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  • 1
    Language: German
    In: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 2014, Vol.164(11), pp.228-238
    Description: Um die Effektivität von (Hoch-)inten­sivem Intervalltraining (HIIT) im Nachwuchsleistungssport und bei untrainierten gesunden Kindern und Jugendlichen in der wissenschaftlichen Literatur einzuschätzen, wurde eine computerbasierte Literaturrecherche in den elektronischen Datenbanken PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus und Web of Science durchgeführt. Studien, welche die Auswirkungen von HIIT-Interventionen auf die Leistungsfähigkeit von Kindern und Jugendlichen (9–18 Jahre) anhand von Analysen der motorischen oder leistungsphysiologischen Kenngrößen der Probanden, vor und nach der Trainingsintervention, analysierten, wurden berücksichtigt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten eine Verbesserung aerober und anaerober Leistungsparameter bei einer Anwendung von zwei bis drei Einheiten HIIT pro Woche über einen Zeitraum von fünf bis zehn Wochen, zusätzlich zum normalen Training. Langzeitstudien zu HIIT, welche auf langfristige Trainingseffekte hinweisen, fehlen. Darüber hinaus wurde aufgrund von physiologischen Besonderheiten während HIIT-Protokollen eine verbesserte Ermüdungsresistenz bei Kindern im Vergleich zu Erwachsenen belegt, was als gute Voraussetzung für die Anwendbarkeit von HIIT bei Kindern interpretiert werden kann. A computer-based literature research during July 2013 using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed to assess the effect of the high intensity interval training (HIIT) on sport performance in healthy children and adolescents. Studies examining the effect of HIIT on aerobic and anaerobic performance pre and post to HIIT-Interventions in children and adolescents (9–18 years) were included. The results indicate increased aerobic and anaerobic performance following two or three HIIT sessions per week for a period of five to ten weeks, additional to normal training. Results regarding long term effects following HIIT have not been documented so far. In addition, due to the physiological characteris-tics during HIIT protocols improved fatigue resistance has been demonstrated in children as compared to adults, which may be interpreted as a prerequisite for the applicability of HIIT in children.
    Keywords: High intensity training ; Endurance ; Adaptions ; Children and adolescents ; Performance improvements
    ISSN: 0043-5341
    E-ISSN: 1563-258X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Sports Medicine, 2016, Vol.46(12), pp.1939-1952
    Description: BACKGROUND: Runners at various levels of performance and specializing in different events (from 800m to marathons) wear compression socks, sleeves, shorts, and/or tights in attempt to improve their performance and facilitate recovery. Recently, a number of publications reporting contradictory results with regard to the influence of compression garments in this context have appeared.OBJECTIVES: To assess original research on the effects of compression clothing (socks, calf sleeves, shorts, and tights) on running performance and recovery.METHOD: A computerized research of the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science was performed in September of 2015, and the relevant articles published in peer-reviewed journals were thus identified rated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. Studies examining effects on physiological, psychological, and/or biomechanical parameters during or after running were included, and means and measures of variability for the outcome employed to calculate Hedges'g effect size and associated 95% confidence intervals for comparison of experimental (compression) and control (non-compression) trials.RESULTS: Compression garments exerted no statistically significant mean effects on running performance (times for a (half) marathon, 15-km trail running, 5- and 10-km runs, and 400-m sprint), maximal and submaximal oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentrations, blood gas kinetics, cardiac parameters (including heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac index, and stroke volume), body and perceived temperature, or the performance of strength-related tasks after running. Small positive effect sizes were calculated for the time to exhaustion (in incremental or step tests), running economy (including biomechanical variables), clearance of blood lactate, perceived exertion, maximal voluntary isometric contraction and peak leg muscle power immediately after running, and markers of muscle damage and inflammation. The body core temperature was moderately affected by compression, while the effect size values for post-exercise leg soreness and the delay in onset of muscle fatigue indicated large positive effects.CONCLUSION: Our present findings suggest that by wearing compression clothing, runners may improve variables related to endurance performance (i.e., time to exhaustion) slightly, due to improvements in running economy, biomechanical variables, perception, and muscle temperature. They should also benefit from reduced muscle pain, damage, and inflammation.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0112-1642
    E-ISSN: 1179-2035
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2016, Vol.116(11), pp.2177-2186
