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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Phytomedicine, 2011, Vol.18(5), pp.384-386
    Description: The extract EPs 7630 is an approved drug for the treatment of acute bronchitis in Germany. The postulated mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of EPs 7630 in bronchitis patients include immunomodulatory and cytoprotective effects, inhibition of interaction between bacteria and host cells, and increase of cilliary beat frequency on respiratory cells. Here, we investigated the influence of EPs 7630 on replication of a panel of respiratory viruses. Determination of virus-induced cytopathogenic effects and virus titres revealed that EPs 7630 at concentrations up to 100 μg/ml interfered with replication of seasonal influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2), respiratory syncytial virus, human coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, and coxsackie virus but did not affect replication of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1), adenovirus, or rhinovirus. Therefore, antiviral effects may contribute to the beneficial effects exerted by EPs 7630 in acute bronchitis patients.
    Keywords: Pelargonium Sidoides ; Respiratory Viruses ; Acute Bronchitis ; Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0944-7113
    E-ISSN: 1618-095X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e36506
    Description: Oncolytic influenza A viruses with deleted NS1 gene (delNS1) replicate selectively in tumour cells with defective interferon response and/or activated Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling pathway. To develop a delNS1 virus with specific immunostimulatory properties, we used an optimised technology to insert the interleukin-15 (IL-15) coding sequence into the viral NS gene segment (delNS1-IL-15). DelNS1 and delNS1-IL-15 exerted similar oncolytic effects. Both viruses replicated and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis in interferon-defective melanoma cells. Virus replication was required for their oncolytic activity. Cisplatin enhanced the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses. The cytotoxic drug increased delNS1 replication and delNS1-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interference with MEK/ERK signalling by RNAi-mediated depletion or the MEK inhibitor U0126 did not affect the oncolytic effects of the delNS1 viruses. In oncolysis sensitive melanoma cells, delNS1-IL-15 (but not delNS1) infection resulted in the production of IL-15 levels ranging from 70 to 1140 pg/mL in the cell culture supernatants. The supernatants of delNS1-IL-15-infected (but not of delNS1-infected) melanoma cells induced primary human natural killer cell-mediated lysis of non-infected tumour cells. In conclusion, we constructed a novel oncolytic influenza virus that combines the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses with immunostimulatory properties through production of functional IL-15. Moreover, we showed that the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses can be enhanced in combination with cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Molecular Biology ; Oncology ; Dermatology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(5), p.e19705
    Description: Glycyrrhizin is known to exert antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of an approved parenteral glycyrrhizin preparation (Stronger Neo-Minophafen C) were investigated on highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 virus replication, H5N1-induced apoptosis, and H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory responses in lung epithelial (A549) cells. Therapeutic glycyrrhizin concentrations substantially inhibited H5N1-induced expression of the pro-inflammatory molecules CXCL10, interleukin 6, CCL2, and CCL5 (effective glycyrrhizin concentrations 25 to 50 µg/ml) but interfered with H5N1 replication and H5N1-induced apoptosis to a lesser extent (effective glycyrrhizin concentrations 100 µg/ml or higher). Glycyrrhizin also diminished monocyte migration towards supernatants of H5N1-infected A549 cells. The mechanism by which glycyrrhizin interferes with H5N1 replication and H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression includes inhibition of H5N1-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and (in turn) reduced activation of NFκB, JNK, and p38, redox-sensitive signalling events known to be relevant for influenza A virus replication. Therefore, glycyrrhizin may complement the arsenal of potential drugs for the treatment of H5N1 disease.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Medicine ; Infectious Diseases ; Pharmacology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: German
