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  • Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors
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  • 1
    In: Neuropsychopharmacology, 2011, Vol.37(4), p.929
    Description: Prenatal exposure to restraint stress causes long-lasting changes in neuroplasticity that likely reflect pathological modifications triggered by early-life stress. We found that the offspring of dams exposed to repeated episodes of restraint stress during pregnancy (here named 'prenatal restraint stress mice' or 'PRS mice') developed a schizophrenia-like phenotype, characterized by a decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67, an increased expression of type-1 DNA methyl transferase (DNMT1) in the frontal cortex, and a deficit in social interaction, locomotor activity, and prepulse inhibition. PRS mice also showed a marked decrease in metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) and mGlu3 receptor mRNA and protein levels in the frontal cortex, which was manifested at birth and persisted in adult life. This decrease was associated with an increased binding of DNMT1 to CpG-rich regions of mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor promoters and an increased binding of MeCP2 to the mGlu2 receptor promoter. Systemic treatment with the selective mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., twice daily for 5 days), corrected all the biochemical and behavioral abnormalities shown in PRS mice. Our data show for the first time that PRS induces a schizophrenia-like phenotype in mice, and suggest that epigenetic changes in mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors lie at the core of the pathological programming induced by early-life stress.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology ; Anatomy & Physiology;
    ISSN: 0893-133X
    E-ISSN: 1740634X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Psychopharmacology, 2011, Vol.217(3), pp.301-313
    Description: Byline: Sara Morley-Fletcher (1), Jerome Mairesse (1), Amelie Soumier (2), Mounira Banasr (2), Francesca Fagioli (3), Cecilia Gabriel (4), Elisabeth Mocaer (4), Annie Daszuta (2), Bruce McEwen (5), Ferdinando Nicoletti (1,6,7), Stefania Maccari (1) Keywords: Agomelatine; Prenatal stress; Adult neurogenesis; Ventral hippocampus; Fluoxetine; Phospho-CREB; Metabotropic glutamate receptors Abstract: Rationale and objectives The rat model of prenatal restraint stress (PRS) replicates factors that are implicated in the etiology of anxious/depressive disorders. We used this model to test the therapeutic efficacy of agomelatine, a novel antidepressant that behaves as a mixed MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor agonist/5-HT.sub.2c serotonin receptor antagonist. Results Adult PRS rats showed behavioral, cellular, and biochemical abnormalities that were consistent with an anxious/depressive phenotype. These included an increased immobility in the forced swim test, an anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, reduced hippocampal levels of phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein (p-CREB), reduced hippocampal levels of mGlu2/3 and mGlu5 metabotropic glutamate receptors, and reduced neurogenesis in the ventral hippocampus, the specific portion of the hippocampus that encodes memories related to stress and emotions. All of these changes were reversed by a 3- or 6-week treatment with agomelatine (40--50 mg/kg, i.p., once a day). Remarkably, agomelatine had no effect in age-matched control rats, thereby behaving as a "disease-dependent" drug. Conclusions These data indicate that agomelatine did not act on individual symptoms but corrected all aspects of the pathological epigenetic programming triggered by PRS. Our findings strongly support the antidepressant activity of agomelatine and suggest that the drug impacts mechanisms that lie at the core of anxious/depressive disorders. Author Affiliation: (1) Neuroplasticity Team, UMR 8576 CNRS Structural and Functional Glycobiology Unit, University Lille North of France (USTL), 59655, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France (2) IC2N, IBDLM, UMR6216, CNRS, Marseille, France (3) Azienda Sanitaria Locale, RM.E. Unita Operativa Complessa Adolescent, Rome, Italy (4) Institut de Recherches Internationales Servier, Courbevoie, France (5) Harold and Margaret Milliken Hatch Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, The Rockefeller University, New York, USA (6) Department of Human Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy (7) I.N.M. Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy Article History: Registration Date: 24/03/2011 Received Date: 10/01/2011 Accepted Date: 23/03/2011 Online Date: 19/04/2011 Article note: S. Morley-Fletcher and J. Mairesse contributed equally to this work.
    Keywords: Agomelatine ; Prenatal stress ; Adult neurogenesis ; Ventral hippocampus ; Fluoxetine ; Phospho-CREB ; Metabotropic glutamate receptors
    ISSN: 0033-3158
    E-ISSN: 1432-2072
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Neuroscience Letters, 2010, Vol.478(3), pp.128-130
    Description: The -amino acid, -aspartate, is abundant in the developing brain, yet its function is unknown. Addition of -aspartate to hippocampal or cortical slices prepared from 8- to 9-day-old rats stimulated polyphosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis to a slightly greater extent than -glutamate. The action of -aspartate was concentration-dependent with an apparent EC value of 1 mM and a maximal stimulation of 6- and 20-fold in cortical and hippocampal slices, respectively. Stimulation of PI hydrolysis by -aspartate was largely reduced by pharmacological blockade of mGlu5 metabotropic glutamate receptors with 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine. These findings suggest that -aspartate behaves as an endogenous agonist of mGlu5 receptors during early postnatal life.
