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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Critical care (London, England), 2011, Vol.15(1), pp.R20
    Description: Deregulated apoptosis and overshooting neutrophil functions contribute to immune and organ dysfunction in sepsis and multiple organ failure (MOF). In the present study, we determined the role of soluble Fas (sFas) in the regulation of posttraumatic neutrophil extrinsic apoptosis and the development of sepsis. Forty-seven major trauma patients, 18 with and 29 without sepsis development during the first 10 days after trauma, were enrolled in this prospective study. Seventeen healthy volunteers served as controls. Blood samples from severely injured patients were analyzed at day 1, day 5 and day 9 after major trauma. sFas levels, plasma levels of neutrophil elastase (PMNE) and levels of interleukin (IL)-6 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and related to patients' Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODS). Neutrophil apoptosis was determined by propidium iodide staining of fragmented DNA and flow cytometry. sFas-mediated effects on neutrophil apoptosis were investigated in cells cultured with agonistic anti-Fas antibodies in the presence of recombinant sFas, sFas-depleted serum or untreated serum from septic patients. Serum levels of sFas in patients who later developed sepsis were significantly increased at day 5 (P 〈 0.01) and day 9 (P 〈 0.05) after trauma compared with patients with uneventful recovery. Apoptosis of patient neutrophils was significantly decreased during the observation period compared with control cells. Moreover, Fas-mediated apoptosis of control neutrophils was efficiently inhibited by recombinant sFas and serum from septic patients. Depletion of sFas from septic patient sera diminished the antiapoptotic effects. In septic patients, sFas levels were positively correlated with SOFA at day 1 (r = 0.7, P 〈 0.001), day 5 (r = 0.62, P 〈 0.01) and day 9 (r = 0.58, P 〈 0.01) and with PMNE and leukocyte counts (r = 0.49, P 〈 0.05 for both) as well as MODS at day 5 (r = 0.56, P 〈 0.01) after trauma. Increased sFas in patients with sepsis development impairs neutrophil extrinsic apoptosis and shows a positive correlation with the organ dysfunction scores and PMNE. Therefore, sFas might be a therapeutic target to prevent posttrauma hyperinflammation and sepsis.
    Keywords: Apoptosis -- Physiology ; Fas Ligand Protein -- Blood ; Neutrophils -- Physiology ; Sepsis -- Etiology ; Wounds and Injuries -- Blood
    ISSN: 13648535
    E-ISSN: 1466-609X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde, 17 June 2016, Vol.106(7), pp.687-8
    Description: In patients with C2 rheumatoid pannus with spinal cord compression the treatment of choice is extensive surgery either through a transoral resection of the dens axis or a dorsal stabilisation, or both. We present a case of an 11-mm rheumatoid pannus with significant compression of the spinal cord, which failed surgical treatment with respect to dorsal stabilisation. Therefore, rigid cervical collar for 8 weeks followed by soft collar for another 4 weeks was chosen as a treatment option. During the follow-up period of 1 year, the pannus reduced significantly and the spinal cord decompressed. In cases where surgery is not an option or is technically very demanding, the alternative of cervical collar immobilisation is a satisfying option.
    Keywords: Orthotic Devices ; Arthritis, Rheumatoid -- Complications ; Immobilization -- Methods ; Spinal Cord Compression -- Etiology
    ISSN: 0256-9574
    E-ISSN: 20785135
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 2010, Vol.112(3), pp.252-257
    Description: The authors discuss a rare case of hemorrhage in a filum terminale ependymoma presenting with acute paraparesis and transient hydrocephalic dementia in association with long-term phenprocoumon anticoagulation. The CT scan of the brain revealed the presence of blood in both occipital horns and communicating hydrocephalus. The symptoms gradually resolved after tumor removal and there was no need for shunting. This is a complex clinical presentation of a spinal cord tumor associated hemorrhage, which further illustrates the possibility of retrograde passage of blood from the lumbosacral region to the ventricles.