    In: Medizinische Klinik, 2010, Vol.105(6), pp.399-403
    Description: Zur antiviralen Therapie des Zoster stehen in Deutschland fünf Präparate (Aciclovir, Valaciclovir, Famciclovir, Brivudin sowie das Reservemittel Foscarnet) zur Verfügung. Eine gezielte Therapie sollte zur Vermeidung von Spätkomplikationen so schnell wie möglich, spätestens innerhalb von 72 h nach Auftreten der typischen Zostereffloreszenzen, eingeleitet werden. Die effektivste Maßnahme zur Prävention von Windpocken liegt in der Impfung selbst. Es handelt sich um eine attenuierte Lebendvakzine auf der Basis des japanischen Oka-Stammes. Seit 2004 empfiehlt die STIKO (Ständige Impfkommission) die Varizellenimpfung als Standardimpfung für alle Kinder zwischen dem 11. und 14. Lebensmonat. Eine zweite Impfung sollte frühestens nach 4 Wochen und spätestens bis zum 17. Lebensjahr stattfinden. Eine passive Immunglobulingabe ist für Risikogruppen wie Schwangere, Immunsupprimierte oder Neugeborene von Müttern mit einer frischen Varizelleninfektion indiziert und sollte innerhalb von 72–96 h nach Varizellenexposition erfolgen. In der Shingles Prevention Study konnte die Effektivität einer Zosterimpfung nachgewiesen werden. In Germany, five antiviral agents are approved for antiviral therapy in zoster patients (acyclovir, valacyclovir, famciclovir, brivudine, and foscarnet). They should be administered within 72 h after rash onset and can significantly shorten viral replication and reduce the complications. In 2004, the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) at the Robert Koch Institute suggested the active immunization against varicella with a live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka strain) for all children and young persons. The first dose is given between the ages of 11 and 14 months, the second at the earliest 4 weeks later. Passive immunization is indicated as postexposure prophylaxis in high-risk individuals within 72–96 h after exposure. High-risk individuals are pregnant women, immunocompromised patients, or newborns, whose mothers had a primary varicella infection 5 days before or 2 days after birth. The Shingles Prevention Study demonstrated that vaccination is the most effective strategy for prevention of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia.
    Keywords: Varicella-zoster virus infection ; Risk groups ; Pregnancy ; Prevention ; Therapy
    ISSN: 0723-5003
    E-ISSN: 1615-6722
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  • 5
    Language: German
    In: Medizinische Klinik, 2010, Vol.105(5), pp.334-338
    Description: Das Varicella-Zoster-Virus (VZV) gehört zu den acht bisher bekannten Herpesviren des Menschen, zeigt ein ubiquitäres Vorkommen und verursacht die akute exanthematöse Kinderkrankheit „Windpocken“. Typisch ist der hohe Kontagiositätsindex. Die Hauptübertragung erfolgt über Aerosole, seltener über direkten Kontakt mit Bläschenflüssigkeit. Eine Eigenschaft aller Herpesviren ist ihre Latenz. Nach der Primärinfektion wandert das Virus retrograd mit dem Zytoplasmastrom der Neurone zum Spinalganglion. Das Virusgenom verbleibt dort latent, weitgehend inaktiv im Kern der Spinalganglienzelle. Reaktivierungen sind bei allen latent Infizierten möglich. Gewöhnlich werden Reaktivierungen im höheren Alter (〉 50 Jahre) sowie bei Abfall der Gedächtniszellen für die T-Lymphozyten beobachtet. Gerade bei älteren Menschen und Risikogruppen (Immunsupprimierte) werden im Zusammenhang mit Reaktivierungen schwere Krankheitsverläufe beschrieben. Eine häufig auftretende und schwer behandelbare Komplikation stellt die postzosterische Neuralgie (PZN) dar, ein neuropathischer Schmerz, der definitionsgemäß 〉 6 Wochen nach dem akuten Infekt persistiert und eine adäquate antivirale Therapie und Schmerzbehandlung erfordert. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), known as one of the eight human herpesviridae, shows a ubiquitous distribution and is the cause for acute exanthema in childhood (chickenpox). VZV is highly infectious, spread by respiratory droplets and direct contact with fluid in vesicles. As a characteristic of the α-herpesviridae, VZV establishes latency in the nucleus of the paraspinal cells. Reactivation of VZV (zoster) is possible in all infected persons, but becomes more common with increasing age and a decline of VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity. Immunocompromised patients and older people (〉 50 years) have an increased risk for a severe course of disease. The postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), as one of the most common and feared complications, is defined as a neuropathic pain (burning character), which persists for 〉 6 weeks after onset of disease and needs adequate antiviral and pain treatment.