    Keywords: D-Aspartate ; Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors ; Polyphosphoinositide Hydrolysis ; Hippocampal Slices ; Cortical Slices ; Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0304-3940
    E-ISSN: 1872-7972
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Neuropharmacology, March 2013, Vol.66, pp.24-30
    Description: The purpose of the present article is to review our actual knowledge on the desensitization of metabotropic glutamate receptors based on the literature available so far, with the attempt to emphasize all converging data and to give a possible explanation to those evidences that still remain controversial. 1. We review our knowledge on the regulation of mGlu receptors based on the available literature 2. We report converging data and we comment on issues that still remain controversial. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors’. ► We review our knowledge on the desensitization of mGlu receptors. ► We focus both on converging data and on issues that still remain controversial. ► GRK2 regulates mGlu1 receptor by a phosphorylation-independent mechanism. ► The mGlu2 (but not the mGlu3) receptor is resistant to homologous desensitization.
    Keywords: Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors ; Receptor Desensitization ; Grks ; Arrestins ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0028-3908
    E-ISSN: 1873-7064
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Neuropharmacology, 15 March 2017, Vol.115, pp.180-192
    Description: Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor ligands are under clinical development for the treatment of CNS disorders with high social and economic burden, such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD), and Parkinson’s disease (PD), and are promising drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). So far, clinical studies have shown symptomatic effects of mGlu receptor ligands, but it is unknown whether these drugs act as disease modifiers or, at the opposite end, they accelerate disease progression by enhancing neurodegeneration. This is a fundamental issue in the treatment of PD and AD, and is also an emerging theme in the treatment of schizophrenia and MDD, in which neurodegeneration is also present and contribute to disease progression. Moving from data and preclinical studies, we discuss the potential impact of drugs targeting mGlu2, mGlu3, mGlu4 and mGlu5 receptor ligands on active neurodegeneration associated with AD, PD, schizophrenia, and MDD. We wish to highlight that our final comments on the best drug candidates are not influenced by commercial interests or by previous or ongoing collaborations with drug companies. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors, 5 years on’.
    Keywords: Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors ; Schizophrenia ; Major Depressive Disorders ; Alzhiemer’s Disease ; Parkinson’s Disease ; Neurodegeneration ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0028-3908
    E-ISSN: 1873-7064
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  • 6
    Language: Italian
    In: Rivista di psichiatria, 2012, Vol.47(2), pp.149-69
    Description: The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are expressed pre- and post synaptically throughout the nervous system where they serve as modulators of synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability. The glutamatergic system is involved in a wide range of physiological processes in the brain, and its dysfunction plays an important role in the etiology and pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. This paper reviews the neurodevelopmental origin and genetic susceptibility of schizophrenia relevant to NMDA receptor neurotransmission, and discusses the relationship between NMDA hypofunction and different domains of symptom in schizophrenia as well as putative treatment modality for the disorder. mGlu receptors have been hypothesizes as attractive therapeutic targets for the development of novel interventions for psychiatric disorders. Group II of mGlu receptors are of particular interest because of their unique distribution and the regulatory roles they have in neurotransmission. The glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia predicts that agents that restore the balance in glutamatergic neurotransmission will ameliorate the symptomatology associated with this illness. Development of potent, efficacious, systemically active drugs will help to address the antipsychotic potential of these novel therapeutics. This review will discuss recent progress in elucidating the pharmacology and function of group II receptors in the context of current hypotheses on the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the need for new and better antipsychotics.
    Keywords: Antipsychotic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate -- Agonists ; Schizophrenia -- Drug Therapy
    ISSN: 0035-6484
    E-ISSN: 20382502
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Neuropharmacology, August 2015, Vol.95, pp.50-58
    Description: Neuroadaptive changes involving the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia motor circuit occur in the early phases of parkinsonism. The precise identification of these changes may shed new light into the pathophysiology of parkinsonism and better define the time window of pharmacological intervention. We examined some of these changes in mice challenged with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), or with the dopamine receptor blocker, haloperidol. These two models clearly diverge from Parkinson's disease (PD); however, they allow an accurate time-dependent analysis of neuroadaptive changes occurring in the striatum. Acute haloperidol injection caused a significant increase in the transcripts of mGlu4 receptors, CB1 receptors and preproenkephalin-A at 2 and 24 h, and a reduction in the transcripts of mGlu5 and A receptors at 2 h. At least changes in the expression of mGlu4 receptors might be interpreted as compensatory because haloperidol-induced catalepsy was enhanced in mGlu4 mice. Mice injected with 30 mg/kg of MPTP also showed an increase in the transcripts of mGlu4 receptors, CB1 receptors, and preproenkephalin-A at 3 d, and a reduction of the transcript of A receptors at 1 d in the striatum. Genetic deletion of mGlu4 receptors altered the functional response to MPTP, assessed by counting c-Fos neurons in the external globus pallidus and ventromedial thalamic nucleus. These findings offer the first evidence that changes in the expression of mGlu4 and mGlu5 receptors occur in acute models of parkinsonisms, and lay the groundwork for the study of these changes in models that better recapitulate the temporal profile of nigrostriatal dysfunction associated with PD.