    Description: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs high-volume training (HVT) on salivary stress markers [cortisol (sC), testosterone (sT), alpha-amylase (sAA)], metabolic and cardiorespiratory response in young athletes.Twelve young male cyclists (14 ± 1 years; 57.9 ± 9.4 mL min−1 kg−1 peak oxygen uptake) performed one session of HIIT (4 × 4 min intervals at 90–95 % peak power output separated by 3 min of active rest) and one session of HVT (90 min constant load at 60 % peak power output). The levels of sC, sT, their ratio (sT/sC) and sAA were determined before and 0, 30, 60, 180 min after each intervention. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress was characterized by blood lactate, blood pH, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake ( $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 ), ventilation (V E) and ventilatory equivalent (V E/ $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 ).sC increased 30 and 60 min after HIIT. However, 180 min post exercise, sC decreased below baseline levels in both conditions. sT increased 0 and 30 min after HIIT and 0 min after HVT. sAA and sT/sC ratio did not change significantly over time in HIIT nor HVT. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress, evidenced by blood lactate, HR, $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 , V E, and V E/ $$V_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }}$$ V O 2 was higher during HIIT compared to HVT.The metabolic and cardiorespiratory stress during HIIT was higher compared to HVT, but based on salivary analyses (cortisol, testosterone, alpha-amylase), we conclude no strong acute catabolic effects neither by HIIT nor by HVT.
    Keywords: Saliva ; Cortisol ; Testosterone ; Alpha-amylase ; Exercise
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 1439-6327
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  • 4
    Book
    Book
    Cham: Springer International Publishing
    Language: English
    Description: This book presents recent research addressing the effects of different types of compression clothing on sport performance and recovery after exercise. It is also the first book that summarizes the effects of compression clothing on all main motor abilities in the context of various sports, offering a...
    Keywords: Biomedicine ; Human Physiology ; Sport Science ; Physiotherapy ; Sports Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISBN: 9783319394794
    ISBN: 3319394797
    E-ISSN: 97833193
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 01 September 2018, Vol.13(3), pp.601-610
    Description: Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of timing lights (TL) at different heights for measuring velocities during sprinting. Methods: Two sets of single beam TL were used to determine velocities reached in a flying 20-m sprint in 15 healthy and physically active...
    Keywords: Sprint Performance ; Timing Gates ; Validity ; High-Speed Video Analysis ; Photocells ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1988-5202
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Radiation oncology (London, England), 15 April 2013, Vol.8, pp.90
    Description: Preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) with 5-FU or capecitabine is the standard of care for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Preoperative RCT achieves pathological complete response rates (pCR) of 10-15%. We conducted a single arm phase II study to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of addition of bevacizumab and oxaliplatin to preoperative standard RCT with capecitabine. Eligible patients had LARC (cT3-4; N0/1/2, M0/1) and were treated with preoperative RCT prior to planned surgery. Patients received conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions) and simultaneous chemotherapy with capecitabine 825 mg/m2 bid (d1-14, d22-35) and oxaliplatin 50 mg/m2 (d1, d8, d22, d29). Bevacizumab 5 mg/kg was added on days 1, 15, and 29. The primary study objective was the pCR rate. 70 patients with LARC (cT3-4; N0/1, M0/1), ECOG 〈 2, were enrolled at 6 sites from 07/2008 through 02/2010 (median age 61 years [range 39-89], 68% male). At initial diagnosis, 84% of patients had clinical stage T3, 62% of patients had nodal involvement and 83% of patients were M0. Mean tumor distance from anal verge was 5.92 cm (± 3.68). 58 patients received the complete RCT (full dose RT and full dose of all chemotherapy). During preoperative treatment, grade 3 or 4 toxicities were experienced by 6 and 2 patients, respectively: grade 4 diarrhea and nausea in one patient (1.4%), respectively, grade 3 diarrhea in 2 patients (3%), grade 3 obstipation, anal abscess, anaphylactic reaction, leucopenia and neutropenia in one patient (1.4%), respectively. In total, 30 patients (46%) developed postoperative complications of any grade including one gastrointestinal perforation in one patient (2%), wound-healing problems in 7 patients (11%) and bleedings in 2 patients (3%). pCR was observed in 12/69 (17.4%) patients. Pathological downstaging (ypT 〈 cT and ypN ≤ cN) was achieved in 31 of 69 patients (44.9%). All of the 66 operated patients had a R0 resection. 47 patients (68.1%) underwent sphincter preserving surgery. The addition of bevacizumab and oxaliplatin to RCT with capecitabine was well tolerated and did not increase perioperative morbidity or mortality. However, the pCR rate was not improved in comparison to other trials that used capecitabine or capecitabine/oxaliplatin in preoperative radiochemotherapy.
