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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of microencapsulation, 1988, Vol.5(2), pp.115-27
    Keywords: Drug Carriers ; Adjuvants, Immunologic -- Administration & Dosage ; Colloids -- Pharmacokinetics ; Vaccines -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 0265-2048
    E-ISSN: 14645246
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Controlled Release, 28 September 2015, Vol.214, pp.76-84
    Description: Highly aggressive cancer types such as pancreatic cancer possess a mortality rate of up to 80% within the first 6 months after diagnosis. To reduce this high mortality rate, more sensitive diagnostic tools allowing an early stage medical imaging of even very small tumours are needed. For this purpose, magnetic, biodegradable nanoparticles prepared using recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) and incorporated iron oxide (maghemite, -Fe O ) nanoparticles were developed. Galectin-1 has been chosen as target receptor as this protein is upregulated in pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions but not in healthy pancreatic tissue nor in pancreatitis. Tissue plasminogen activator derived peptides (t-PA-ligands), that have a high affinity to galectin-1 have been chosen as target moieties and were covalently attached onto the nanoparticle surface. Improved targeting and imaging properties were shown in mice using single photon emission computed tomography–computer tomography (SPECT–CT), a handheld gamma camera, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
    Keywords: Rhsa Nanoparticles ; Maghemite ; T-PA-Ligands to Galectins ; T-Papeptide1lac ; Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography–Computer Tomography (Spect–CT) ; Handheld Gamma Camera ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Mri) ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0168-3659
    E-ISSN: 1873-4995
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 1999, Vol.178(1), pp.23-32
    Description: The transport of nanoparticle associated drugs, [ 75 Se]norcholestenol, captopril, methylene blue, hydrocortisone, doxorubicin, and dalargin was determined by permeability measurements in two chamber side by side diffusion cells using cellulose acetate, silicone rubber, pig small intestine, or hairless mice skin as membranes. Solutions of free drugs served as controls. The permeabilities depended on the physico chemical properties of the drugs which governed both, drug interaction with the nanoparticles as well as with the membranes. Consequently, the influence of dilution of the nanoparticle or free drug preparations on permeabilities was complex. With the exception of [ 75 Se]norcholestenol the permeabilities were higher with free drugs than after binding to nanoparticles. The permeabilities of the membranes decreased in the order cellulose acetate, pig small intestine, silicone rubber, and hairless mouse skin.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles ; [75se]Norcholestenol ; Captopril ; Methylene Blue ; Hydrocortisone ; Doxorubicin ; Dalargin ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0378-5173
    E-ISSN: 1873-3476
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  • 4
    In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2001, Vol. 45(4), p.1014
    Description: The report describes the establishment and characterization of a mouse xenograft transplantation model for the study of papillomavirus infection of bovine skin. Calf scrotal skin was inoculated with bovine papillomavirus type 2 before grafting it to the dorsum of severe combined immunodeficient mice. The grafted skin contained epidermis, dermis, and a thin layer of fat. After 5 months the induced warts not only showed histological features of papillomavirus infections but also tested positive for viral DNA and papillomavirus capsid antigen. The formation of infectious virions was demonstrated by inoculation of new transplants with crude extract from the induced warts as well as in a cell culture focus assay. Topical application of bromovinyl-2'-deoxyuridine led to a reduction in viral DNA content in the developing wart. This small-animal xenograft model should be useful for characterizing antiviral compounds and providing an understanding of the regulation of papillomavirus infections.
    Keywords: Antiviral Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Bovine Papillomavirus 1 -- Drug Effects ; Bromodeoxyuridine -- Therapeutic Use ; Warts -- Prevention & Control;
    ISSN: 0066-4804
    ISSN: 00664804
    E-ISSN: 10986596
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: AIDS (London, England), April 1991, Vol.5(4), pp.431-5
    Description: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanoparticles as adjuvants for an HIV-2 whole-virus vaccine in mice. The data clearly revealed that PMMA nanoparticles induced 10-100-fold higher antibody titres than aluminium hydroxide or an aqueous vaccine control preparation as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, the high antibody titres obtained with PMMA as adjuvant appeared to be stable for between 10 and 20 weeks after immunization. In contrast, the titres of the control preparations, fluid or aluminium hydroxide formulations, decreased after 10 weeks.
    Keywords: Adjuvants, Immunologic -- Administration & Dosage ; HIV Antibodies -- Analysis ; HIV-2 -- Immunology ; Methylmethacrylates -- Administration & Dosage ; Vaccines, Inactivated -- Immunology
    ISSN: 0269-9370
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, June 1996, Vol.40(6), pp.1432-7
    Description: Prosthetic heart valve sewing rings were impregnated with gentamicin crobefat (EMD 46217), a poorly soluble gentamicin salt, gentamicin sulfate, and clindamycin palmitate to prevent early prosthetic endocarditis. MICs and MBCs of gentamicin and/or clindamycin were tested against several pathogens of early prosthetic endocarditis. The combination of gentamicin and clindamycin was found to be effective against most relevant bacterial pathogens. With an in vitro pharmacokinetic model, the antibacterial activity of gentamicin and clindamycin was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. High gentamicin levels over the first 24 h were required for a strong reduction of bacterial counts of both strains. Equal amounts of gentamicin and clindamycin sustained the antibacterial effect and prevented regrowth. The most effective release curves of gentamicin and clindamycin found with an in vitro model were used for monitoring release profiles of these antibiotics from impregnated sewing rings by investigating combinations of gentamicin sulfate, gentamicin crobefat, and clindamycin palmitate. Sewing rings impregnated with 4 mg of gentamicin sulfate, 14 mg of gentamicin crobefat, and 20 mg of clindamycin palmitate gave an initial gentamicin burst and afterwards yielded a lower sustained release of gentamicin and clindamycin palmitate. These in vitro release kinetics were confirmed in vivo by pharmacokinetic analysis after intramuscular implantation of impregnated sewing ring segments. Gentamicin and active clindamycin palmitate metabolites were obtained at the implantation site for at least 2 weeks in concentrations of 3 and 5 micrograms per g of muscle, respectively. The investigated method of impregnation holds promise for revision implants after prosthetic valve endocarditis. It may also serve as a prophylactic tool for routine use against this disease.