    Keywords: Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors ; Haloperidol ; Mptp ; Parkinsonism ; Indirect Pathway ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0028-3908
    E-ISSN: 1873-7064
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  • 8
    In: NeuroReport, 2008, Vol.19(9), pp.911-914
    Description: We examined the effects of chronic morphine treatment and withdrawal on the expression of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu)1, mGlu5, and mGlu2/3 receptors in the nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen. Rats received a 14-day morphine treatment (escalating doses from 10 to 140 mg/kg). Receptor density was evaluated after chronic treatment and after 1, 3, and 14 days of withdrawal. mGlu1 and mGlu5 expression in the nucleus accumbens and in the caudate putamen was not affected by any of the experimental manipulations. In contrast, mGlu2/3 receptors in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the caudate putamen, increased at day 1, 3, and 14 of withdrawal. We suggest that an increased expression of mGlu2/3 receptors in the nucleus accumbens might contribute to the symptoms of morphine withdrawal.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation -- Drug Effects ; Morphine -- Adverse Effects ; Nucleus Accumbens -- Drug Effects ; Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate -- Metabolism ; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome -- Pathology;
    ISSN: 0959-4965
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Molecular brain, 19 November 2013, Vol.6, pp.48
    Description: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a genetic disorder characterized by severe ataxia associated with progressive loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. The mGlu1 metabotropic glutamate receptor plays a key role in mechanisms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum, and its dysfunction is linked to the pathophysiology of motor symptoms associated with SCA1. We used SCA1 heterozygous transgenic mice (Q154/Q2) as a model for testing the hypothesis that drugs that enhance mGlu1 receptor function may be good candidates for the medical treatment of SCA1. Symptomatic 30-week old SCA1 mice showed reduced mGlu1 receptor mRNA and protein levels in the cerebellum. Interestingly, these mice also showed an intense expression of mGlu5 receptors in cerebellar Purkinje cells, which normally lack these receptors. Systemic treatment of SCA1 mice with the mGlu1 receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM), Ro0711401 (10 mg/kg, s.c.), caused a prolonged improvement of motor performance on the rotarod and the paw-print tests. A single injection of Ro0711401 improved motor symptoms for several days, and no tolerance developed to the drug. In contrast, the mGlu5 receptor PAM, VU0360172 (10 mg/kg, s.c.), caused only a short-lasting improvement of motor symptoms, whereas the mGlu1 receptor antagonist, JNJ16259685 (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), further impaired motor performance in SCA1 mice. The prolonged symptomatic benefit caused by Ro0711401 outlasted the time of drug clearance from the cerebellum, and was associated with neuroadaptive changes in the cerebellum, such as a striking reduction of the ectopically expressed mGlu5 receptors in Purkinje cells, increases in levels of total and Ser880-phosphorylated GluA2 subunit of AMPA receptors, and changes in the length of spines in the distal dendrites of Purkinje cells. These data demonstrate that pharmacological enhancement of mGlu1 receptors causes a robust and sustained motor improvement in SCA1 mice, and lay the groundwork for the development of mGlu1 receptor PAMs as novel "cerebellum-specific", effective, and safe symptomatic drugs for the treatment of SCA1 in humans.
    Keywords: Amides -- Pharmacology ; Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate -- Metabolism ; Spinocerebellar Ataxias -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 1756-6606
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Neuropharmacology, January 2017, Vol.112, pp.365-372
    Description: Cinnabarinic and xanthurenic acids are kynurenine metabolites generated by oxidative dimerization of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and transamination of 3-hydroxykynurenine, respectively. Recent evidence suggests that both compounds can affect brain function and neurotransmission and interact with metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. Cinnabarinic acid behaves as an orthosteric agonist of mGlu4 receptors, whereas some of the and effects produced by xanthurenic acid appear to be mediated by the activation of mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors. Cinnabarinic acid could play an important role in mechanisms of neuroinflammation acting as a linking bridge between the immune system and the CNS. Xanthurenic acid has potential implications in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and is a promising candidate as a peripheral biomarker of the disorder. The action of cinnabarinic acid and xanthurenic acid may extend beyond the regulation of mGlu receptors and may involve several diverse molecular targets, such as the aryl hydrocarbon receptor for cinnabarinic acid and vesicular glutamate transporters for xanthurenic acid. The growing interest on these two metabolites of the kynurenine pathway may unravel new aspects in the complex interaction between tryptophan metabolism and brain function, and lead to the discovery of new potential targets for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘The Kynurenine Pathway in Health and Disease’.
    Keywords: Cinnabarinic Acid ; Xanthurenic Acid ; Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors ; Neuroinflammation ; Schizophrenia ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0028-3908
    E-ISSN: 1873-7064
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