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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 01 February 2010, Vol.201(3), pp.354-62
    Description: BACKGROUND. The nonstructural protein NS1 of influenza virus counteracts the interferon-mediated immune response of the host. By deleting the open reading frame of NS1, we have generated a novel type of influenza vaccine. We studied the safety and immunogenicity of an influenza strain lacking the NS1 gene (DeltaNS1-H1N1) in healthy volunteers. METHODS. Healthy seronegative adult volunteers were randomized to receive either a single intranasal dose of the DeltaNS1-H1N1 A/New Caledonia vaccine at 1 of 5 dose levels (6.4, 6.7, 7.0, 7.4, and 7.7 log(10) median tissue culture infective dose) (n = 36 recipients) or placebo (n = 12 recipients). RESULTS. Intranasal vaccination with the replication-deficient DeltaNS1-H1N1 vaccine was well tolerated. Rhinitis-like symptoms and headache were the most common adverse events identified during the 28-day observation period. Adverse events were similarly distributed between the treatment and placebo groups. Vaccine-specific local and serum antibodies were induced in a dose-dependent manner. In the highest dose group, vaccine-specific antibodies were detected in 10 of 12 volunteers. Importantly, the vaccine also induced neutralizing antibodies against heterologous drift variants. CONCLUSIONS. We show that vaccination with an influenza virus strain lacking the viral interferon antagonist NS1 induces statistically significant levels of strain-specific and cross-neutralizing antibodies despite the highly attenuated replication-deficient phenotype. Further studies are warranted to determine whether these results translate into protection from influenza virus infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00724997 .
    Keywords: Influenza A Virus, H1n1 Subtype -- Immunology ; Influenza Vaccines -- Immunology ; Influenza, Human -- Prevention & Control ; Vaccines, Attenuated -- Immunology ; Viral Nonstructural Proteins -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(5), p.e19705
    Description: Glycyrrhizin is known to exert antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of an approved parenteral glycyrrhizin preparation (Stronger Neo-Minophafen C) were investigated on highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 virus replication, H5N1-induced apoptosis, and H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory responses in lung epithelial (A549) cells. Therapeutic glycyrrhizin concentrations substantially inhibited H5N1-induced expression of the pro-inflammatory molecules CXCL10, interleukin 6, CCL2, and CCL5 (effective glycyrrhizin concentrations 25 to 50 µg/ml) but interfered with H5N1 replication and H5N1-induced apoptosis to a lesser extent (effective glycyrrhizin concentrations 100 µg/ml or higher). Glycyrrhizin also diminished monocyte migration towards supernatants of H5N1-infected A549 cells. The mechanism by which glycyrrhizin interferes with H5N1 replication and H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression includes inhibition of H5N1-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and (in turn) reduced activation of NFκB, JNK, and p38, redox-sensitive signalling events known to be relevant for influenza A virus replication. Therefore, glycyrrhizin may complement the arsenal of potential drugs for the treatment of H5N1 disease.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Medicine ; Infectious Diseases ; Pharmacology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(4), p.e18577
    Description: H5N1 influenza vaccines, including live intranasal, appear to be relatively less immunogenic compared to seasonal analogs. The main influenza virus surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) was shown to be more susceptible to acidic pH treatment than that of human or low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. The acidification machinery of the human nasal passageway in response to different irritation factors starts to release protons acidifying the mucosal surface (down to pH of 5.2). We hypothesized that the sensitivity of H5 HA to the acidic environment might be the reason for the low infectivity and immunogenicity of intranasal H5N1 vaccines for mammals. ; We demonstrate that original human influenza viruses infect primary human nasal epithelial cells at acidic pH (down to 5.4), whereas H5N1 HPAIVs lose infectivity at pH≤5.6. The HA of A/Vietnam/1203/04 was modified by introducing the single substitution HA2 58K→I, decreasing the pH of the HA conformational change. The H5N1 reassortants containing the indicated mutation displayed an increased resistance to acidic pH and high temperature treatment compared to those lacking modification. The mutation ensured a higher viral uptake as shown by immunohistochemistry in the respiratory tract of mice and 25 times lower mouse infectious dose. Moreover, the reassortants keeping 58K→I mutation designed as a live attenuated vaccine candidate lacking an NS1 gene induced superior systemic and local antibody response after the intranasal immunization of mice. ; Our finding suggests that an efficient intranasal vaccination with a live attenuated H5N1 virus may require a certain level of pH and temperature stability of HA in order to achieve an optimal virus uptake by the nasal epithelial cells and induce a sufficient immune response. The pH of the activation of the H5 HA protein may play a substantial role in the infectivity of HPAIVs for mammals.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Immunology ; Infectious Diseases
