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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology
    Description: Phosphorus in Action presents the latest information on biological processes in soil P cycling. Readers will find a discussion of spectroscopic techniques and the characterization of microbial P forms, as well as the use of tracers, molecular approaches and modeling of soil-plant systems. Phosphorus...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2018, Vol.102(12), pp.5265-5278
    Description: Cowpea N 2 fixation and yield can be enhanced by selecting competitive and efficient indigenous rhizobia. Strains from contrasting agro-ecologies of Kilifi and Mbeere (Kenya) were screened. Two pot experiments were established consisting of 13 Bradyrhizobium strains; experiment 1 (11 Mbeere + CBA + BK1 from Burkina Faso), experiment 2 (12 Kilifi + CBA). Symbiotic effectiveness was assessed (shoot biomass, SPAD index and N uptake). Nodule occupancy of 13 simultaneously co-inoculated strains in each experiment was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to assess competitiveness. Strains varied in effectiveness and competitiveness. The four most efficient strains were further evaluated in a field trial in Mbeere during the 2014 short rains. Strains from bacteroids of cowpea nodules from pot and field experiments were accurately identified as Bradyrhizobium by MALDI-TOF based on the SARAMIS™ database. In the field, abundant indigenous populations 7.10 × 10 3 rhizobia g −1 soil, outcompeted introduced strains. As revealed by MALDI-TOF, indigenous strains clustered into six distinct groups (I, II, III, IV, V and VI), group III were most abundant occupying 80% of nodules analyzed. MALDI-TOF was rapid, affordable and reliable to identify Bradyrhizobium strains directly from nodule suspensions in competition pot assays and in the field with abundant indigenous strains thus, its suitability for future competition assays. Evaluating strain competitiveness and then symbiotic efficacy is proposed in bioprospecting for potential cowpea inoculant strains.
    Keywords: Bradyrhizobium ; Cowpea ; Symbiotic effectiveness ; Nodule occupancy ; Protein profile ; Bacteroid
    ISSN: 0175-7598
    E-ISSN: 1432-0614
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2005, Vol.276(1), pp.163-176
    Description: Diversity in phosphorus (P) acquisition strategies was assessed among eight isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) belonging to three Glomus species, all obtained from the same field site. Maize ( Zea mays L. cv. Corso) was used as a test plant. Compartmented cultivation containers coupled with 33 P radioisotope labeling of soil P were employed to estimate (1) the distance from the roots that AMF were able to acquire soil P from, (2) the rate of soil colonization, (3) the efficiency of uptake of soil P by AMF, (4) benefits provided to maize in terms of P acquisition and growth. Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices took up P 10 cm from roots, whereas G. claroideum only up to 6 cm from the roots. G. mosseae most rapidly colonized the available soil volume and transported significant amounts of P to maize from a distance, but provided no net P uptake benefit to the plants. On the other hand, both G. intraradices and three out of four G. claroideum isolates significantly improved net P uptake by maize. These effects seem to be related to variability between and to a limited extent also within AMF species, in mycelium development, efficiency of hyphal P uptake and effects on plant P acquisition via the root pathway. In spite of absence of maize growth responses to inoculation with any of the AMF isolates, this study indicates remarkable functional diversity in the underground component of the studied field site.
    Keywords: compartmented containers ; functional diversity ; Glomus ; radioisotope labeling
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Mycorrhiza, 2011, Vol.21(8), pp.689-702
    Description: Many studies have scrutinized the nutritional benefits of arbuscular mycorrhizal associations to their host plants, while the carbon (C) balance of the symbiosis has often been neglected. Here, we present quantification of both the C costs and the phosphorus (P) uptake benefits of mycorrhizal association between barrel medic ( Medicago truncatula ) and three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species, namely Glomus intraradices , Glomus claroideum , and Gigaspora margarita . Plant growth, P uptake and C allocation were assessed 7 weeks after sowing by comparing inoculated plants with their non-mycorrhizal counterparts, supplemented with different amounts of P. Isotope tracing ( 33 P and 13 C) was used to quantify both the mycorrhizal benefits and the costs, respectively. G. intraradices supported greatest plant P acquisition and incurred high C costs, which lead to similar plant growth benefits as inoculation with G. claroideum , which was less efficient in supporting plant P acquisition, but also required less C. G. margarita imposed large C requirement on the host plant and provided negligible P uptake benefits. However, it did not significantly reduce plant growth due to sink strength stimulation of plant photosynthesis. A simple experimental system such as the one established here should allow quantification of mycorrhizal costs and benefits routinely on a large number of experimental units. This is necessary for rapid progress in assessment of C fluxes between the plants and different mycorrhizal fungi or fungal communities, and for understanding the dynamics between mutualism and parasitism in mycorrhizal symbioses.
