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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Maternal and child health journal, October 2016, Vol.20(10), pp.2030-6
    Description: Objectives Low gestational weight gain (GWG) in the second and third trimesters has been associated with increased risk of preterm delivery (PTD) among women with a body mass index (BMI) 〈 25 mg/m(2). However, few studies have examined whether this association differs by the assumptions made for first trimester gain or by the reason for PTD. Methods We examined singleton pregnancies during 2000-2008 among women with a BMI 〈 25 kg/m(2) who delivered a live-birth ≥28 weeks gestation (n = 12,526). Women received care within one integrated health care delivery system and began prenatal care ≤13 weeks. Using antenatal weights measured during clinic visits, we interpolated GWG at 13 weeks gestation then estimated rate of GWG (GWGrate) during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. We also estimated GWGrate using the common assumption of a 2-kg gain for all women by 13 weeks. We examined the covariate-adjusted association between quartiles of GWGrate and PTD (28-36 weeks gestation) using logistic regression. We also examined associations by reason for PTD [premature rupture of membranes (PROM), spontaneous labor, or medically indicated]. Results Mean GWGrate did not differ among term and preterm pregnancies regardless of interpolated or assumed GWG at 13 weeks. However, only with GWGrate estimated from interpolated GWG at 13 weeks, we observed a U-shaped relationship where odds of PTD increased with GWGrate in the lowest (OR 1.36, 95 % CI 1.10, 1.69) or highest quartile (OR 1.49, 95 % CI 1.20, 1.85) compared to GWGrate within the second quartile. Further stratifying by reason, GWGrate in the lowest quartile was positively associated with spontaneous PTD while GWGrate in the highest quartile was positively associated with PROM and medically indicated PTD. Conclusions Accurate estimates of first trimester GWG are needed. Common assumptions applied to all pregnancies may obscure the association between GWGrate and PTD. Further research is needed to fully understand whether these associations are causal or related to common antecedents.
    Keywords: Gestational Weight Gain ; Pregnancy ; Preterm Delivery ; Weight Gain Measures ; Body Weight ; Weight Gain ; Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture -- Epidemiology ; Premature Birth -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 10927875
    E-ISSN: 1573-6628
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  • 2
    In: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2018, Vol. 107(3), pp.484-494
    Description: Scientific progress depends on the quality and credibility of research methods. As discourse on rigor, transparency, and reproducibility joins the cacophony of nutrition information and misinformation in mass media, buttressing the real and perceived reliability of nutrition science is more important than ever. This broad topic was the focus of a 2016 plenary session, “Scientific Rigor and Competing Interests in the Nutrition Research Landscape.” This article summarizes and expands on this session in an effort to increase understanding and dialogue with regard to factors that limit the real and perceived reliability of nutrition science and steps that can be taken to mitigate those factors. The end goal is to both earn and merit greater trust in nutrition science by both the scientific community and the general public. The authors offer suggestions in each of the domains of education and training, communications, research conduct, and procedures and policies to help achieve this goal. The authors emphasize the need for adequate funding to support these efforts toward greater rigor and transparency, which will be resource demanding and may require either increased research funding or the recognition that a greater proportion of research funding may need to be allocated to these tasks.
    Keywords: Research Methods ; Scientific Rigor ; Nutrition ; Conflict Of Interests ; Transparency, Trust
    ISSN: 0002-9165
    E-ISSN: 1938-3207
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Preventive Medicine, December 2015, Vol.81, pp.1-8
    Description: To evaluate the effectiveness of the parent- and early care education (ECE) center-based program on communication between parent, child, and their ECE center providers around fruits, vegetables and whole grain foods (FVWG). A total of n = 30 ECE center; 577 parent–child dyads participated in this group-randomized controlled trial conducted from 2011 to 2013 in Texas (n = 15 ECE center, 327 dyads intervention group; n = 15 ECE center, 250 dyads comparison group). Parent–child and parent-ECE center provider communication was measured using a parent-reported survey administered at baseline and end of the five-week intervention period. Multilevel linear regression analysis was used to compare the pre-to-post intervention changes in the parent–child and parent-ECE center provider communication scales. Significance was set at p 〈 0.05. At baseline, parent–child and parent-ECE center provider communication scores were low. There was a significant increase post-intervention in the parent-ECE center provider communication around vegetables (Adjusted β = 0.78, 95%CI: 0.13, 1.43, p = 0.002), and around fruit (Adjusted β = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.04, 0.20, p = 0.04) among the parents in the intervention group as compared to those in the comparison group. There were no significant intervention effects on parent–child communication. had significant positive effects on improving communication between the parents and ECE center providers around FVWG.