    Keywords: Clindamycin -- Therapeutic Use ; Endocarditis, Bacterial -- Drug Therapy ; Escherichia Coli Infections -- Drug Therapy ; Gentamicins -- Therapeutic Use ; Heart Valve Prosthesis -- Microbiology ; Staphylococcal Infections -- Drug Therapy
    ISSN: 0066-4804
    E-ISSN: 10986596
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Biomaterials, June 1994, Vol.15(8), pp.593-600
    Description: Methylpyrrolidinone chitosan (MPC), a water-soluble derivative of chitosan, was investigated as a carrier material for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a combination intended for the treatment of wound healing deficiencies. Soft and flexible fleeces of MPC were prepared by freeze drying. The growth factor was incorporated either before drying of the fleeces by mixing bFGF solution with MPC solution or by soaking bFGF solution into a previously prepared fleece and subsequent freeze drying. Release studies using an immunological assay, radioactivity measurements and cell culture techniques revealed a sustained release of biologically active bFGF from the fleeces. Different bFGF loadings and different fleece sizes did not influence the release kinetics.
    Keywords: Chitosan ; Pyrrolidinones ; Chitin -- Analogs & Derivatives ; Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 0142-9612
    E-ISSN: 18785905
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Brain research, 13 March 1995, Vol.674(1), pp.171-4
    Description: Transport of the hexapeptide dalargin across the blood-brain barrier was accomplished using a nanoparticle formulation. The formulation consisted of dalargin bound to poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles by sorption, coated with polysorbate 80. Intravenous injection of this formulation to mice resulted in an analgesic effect. All controls, including a simple mixture of the three components (drugs, nanoparticles, and surfactant) mixed directly before i.v. injection, exhibited no effect. Analgesia was also prevented by pretreatment with naloxone. Fluorescent and electron microscopic studies indicated that the passage of the particle-bound drug occurred by phagocytic uptake of the polysorbate 80-coated nanoparticles by the brain blood vessel endothelial cells.
    Keywords: Blood-Brain Barrier ; Colloids -- Pharmacokinetics ; Peptides -- Pharmacokinetics ; Polymers -- Pharmacokinetics
    ISSN: 0006-8993
    E-ISSN: 18726240
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, January 1997, Vol.280(1), pp.232-7
    Description: B16-melanoma-bearing mice were treated with four different formulations containing equivalent doses of the highly effective antineoplastic drug mitoxantrone. The formulations were: A mitoxantrone solution, a negatively charged liposome preparation (small unilamellar vesicles), a 14C-labeled polybutylcyanoacrylate- (PBCA) nanoparticle suspension, and a suspension of poloxamine 1508-coated 14C-PBCA-nanoparticles. After 1, 4 and 24 hr, three animals of each group were killed and the mitoxantrone concentrations in the blood, tumor, liver, spleen, heart and bone marrow were determined using an high performance liquid chromatography technique. Additionally, the concentrations of PBCA particles in the same tissues were measured by scintillation counting to compare the mitoxantrone distribution with the corresponding PBCA nanoparticle distribution. Each formulation led to a different body distribution profile of the drug. Liposomes drastically increased the blood level of mitoxantrone even after 24 hr, although free drug was cleared quickly. Liposomes also raised the concentration in the liver and spleen, but not the drug level in the tumor. PBCA-nanoparticles considerably increased the mitoxantrone concentrations in tumor, heart and spleen. However, the increase in tumor concentrations was not statistically significant due to the high variability. Nevertheless, the tumor growth was reduced significantly (P 〈 .05) compared to both, the liposome and the solution preparation. The nanoparticle polymer concentrations did not completely mirror those of the drug concentrations. Especially in the heart, where no nanoparticle polymer radioactivity was found, the particle concentration did not completely correspond to the mitoxantrone concentration, revealing that a part of the drug was lost from the particles. These pharmacokinetic results correspond to parallel therapeutic effects obtained with mitoxantrone-loaded nanoparticles and liposomes in the B16 melanoma.
    Keywords: Antineoplastic Agents -- Pharmacokinetics ; Melanoma, Experimental -- Metabolism ; Mitoxantrone -- Pharmacokinetics
    ISSN: 0022-3565
    E-ISSN: 15210103
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 10
    In: Infection and Immunity, 1978, Vol. 19(2), p.667
    Description: The adjuvant effects of different polyacrylic products and monomers were tested. Influenza vaccine was used as a model antigen. Addition of monomers resulted in a decrease in the antibody response, though adjuvant activity of the monomers should be expected according to some theories on adjuvant action. The particle size of the polymer adjuvants proved to be a very important parameter for adjuvant activity. Particles of 0.1 to 0.2 micron yielded a good adjuvant effect, whereas conglomerates or particles bigger than 0.5 micron yielded only poor or no adjuvant effects. The adjuvant effect of 0.1- to 0.2-micron particles was much more reproducible than rat of Al(OH)3. Attention is drawn to the importance of using physiochemically reproducible materials, such as polymer particles, for experimental work.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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