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols -- Therapeutic Use ; Chemoradiotherapy -- Methods ; Neoadjuvant Therapy -- Methods ; Rectal Neoplasms -- Therapy
    E-ISSN: 1748-717X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: BMC infectious diseases, 22 October 2015, Vol.15, pp.441
    Description: Nosocomial infections are the most common complication during inpatient hospital care. An increasing proportion of these infections are caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). This report describes an intervention study which was designed to address the practical problems encountered in trying to avoid and treat infections caused by MDROs. The aim of the HARMONIC (Harmonized Approach to avert Multidrug-resistant Organisms and Nosocomial Infections) study is to provide comprehensive support to hospitals in a defined study area in north-east Germany, to meet statutory requirements. To this end, a multimodal system of hygiene management was implemented in the participating hospitals. HARMONIC is a controlled intervention study conducted in eight acute care hospitals in the 'Health Region Baltic Sea Coast' in Germany. The intervention measures include the provision of written recommendations on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MRGN), supplemented by regional recommendations for antibiotic prescriptions. In addition, there is theoretical and practical training of health care workers (HCWs) in the prevention and handling of MDROs, as well as targeted and critically gauged applications of antibiotics. The main outcomes of the implementation and analysis of the HARMONIC study are: (i) screening rates for MRSA, VRE and MRGN in high-risk patients, (ii) the frequency of MRSA decolonization, (iii) the level of knowledge of HCWs concerning MDROs, and (iv) specific types and amounts of antibiotics used. The data are predominantly obtained by paper-based questionnaires and documentation sheets. A computer-assisted workflow-based documentation system was developed in order to provide support to the participating facilities. The investigation includes three nested studies on risk profiles of MDROs, health-related quality of life, and cost analysis. A six-month follow-up study investigates the quality of life after discharge, the long-term costs of the treatment of infections caused by MDROs, and the sustainability of MRSA eradication. The aim of this study is to implement and evaluate an area-wide harmonized hygiene program to control the nosocomial spreading of MDROs. Comparability between the intervention and control group is ensured by matching the hospitals according to size (number of discharges per year/number of beds) and level of care (standard or maximum). The results of the study may provide important indications for the implementation of regional MDRO management programs.
