CD4 and CD8 ESAT-6 specific T cells showed significant correlation with bacterial levels. ; H4-IC31® can efficiently boost BCG-primed immunity leading to an increased protective anti-M.tb immune response dominated by IFNγ/TNFα/IL-2 or TNFα/IL2 producing CD4 T cells. H4 in the CD4 T cell inducing adjuvant IC31® is presently in clinical trials.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Immunology ; Microbiology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: International journal of clinical and experimental pathology, 2015, Vol.8(6), pp.6607-16
    Description: Activated synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis (RASF) play a critical role in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies suggested that deregulation of microRNAs (miRs) affects the development and progression of RA. Therefore, we aimed to identify de-regulated miRs in RASF and to identify target genes that may contribute to the aggressive phenotype of RASF. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a marked downregulation of miR-188-5p in synovial tissue samples of RA patients as well as in RASF. Exposure to the cytokine interleukine-1β lead to a further downregulation of miR-188-5p expression levels compared to control cells. Re-expression of miR-188-5p in RASF by transient transfection significantly inhibited cell migration. However, miR-188-5p re-expression had no effects on glycosaminoglycan degradation or expression of repellent factors, which have been previously shown to affect the invasive behavior of RASF. In search for target genes of miR-188-5p in RASF we performed gene expression profiling in RASF and found a strong regulatory effect of miR-188-5p on the hyaluronan binding protein KIAA1199 as well as collagens COL1A1 and COL12A1, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR. In silico analysis revealed that KIAA1199 carries a 3'UTR binding site for miR-188-5p. COL1A1 and COL12A1 showed no binding site in the mRNA region, suggesting an indirect regulation of these two genes by miR-188-5p. In summary, our study showed that miR-188-5p is down-regulated in RA in vitro and in vivo, most likely triggered by an inflammatory environment. MiR-188-5p expression is correlated to the activation state of RASF and inhibits migration of these cells. Furthermore, miR-188-5p is directly and indirectly regulating the expression of genes, which may play a role in extracellular matrix formation and destruction in RA. Herewith, this study identified potential novel therapeutic targets to inhibit the development and progression of RA.
    Keywords: Kiaa1199 ; Rheumatoid Arthritis ; Mir-188-5p ; Synovial Fibroblasts
    E-ISSN: 1936-2625
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 2005, Vol.40(11), pp.855-864
    Description: Byline: Matthias C. Angermeyer (1), Peter Breier (2), Sandra Dietrich (1), Denis Kenzine (1), Herbert Matschinger (1) Keywords: public attitudes; treatment; help seeking; transcultural psychiatry; schizophrenia; major depression Abstract: Aim In order to examine whether there is a relationship between the state of mental health care and the acceptance of psychiatry, public attitudes toward psychiatric treatment in three countries where the reform of mental health care has progressed to a different degree will be compared. Methods Population surveys on public beliefs about mental illness and attitudes toward psychiatric treatment were conducted in Bratislava, Slovak Republic, and Novosibirsk, Russia. The data were compared with those from a population survey that had recently been carried out in Germany. In all three surveys, the same sampling procedure and fully structured interview were applied. Results Although respondents from all three countries were equally inclined to seek help from mental health professionals, those from Bratislava and Novosibirsk tended to recommend more frequently to address other medical or nonmedical professionals or members of the lay support system. In all three countries, psychotherapy was the most favored treatment modality, followed by psychotropic medication. Although natural remedies were more frequently recommended in Bratislava and Novosibirsk, meditation/yoga was more popular among the German public. Across all three countries, the endorsement of a brain disease as cause was associated with a greater willingness to seek help from medical professionals (psychiatrist, GP). Respondents who adopted biological causes tended to recommend psychotropic medication more frequently. Conclusion In countries with less developed mental health care systems, there appears to be a tendency of the public toward more frequently relying on helping sources outside the mental health sector and on traditional "alternative" treatment methods. However, it is our prognosis that with the progress of reforms observed, differences may further decrease. Author Affiliation: (1) Dept. of Psychiatry, University of Leipzig, Johannisallee 20, 04317, Leipzig, Germany (2) Dept. of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Ruzinov, Slovak Republic Article History: Registration Date: 06/06/2005 Accepted Date: 25/05/2005 Online Date: 12/10/2005
    Keywords: public attitudes ; treatment ; help seeking ; transcultural psychiatry ; schizophrenia ; major depression
    ISSN: 0933-7954
    E-ISSN: 1433-9285
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(12), p.e29400
    Description: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are involved in the regulation of numerous physiological functions. Therefore, GPCR variants may have conferred important selective advantages during periods of human evolution. Indeed, several genomic loci with signatures of recent selection in humans contain GPCR genes among them the X-chromosomally located gene for GPR82. This gene encodes a so-called orphan GPCR with unknown function. To address the functional relevance of GPR82 gene-deficient mice were characterized. GPR82-deficient mice were viable, reproduced normally, and showed no gross anatomical abnormalities. However, GPR82-deficient mice have a reduced body weight and body fat content associated with a lower food intake. Moreover, GPR82-deficient mice showed decreased serum triacylglyceride levels, increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, most pronounced under Western diet. Because there were no differences in respiratory and metabolic rates between wild-type and GPR82-deficient mice our data suggest that GPR82 function influences food intake and, therefore, energy and body weight balance. GPR82 may represent a thrifty gene most probably representing an advantage during human expansion into new environments.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Diabetes And Endocrinology ; Genetics And Genomics ; Molecular Biology ; Evolutionary Biology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Urology, April 2018, Vol.199(4), pp.e787-e787
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-5347
    E-ISSN: 1527-3792
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Vaccine, 2011, Vol.29(40), pp.6830-6833
    Description: In the recent pandemic influenza A-(H1N1) v-2009 vaccination campaign, adjuvanted vaccines have been used because of their antigen-sparing effect. According to available reports, the rate of severe vaccination reactions has not increased, as compared with previous seasonal influenza vaccinations. Here we describe an adult female patient who was vaccinated with an AS03 adjuvanted split-virus vaccine injected into the left arm. She experienced a prolonged and painful local reaction for 4 weeks. During this time, persistent incapacitating pain shifted into the left shoulder. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the injection site detected atraumatic humeral head osteonecrosis in conjunction with bursitis of the rotator cuff region. Clinical and laboratory examination revealed no other underlying disease. Using analgetic medication and physical therapy, resting pain completely remitted within the following 14 weeks. Pain on exertion declined within the following 6 months. Atraumatic osteonecrosis, a relatively rare disorder which initially presents non-specific clinical symptoms, has never been associated with parenteral influenza vaccination. Although the available data cannot establish a causal relationship, our patient's clinical course – with a continuous transition from increased local post-vaccination reactions to symptoms of a severe shoulder lesion with osteonecrosis – raises the question of a pathogenetic link. Considering the vascular pathogenesis of osteonecrosis, we hypothesize that our patient's enhanced local immunologic reaction may have led to regional vasculitis as the cause of bone destruction. As mild forms of osteonecrosis may have escaped previous clinical attention, it is the purpose of our report to increase awareness of this exceptional event as a possible side effect of parenteral adjuvanted vaccination.
    Keywords: Influenza A-(H1n1) V-2009 Vaccination ; Adverse Event ; Atraumatic Osteonecrosis ; Medicine ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0264-410X
    E-ISSN: 1873-2518
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