    Keywords: Preschool ; Parent–Child Communication ; Parent-Childcare Provider Communication ; Early Care Education ; Nutrition ; Fruits ; Vegetables ; Whole Grain Foods ; Medicine ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0091-7435
    E-ISSN: 1096-0260
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Maternal and Child Health Journal, 2015, Vol.19(9), pp.2066-2073
    Description: Studies report increased risk of preterm birth (PTB) among underweight and normal weight women with low gestational weight gain (GWG). However, most studies examined GWG over gestational periods that differ by term and preterm which may have biased associations because GWG rate changes over the course of pregnancy. Furthermore, few studies have specifically examined the amount and pattern of GWG early in pregnancy as a predictor of PTB. Within one integrated health care delivery system, we examined 12,526 singleton pregnancies between 2000 and 2008 among women with a body mass index 〈25 kg/m 2 , who began prenatal care in the first trimester and delivered a live-birth 〉28 weeks gestation. Using self-reported pregravid weight and serial measured antenatal weights, we estimated GWG and the area under the GWG curve (AUC; an index of pattern of GWG) during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy (≤28 weeks). Using logistic regression adjusted for covariates, we examined associations between each GWG measure, categorized into quartiles, and PTB (〈37 weeks gestation). We additionally examined associations according to the reason for PTB by developing a novel algorithm using diagnoses and procedure codes. Low GWG in the first and second trimesters was not associated with PTB [aOR 1.11, (95 % CI 0.90, 1.38) with GWG 〈8.2 kg by 28 weeks compared to pregnancies with GWG 〉12.9]. Similarly, pattern of GWG was not associated with PTB. Our findings do not support an association between GWG in the first and second trimester and PTB among underweight and normal weight women.
    Keywords: Pregnancy ; Gestational weight gain ; Weight gain measures ; Preterm birth
    ISSN: 1092-7875
    E-ISSN: 1573-6628
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  • 5
    In: American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2015, Vol.110(1), pp.170-179
    Description: OBJECTIVES:: METHODS:: RESULTS:: Seventy-five patients had both computer-generated and physician-documented HPIs. The mean overall impression score for computer-generated HPIs was higher than physician HPIs (3.68 vs. 2.80; P〈0.001), even after adjusting for physician and visit type, location, mode of transcription, and demographics. Computer-generated HPIs were also judged more complete (3.70 vs. 2.73; P〈0.001), more useful (3.82 vs. 3.04; P〈0.001), better organized (3.66 vs. 2.80; P〈0.001), more succinct (3.55 vs. 3.17; P〈0.001), and more comprehensible (3.66 vs. 2.97; P〈0.001). CONCLUSIONS::
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0002-9270
    E-ISSN: 15720241
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, November 2013, Vol.65(7-8), pp.1121-1125
    Description: Retrograde ejaculation (RE) has been reported in humans and animals but RE with subsequent sperm calculi has rarely been reported. This report documents clinical and pathological findings of spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four rhesus macaques. While this condition has been associated with repeated electroejaculation, spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis is highly unusual. The animals presented with either stranguria, dysuria, hematuria, distended abdomen or lethargy. Ultrasound examination revealed several hyperechoic masses within the lumen of the urinary bladder. The animals were euthanized due to poor prognosis or study end points. Postmortem examination revealed multiple angular, amorphous, soft to firm, pale yellow to greenish-brown and variably sized calculi in the lumen of the urinary bladder or prostatic/penile urethra. Histologically, the calculi were composed of numerous sperm embedded in abundant brightly eosinophilic matrix. Based on gross and histologic findings, RE associated sperm cystolithiasis was diagnosed, with ulcerative urethritis as the major primary apparent etiology. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of four spontaneous cases of sperm cystolithiasis in rhesus macaques.