    Keywords: Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial ; Cross Infection -- Microbiology ; Infection Control -- Methods
    E-ISSN: 1471-2334
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: NeuroImage, 01 August 2015, Vol.116, pp.177-186
    Description: Coherent percepts emerge from the accurate combination of inputs from the different sensory systems. There is an ongoing debate about the neurophysiological mechanisms of crossmodal interactions in the brain, and it has been proposed that transient synchronization of neurons might be of central importance. Oscillatory activity in lower frequency ranges (〈 30 Hz) has been implicated in mediating long-range communication as typically studied in multisensory research. In the current study, we recorded high-density electroencephalograms while human participants were engaged in a visuotactile pattern matching paradigm and analyzed oscillatory power in the theta- (4–7 Hz), alpha- (8–13 Hz) and beta-bands (13–30 Hz). Employing the same physical stimuli, separate tasks of the experiment either required the detection of predefined targets in visual and tactile modalities or the explicit evaluation of crossmodal stimulus congruence. Analysis of the behavioral data showed benefits for congruent visuotactile stimulus combinations. Differences in oscillatory dynamics related to crossmodal congruence within the two tasks were observed in the beta-band for crossmodal target detection, as well as in the theta-band for congruence evaluation. Contrasting ongoing activity preceding visuotactile stimulation between the two tasks revealed differences in the alpha- and beta-bands. Source reconstruction of between-task differences showed prominent involvement of premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, somatosensory association cortex and the supramarginal gyrus. These areas not only exhibited more involvement in the pre-stimulus interval for target detection compared to congruence evaluation, but were also crucially involved in post-stimulus differences related to crossmodal stimulus congruence within the detection task. These results add to the increasing evidence that low frequency oscillations are functionally relevant for integration in distributed brain networks, as demonstrated for crossmodal interactions in visuotactile pattern matching in the current study.
    Keywords: Cortical Oscillations ; Multisensory Integration ; Visuotactile ; Pattern Matching ; Crossmodal Congruence ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1053-8119
    E-ISSN: 1095-9572
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Psychiatry Research, 30 November 2013, Vol.210(1), pp.140-145
    Description: The prevention of relapse in recurrent depression is considered a central aim in cognitive-behavioral therapy, given the high risk of relapse. In this study, patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (currently remitted) received 16 sessions of Maintenance Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (M-CBT) over a period of 8 months, in order to prevent relapse. Therapist adherence and competence, as well as the therapeutic alliance, were investigated as predictors for reducing the risk of recurrence in depression. Videotapes of 80 participants were analyzed in order to evaluate therapist adherence and competence. Additionally, the therapeutic alliance was assessed by questionnaire. No associations were found between therapist adherence or competence, and the risk of relapse 1 year after treatment. By contrast, the therapeutic alliance was a significant predictor of the time to relapse. Moreover, we found that the number of previous depressive episodes (≥5 vs. ≤4) was a significant moderator variable. This indicates that the alliance-outcome relationship was particularly important when patients with five or more previous depressive episodes were taken into account, in comparison to patients with four or fewer episodes. For the psychotherapeutic treatment of recurrent depression and the prevention of relapse, sufficient attention should be paid to the therapeutic alliance.
    Keywords: Adherence ; Alliance ; Competence ; Maintenance Cognitive Therapy ; Outcome ; Recurrent Depression ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0165-1781
    E-ISSN: 1872-7123
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  • 10
    In: Cerebral Cortex, 2018, Vol. 28(8), pp.2991-3003
    Description: Cortical single neuron activity and local field potential patterns change at different depths of general anesthesia. Here, we investigate the associated network level changes of functional connectivity. We recorded ongoing electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity from temporo-parieto-occipital cortex of 6 ferrets at various levels of isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia and determined functional connectivity by computing amplitude envelope correlations. Through hierarchical clustering, we derived typical connectivity patterns corresponding to light, intermediate and deep anesthesia. Generally, amplitude correlation strength increased strongly with depth of anesthesia across all cortical areas and frequency bands. This was accompanied, at the deepest level, by the emergence of burst-suppression activity in the ECoG signal and a change of the spectrum of the amplitude envelope. Normalization of functional connectivity to the distribution of correlation coefficients showed that the topographical patterns remained similar across depths of anesthesia, reflecting the functional association of the underlying cortical areas. Thus, while strength and temporal properties of amplitude co-modulation vary depending on the activity of local neural circuits, their network-level interaction pattern is presumably most strongly determined by the underlying structural connectivity.
    Keywords: Amplitude Correlations ; Anesthesia ; Ecog ; Icm ; Ongoing Activity
    ISSN: 1047-3211
    E-ISSN: 1460-2199
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