    Keywords: Intraventricular Hemorrhage ; Hydrocephalus ; Filum Terminale Ependymoma ; Oral Anticoagulation ; Hemorrhagic Spinal Cord Tumor ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0303-8467
    E-ISSN: 1872-6968
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Head & neck oncology, 05 July 2010, Vol.2, pp.16
    Description: The skull base surgery is one of the most demanding surgeries. There are different structures that can be injured easily, by operating in the skull base. It is very important for the neurosurgeon to choose the right approach in order to reach the lesion without harming the other intact structures. Due to the pioneering work of Cushing, Hirsch, Yasargil, Krause, Dandy and other dedicated neurosurgeons, it is possible to address the tumor and other lesions in the anterior, the mid-line and the posterior cranial base. With the transsphenoidal, the frontolateral, the pterional and the lateral suboccipital approach nearly every region of the skull base is exposable.In the current state many different skull base approaches are described for various neurosurgical diseases during the last 20 years. The selection of an approach may differ from country to country, e.g., in the United States orbitozygomaticotomy for special lesions of the anterior skull base or petrosectomy for clivus meningiomas, are found more frequently than in Europe.The reason for writing the review was the question: Are there keyhole approaches with which someone can deal with a vast variety of lesions in the neurosurgical field?In my opinion the different surgical approaches mentioned above cover almost 95% of all skull base tumors and lesions. In the following text these approaches will be described.These approaches are:1) pterional approach2) frontolateral approach3) transsphenoidal approach4) suboccipital lateral approachThese approaches can be extended and combined with each other. In the following we want to enhance this philosophy.
    Keywords: Neurosurgical Procedures -- Methods ; Skull Base -- Surgery
    E-ISSN: 1758-3284
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Clinics and Practice, 01 March 2014, Vol.4(1)
    Description: The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a well described entity of white matter pathology. PRES is triggered by numerous different factors such as acute elevated arterial hypertension, immunosupressive therapy, chemotherapy, etc. The case of a 67-year old woman is presented. The patient was treated for breast cancer 10 months ago and because of acute disorientation a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. In the MRI biparieto-occipital hyperintense lesions were seen. Brain metastases were suspected. After chemothe - rapy and hypertonia and the typical appearance of the lesions in the MRI, PRES was also suspected. Before initializing the surgery for an open biopsy a follow-up MRI had been performed (2 weeks after initial MRI). In follow-up MRI the lesions disappeared completely proving the diagnosis of PRES. PRES can be misdiagnosed as a tumour and surgery could be mistakenly performed. It’s important to keep the differential diagnosis of PRES in mind when radiologic features of the syndrome are present.
    Keywords: Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy ; Medicine
    ISSN: 2039-7275
    E-ISSN: 2039-7283
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Clinics and Practice, 01 January 2013, Vol.3(1)
    Description: We describe a case of progressive syringomyelia following post-infectious trapped fourth ventricle (TFV), which resolved after shunting of the fourth ventricle. A 28-year-old female who had previously undergone treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage and meningitis developed a hydrocephalus with TFV. After 3 years she developed disturbance of walking and coordination. Cranial-CT revealed an enlargement of the shunted fourth ventricle as a result of shunt dysfunction. Furthermore a cervical syringomyelia developed. The patient underwent a revision of a failed fourth ventriculo- peritoneal shunt. Postoperatively, syringomyelia resolved within 6 months and the associated neurological deficits improved significantly. An insufficiency of cerebrospinal fluid draining among patients with TFV can be associated with communicating syringomyelia. An early detection and treatment seems important on resolving syringomyelia and avoiding permanent neurological deficits. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt in trapped fourth ventricles can resolve a secondary syringomyelia.
    Keywords: Trapped Fourth Ventricle ; Syringomyelia ; Medicine
    ISSN: 2039-7275
    E-ISSN: 2039-7283
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, April 2015, Vol.131, pp.64-68
    Description: There is a number of different methods to localize a glioma intraoperatively. Neuronavigation, intraoperative MRI, 5-aminolevulinic acid, as well as intraoperative sonography. Every method has its advantages and disadvantages. Low grade gliomas do not show a specific signal with 5-aminolevulinic acid and are difficult to distinguish macroscopically from normal tissue. In the present study we stress out the importance of intraoperative diagnostic ultrasound for localization of low grade gliomas. We retrospectively evaluated the charts and MRIs of 34 patients with low grade gliomas operated in our department from 2011 until December 2014. The efficacy of ultrasound as an intraoperative navigational tool was assessed. In 15 patients ultrasound was used and in 19 not. Only histologically proven low grades gliomas (astrocytomas grade II) were evaluated. In none of the patients where ultrasound (combined with neuronavigation) was used ( = 15) to find the tumors, the target was missed, whereas the exclusive use of neuronavigation missed the target in 5 of 19 cases of small subcortical low grade gliomas. Intraoperative ultrasound is an excellent tool in localizing low grade gliomas intraoperatively. It is an inexpensive, real time neuronavigational tool, which overcomes brain shift. Even when identifying the tumors with ultrasound is very reliable, the extend of resection and the decision to remove any residual tumor with the help of ultrasound is at the moment unreliable.