    Keywords: Calculi ; Ejaculation ; Retrograde ; Rhesus ; Sperm ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0940-2993
    E-ISSN: 1618-1433
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(5), p.e19361
    Description: Real-time PCR (rt-PCR) is a widely used molecular method for detection of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm). Several rt-PCR assays for Nm target the capsule transport gene, ctrA . However, over 16% of meningococcal carriage isolates lack ctrA , rendering this target gene ineffective at identification of this sub-population of meningococcal isolates. The Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase gene, sodC , is found in Nm but not in other Neisseria species. To better identify Nm, regardless of capsule genotype or expression status, a sodC -based TaqMan rt-PCR assay was developed and validated. Standard curves revealed an average lower limit of detection of 73 genomes per reaction at cycle threshold (C t ) value of 35, with 100% average reaction efficiency and an average R 2 of 0.9925. 99.7% (624/626) of Nm isolates tested were sodC -positive, with a range of average C t values from 13.0 to 29.5. The mean sodC C t value of these Nm isolates was 17.6±2.2 (±SD). Of the 626 Nm tested, 178 were nongroupable (NG) ctrA -negative Nm isolates, and 98.9% (176/178) of these were detected by sodC rt-PCR. The assay was 100% specific, with all 244 non-Nm isolates testing negative. Of 157 clinical specimens tested, sodC detected 25/157 Nm or 4 additional specimens compared to ctrA and 24 more than culture. Among 582 carriage specimens, sodC detected Nm in 1 more than ctrA and in 4 more than culture. This sodC rt-PCR assay is a highly sensitive and specific method for detection of Nm, especially in carriage studies where many meningococcal isolates lack capsule genes.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Genetics And Genomics ; Infectious Diseases ; Microbiology ; Biotechnology ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    In: American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2016, Vol.111(11), pp.1546-1556
    Description: OBJECTIVES:: METHODS:: RESULTS:: There were 217 and 154 patients in the GI PROMIS and control arms, respectively. Patient satisfaction was similar between groups (P〉0.05). Intervention patients had similar assessments of their providers’ interpersonal skills (DISQ 89.4±11.7 vs. 89.8±16.0, P=0.79) and shared decision-making (SDM-Q-9 79.3±12.4 vs. 79.0±22.0, P=0.85) vs. controls. CONCLUSIONS::
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0002-9270
    E-ISSN: 15720241
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Endocrine-related cancer, August 2011, Vol.18(4), pp.413-28
    Description: Obese breast cancer patients exhibit a higher risk for larger tumor burden and an increased likelyhood of metastasis. The molecular effects of obesity on carcinogenesis are mediated by the autocrine and paracrine effects of the adipocytokine leptin. Leptin participates in the tumor progression and metastasis of human breast. We show that leptin induces clonogenicity and increases the migration potential of breast cancer cells. We found that survivin expression is induced in response to leptin. In this study, we examine the role and leptin-mediated regulation of survivin. Leptin treatment leads to survivin upregulation, due in part to the activation of Notch1 and the release of a transcriptionally active Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD). Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that NICD gets recruited to the survivin promoter at the CSL (CBF1/RBP-Jk, Su(H), Lag-1) binding site in response to leptin treatment. Inhibition of Notch1 activity inhibits leptin-induced survivin upregulation. Leptin-induced transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in leptin-mediated Notch1 and survivin upregulation, demonstrating a novel upstream role of leptin-EGFR-Notch1 axis. We further show that leptin-induced migration of breast cancer cells requires survivin, as overexpression of survivin further increases, whereas silencing survivin abrogates leptin-induced migration. Using a pharmacological approach to inhibit survivin, we show that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A-reductase inhibitors, such as lovastatin, can effectively inhibit leptin-induced survivin expression and migration. Importantly, leptin increased breast tumor growth in nude mice. These data show a novel role for survivin in leptin-induced migration and put forth pharmacological survivin inhibition as a potential novel therapeutic strategy. This conclusion is supported by in vivo data showing the overexpression of leptin and survivin in epithelial cells of high-grade ductal carcinomas in situ and in high-grade invasive carcinomas.
    Keywords: Cell Movement ; Breast Neoplasms -- Metabolism ; Erbb Receptors -- Metabolism ; Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins -- Metabolism ; Leptin -- Metabolism ; Receptor, Notch1 -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 13510088
    E-ISSN: 1479-6821
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Development (Cambridge, England), December 2011, Vol.138(24), pp.5369-78
    Description: During development of the urogenital tract, fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) is expressed in mesonephric tubules, but its role in this tissue remains undefined. An evaluation of previously generated T-Cre-mediated Fgf8-deficient mice (T-Cre; Fgf8(flox/Δ2,3) mice), which lack Fgf8 expression in the mesoderm, revealed that the cranial region of the Wolffian duct degenerated prematurely and the cranial mesonephric tubules were missing. As a result, the epididymis, vas deferens and efferent ductules were largely absent in mutant mice. Rarb2-Cre was used to eliminate FGF8 from the mesonephric tubules but to allow expression in the adjacent somites. These mutants retained the cranial end of the Wolffian duct and formed the epididymis and vas deferens, but failed to elaborate the efferent ductules, indicating that Fgf8 expression by the mesonephric tubules is required specifically for the formation of the ductules. Ret knockout mice do not form the ureteric bud, a caudal outgrowth of the Wolffian duct and progenitor for the collecting duct network in the kidney, but they do develop the cranial end normally. This indicates that Fgf8, but not Ret, expression is essential to the outgrowth of the cranial mesonephric tubules from the Wolffian duct and to the development of major portions of the sex accessory tissues in the male reproductive tract. Mechanistically, FGF8 functions upstream of Lhx1 expression in forming the nephron, and analysis of Fgf8 mutants similarly shows deficient Lhx1 expression in the mesonephric tubules. These results demonstrate a multifocal requirement for FGF8 in establishing the male reproductive tract ducts and implicate Lhx1 signaling in tubule elongation.
    Keywords: Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 -- Metabolism ; Genitalia, Male -- Growth & Development ; Wolffian Ducts -- Growth & Development
    ISSN: 09501991
    E-ISSN: 1477-9129
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