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Autoimmunity, May 2014, Vol.50, pp.59-66
    Description: X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is a central regulator of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. It is induced via activation of the IRE1 stress sensor as part of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and has been implicated in several diseases processes. XBP1 can also be activated in direct response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation independently of the UPR but the pathogenic significance of this mode of XBP1 activation is not well understood. Here we show that TLR-dependent XBP1 activation is operative in the synovial fibroblasts (SF) of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated the expression of ER stress response genes in patients with active RA and also in patients in remission. The active (spliced) form of (s)XBP1 was significantly overexpressed in the active RA group compared to healthy controls and patients in remission. Paradoxically, expression of nine other ER stress response genes was reduced in active RA compared to patients in remission, suggestive of a UPR-independent process. However, sXBP1 was induced in SF by TLR4 and TLR2 stimulation, resulting in sXBP1-dependent interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production. We also show that TNF itself induces sXBP1 in SF, thus generating a potential feedback loop for sustained SF activation. These data confirm the first link between TLR-dependent XBP1 activation and human inflammatory disease. sXBP1 appears to play a central role in this process by providing a convergence point for two different stimuli to maintain activation of SF.
    Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis (Ra) ; Unfolded Protein Response (Upr) ; Sxbp1 ; Toll-Like Receptor (Tlr) ; Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 0896-8411
    E-ISSN: 1095-9157
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, November 2009, Vol.50(11), pp.5419-25
    Description: Ocular involvement in influenza A virus diseases is common but usually limited to mild conjunctivitis. Rarely, inflammation of the choriocapillaris may result in atrophia of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Primary human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were infected with seasonal (H1N1 A/New Caledonia/20/99, H3N2 A/California/7/2004) or highly pathogenic avian H5N1 (A/Thailand/1(Kan-1)/04, A/Vietnam/1203/04, A/Vietnam/1194/04) influenza strains. Influenza A virus replication was studied by investigation of cytopathogenic effects, immune staining for influenza A virus nucleoprotein, determination of virus titers, and electron microscopy. Apoptosis induction was examined by immune staining for activated caspase 3 and cleaved PARP. Proinflammatory gene expression was investigated by quantitative PCR. H5N1 but not seasonal influenza strains replicated to high titers (〉10(8) TCID(50)/mL; 50% tissue culture infectious dose/milliliter) in RPE cells. H5N1 infection resulted in RPE cell apoptosis that was abolished by the antiviral drug ribavirin. Pretreatment with type I interferons (interferon-alpha and -beta) or the type II interferon, (interferon-gamma), inhibited H5N1 replication. Moreover, H5N1 infection induced expression of proinflammatory genes (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, CXCL8, CXCL10, CXCL11, and interleukin-6), which was inhibited by ribavirin in a concentration-dependent manner. A novel cell type derived from the central nervous system was permissive to H5N1 influenza virus replication. This findings supports those suggesting H5N1 influenza strains to own a greater potential to spread to nonrespiratory tissues than seasonal human influenza viruses. Moreover, the data warrant the further study of the role of influenza A virus replication in retinal diseases associated with influenza A virus infections.
    Keywords: Influenza A Virus, H1n1 Subtype -- Physiology ; Influenza A Virus, H2n2 Subtype -- Physiology ; Influenza A Virus, H5n1 Subtype -- Physiology ; Retinal Pigment Epithelium -- Virology ; Virus Replication -- Physiology
    E-ISSN: 1552-5783
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