    Keywords: Intraoperative Sonography ; Low Grade Glioma ; Neuronavigation ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0303-8467
    E-ISSN: 1872-6968
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Ultrasonography, 01 January 2017, Vol.36(1), pp.60-65
    Description: Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate whether intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) helped the surgeon navigate towards the tumor as seen in preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and whether IOUS was able to distinguish between tumor margins and the surrounding tissue. Methods Twenty-five patients suffering from high-grade gliomas who were previously treated by surgery and radiotherapy were included. Intraoperatively, two histopathologic samples were obtained a sample of unequivocal tumor tissue (according to anatomical landmarks and the surgeon’s visual and tactile impressions) and a small tissue sample obtained using a navigated needle when the surgeon decided to stop the resection. This specimen was considered to be a boundary specimen, where no tumor tissue was apparent. The decision to take the second sample was not influenced by IOUS. The effect of IOUS was analyzed semi-quantitatively. Results All 25 samples of unequivocal tumor tissue were histopathologically classified as tumor tissue and were hyperechoic on IOUS. Of the boundary specimens, eight were hypoechoic. Only one harbored tumor tissue (P=0.150). Seventeen boundaries were moderately hyperechoic, and these samples contained all possible histological results (i.e., tumor, infiltration, or no tumor). Conclusion During surgery performed on relapsed, irradiated, high-grade gliomas, IOUS provided a reliable method of navigating towards the core of the tumor. At borders, it did not reliably distinguish between remnants or tumor-free tissue, but hypoechoic areas seldom contained tumor tissue.
    Keywords: Glioblastoma ; Glioma ; Interventional Ultrasonography ; Neoplasms, Residual ; Neurosurgical Procedure ; Medicine
    ISSN: 2288-5919
    E-ISSN: 2288-5943
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Clinics and Practice, 01 March 2016, Vol.6(1)
    Description: Pilocytic astrocytomas correspond to lowgrade gliomas and therefore metastasize exceedingly rare. However, pilocytic astrocytomas are able to and leptomeningeal dissemination may be seen. What are the treatment options of these cases? We present a case report of a 3-year-old child with a pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm with leptomeningeal dissemination of the spinal meninges. Partial resection of the cerebral tumor has been performed. Since the leptomeningeal dissemination was seen all over the spinal meninges, the child did not undergo further surgical treatment. A wait and watch strategy were followed. Chemotherapy was initiated, if a 25% tumor growth was seen. Leptomeningeal dissemination of a pilocytic astrocytoma is seen so infrequently that no standard therapy is established. Since these metastases may occur even up to 2 decades after primary tumor resection, long-term follow- up is indicated. In case of spinal metastases, surgical treatment should be performed if feasible. Otherwise observation should be possessed and/or chemotherapy should be initiated.
    Keywords: Pilocytic Astrocytoma ; Metastasis ; Spinal Dissemination ; Optic Chiasm ; Medicine
    ISSN: 2039-7275
    E-ISSN: 2039-7283
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Clinics and Practice, 01 July 2016, Vol.6(2)
    Description: Posterior fossa surgery is demanding and hides a significant number of obstacles starting from the approach to the wound closure. The risk of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage in posterior fossa surgery given in the literature is around 8%. The present study aims to introduce a sandwich closure of the dura in posterior fossa surgery, which reduces significantly the number of CSF leaks (3.8%) in the patients treated in our department. Three hundred and ten patients treated in our hospital in the years 2009-2013 for posterior fossa pathologies were retrospectively evaluated. The dura closure method was as following: lyophilized dura put under the dura and sealed with fibrin glue and sutures, dura adapting stitches, TachoSil® (Takeda Pharma A/S, Roskilde, Denmark), Gelfoam® (Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA) and polymethylmethacrylate (osteoclastic craniotomy). The incidence of postsurgical complications associated with the dural closure like CSF leakage, infections, bleeding is evaluated. Only 3.8% of patients developed CSF leakage and only 0.5% needed a second surgery for CSF leakage closure. Two percent had a cerebellar bleeding with no need for re-operation and 3% had a wound infection treated with antibiotics. The sandwich wound closure we are applying for posterior fossa surgery in our patients correlates with a significant reduction of CSF leaks compared to the literature.
    Keywords: Posterior Fossa ; Dural Closure ; Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak ; Medicine
    ISSN: 2039-7275
    E-ISSN: 2039-7283
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