    Keywords: VZV epidemiology ; Postherpetic neuralgia ; VZV diagnostics
    ISSN: 0723-5003
    E-ISSN: 1615-6722
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  • 6
    In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2010, Vol.37(7), pp.454-459
    Description: BACKGROUND:: The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of coinfecting viruses and Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) in a cohort of 205 antiretrovirally treated HIV-infected individuals (152 females and 53 males, aged: 19–71 years) in rural Lesotho. Furthermore agent-specific immune responses were investigated by analyzing antibody titers against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and against T. pallidum. METHODS:: Serum samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A, B, and C viruses, and T. pallidum. RESULTS:: Seroprevalences (95% confidence intervals) were found to be 100% (98.5%–100%) for anti-cytomegalovirus, 98.5% (95.7%–99.7%) for anti-hepatitis A virus, 35.5% (28.9%–42.6%) for anti-HBc, 5.5% (2.8%–9.6%) for hepatitis B surface antigen, and 0.5% (0.0%–2.8%) for anti-hepatitis C virus. Only 78.5% (72.2%–84.0%) were anti-HSV-2 positive and 29.0% (22.8%–35.8%) had antibodies against T. pallidum. Only anti-HSV-2 titers showed gender- and CD4 cell-count dependent differences: females with 〉500 CD4 cells/μL had an average anti-HSV-2 titer of 446 compared with males of 398 AU/mL (not significant), but in those with 250 to 500 CD4 cells/μL, there was a significant difference with a mean titer of 467 compared to 302 AU/mL in males (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:: A high seroprevalence of CMV, HAV, and HBV was found in both genders. One-third of the patients had been exposed to HBV and T. pallidum. The generally high HSV-2 prevalence showed gender- and CD4 cell count-dependent differences in HSV-2 antibody titer.
    Keywords: Hiv Infections -- Research ; Hiv Infections -- Demographic Aspects ; Immune Response -- Research ; Immune Response -- Demographic Aspects ; Treponema Pallidum -- Drug Therapy ; Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay -- Usage;
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    E-ISSN: 15374521
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  • 7
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2002, Vol. 40(4), p.1420
    Description: Combined antigen and antibody screening (fourth-generation) assays reduce the diagnostic window period between the time of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and laboratory diagnosis by 4 days, on average, in comparison to antibody-only (third generation) enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). The aim of the present study was to assess whether the new VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra (Biomerieux, Marcy-l'Etoile, France) showed an improved sensitivity and specificity in comparison to licensed fourth-generation assays. A total of 16 seroconversion panels, 15 cell culture supernatants infected with different HIV type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes, and 257 potentially cross-reactive serum samples were tested with VIDAS DUO HIV Ultra, Genscreen Plus HIV Ag-Ab, Enzygnost HIV Integral, Enzymun-Test HIV Combi, Genscreen HIV 1/2, version 2 (third-generation EIA), and Genetic Systems HIV-1 Ag EIA (p24 antigen assay). VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra showed a comparable sensitivity to the single p24 antigen assay in seroconversion panels and a dilution series of virus lysates. The diagnostic window was reduced with VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra by 3.82 days, on average, in comparison with the fourth- generation assay with the lowest sensitivity of the antigen detection module. HIV-1 infection was detected 5.88 days earlier than with third-generation EIA. The mean time delay between reverse transcription-PCR and VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra was only 2.31 days. The specificity of fourth-generation assays after retesting ranged between 98.1 and 100%. In conclusion, VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra can replace single-antigen screening for laboratory diagnosis and screening of HIV infection in blood donors. There was no evidence for a second diagnostic window due to impaired sensitivity of the antibody detection module of all the fourth- generation EIAs evaluated in the present study. The specificity after initial and/or repeated testing of VIDAS HIV DUO Ultra was equivalent to that of a third-generation assay.
    Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus ; Human Immunodeficiency Virus ; Screening ; Immunoassays ; Antigens ; Antibodies ; Screening ; Immunoassays ; Antigens ; Antibodies ; AIDS: Immunological Aspects ; Viruses ; HIV ; HIV ; HIV;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 8
    In: LaboratoriumsMedizin, 01/01/2010, Vol.34(5), pp.253-256
    Description: Inflammatory disorders of the heart can be classified as myocarditis, pericarditis or endocarditis. Myocarditis is an acute or chronic inflammation affecting the myocardium. Next to viral infections bacterial pathogens represent the most important cause of myocarditis in Europe and North America. Different bacterial, fungal and parasite agents also play an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory heart disorders. In addition to infectious agents, a wide variety of toxins and drugs (e.g., cocaine ...) and some chronic autoimmune diseases (lupus) also have the ability to cause myocarditis. Clinical features of acute or chronic myocarditis are often non-specific, ranging from mild to life-threatening symptoms (sudden cardiac death, chronic heart failure ...). In 25 % of cases, myocarditis is associated with a pericardial infection. Many isolated pericarditis cases are seen during disseminated purulent bacterial infections and tuberculosis.
    Keywords: Myokard ; Mikrobiologie ; Bakterien ; Pilz ; EKG (Elektrokardiographie) ; Serologie ; Antikörper ; Labormedizinische Diagnostik ; Staphylokokken ; Streptokokken ; Medicine;
    ISSN: 0342-3026
    E-ISSN: 1439-0477
    Source: Walter de Gruyter (via CrossRef)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, 1998, Vol.352(9122), pp.149-149
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    E-ISSN: 1474-547X
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  • 10
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2003, Vol. 41(1), p.135
    Description: In recent years the diagnostic industry has developed new automated immunoassays for the qualitative detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum and plasma samples that are performed on analyzers that permit a high-speed throughput, random access, and primary tube sampling. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of two new automated HBsAg screening assays, IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg, from Diagnostic Products Corporation. The new HBsAg assays were compared to well-established tests (Auszyme Monoclonal (overnight incubation, version B), IMx HBsAg, AxSYM HBsAg, and Prism HBsAg (all from Abbott) and Elecsys HBsAg (Roche Diagnostics)). In the evaluation were included seroconversion panels, sera from the acute and chronic phases of infection, dilution series of various HBsAg standards, HBV subtypes and S gene mutants. To challenge the specificity of the new assays, sera from HBsAg-negative blood donors, pregnant women, and dialysis and hospitalized patients and potentially cross-reactive samples were investigated. IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg, although not as sensitive as the Elecsys HBsAg assay, were equivalent to the AxSYM HBsAg assay and showed a higher sensitivity than the Auszyme Monoclonal B and IMx HBsAg systems for detection of acute infection in seroconversion panels. The specificities (100%) of both IMMULITE assays on unselected blood donors and potentially interfering samples were comparable to those of the alternative assays after repeated testing. In conclusion, the new IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg assays show a good sensitivity for HBsAg detection compared to other well-established tests. The specificity on repeatedly tested samples was equivalent to that of the alternative assays. The rapid turnaround time, primary tube sampling, and on- board dilution make it an interesting assay system for clinical laboratory diagnosis.
    Keywords: Immunological Techniques & Reagents ; Immulite 2000 Hbsag ; Immulite Hbsag ; Hospital Patients;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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