    Keywords: Symbiotic costs and benefits ; Gigaspora margarita ; spp. ; Isotope labeling ; Sink strength stimulation
    ISSN: 0940-6360
    E-ISSN: 1432-1890
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology, Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling, pp.431-458
    Description: Phosphorus (P) is a limited resource and P deficiency limits crop production on large areas worldwide. Future food security, therefore, will largely depend on efficient P use in cropping systems. In this review, we present the impact of farmers’ interventions on biological P cycling in cropped soils of temperate and tropical regions, with emphasis on microbial functions in soil P dynamics. We exemplify the effects of (1) soil tillage, with a focus on the comparison of conventional tillage versus direct seeding systems; (2) fertilizer input, using organic and/or mineral nutrient sources; and (3) integration of legumes into cropping systems. We analyze whether and how biological processes can be influenced to increase the use efficiency of soil and fertilizer P. Finally, we formulate recommendations for an integrated P management. Future research should target improved biological access to recalcitrant inorganic and organic P forms.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 6
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology, Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling, pp.371-406
    Description: The relatively few studies done on phosphorus (P) cycling in arid and semiarid lands (drylands) show many factors that distinguish P cycling in drylands from that in more mesic regions. In drylands, most biologically relevant P inputs and losses are from the deposition and loss of dust. Horizontal and vertical redistribution of P is an important process. P is concentrated at the soil surface and thus vulnerable to loss via erosion. High pH and CaCO3 limit P bioavailability, and low rainfall limits microbe and plant ability to free abiotically bound P via exudates, thus making it available for uptake. Many invasive plants are able to access recalcitrant P more effectively than are native plants. As P availability depends on soil moisture and temperature, climate change is expected to have large impacts on P cycling.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 7
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology, Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling, pp.295-316
    Description: Organic phosphorus (P) is the predominant source of plant and microbial P in many arctic and alpine soils due to high moisture and low temperatures, which result in the accumulation of soil organic matter and P cycles dominated by biological processes. It has been hypothesized that the organic P accumulates in cold soils due to the inhibition of microbial activity by low temperatures. However, microbial activity has also been found to continue at low temperatures. Microbial biomass is one of the largest reservoirs of P in arctic and alpine soils, and a release of microbial P in the spring can be an important P flux. P availability in these soils is typically low during the growing season, but increases have been observed late in the growing season in arctic soils, probably due to root and microbial phosphatase activity. Fertilization studies in arctic and alpine ecosystems have had mixed results, with some plant communities typically responding more to P, whereas others are either nitrogen-limited or co-limited.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 8
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology, Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling, pp.3-36
    Description: The most commonly used differentiation of soil phosphorus (P) is between inorganic and organic forms, despite the fact that this is only the beginning of soil P speciation. Forms of inorganic and organic soil P include a large range of specific P compounds, and spectroscopic techniques can offer the best potential for determining the speciation of soil organic P. The focus of this chapter is to summarise the relative merits of three spectroscopic techniques: solution and solid state 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). We aim to provide current and potential end-users of these techniques the ability to compare these methods on the basis of four criteria: sample preparation, sensitivity, resolution and quantitation.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 9
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology, Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling, pp.93-111
    Description: Phosphorus cycling in soils is partly affected by biological processes. Many different organisms are involved, and microbial functions in particular make a substantial contribution. Recently, various molecular tools independent of microbial cultivation have been developed, offering new possibilities for the analysis of the function and ecology of microbes involved in phosphorus cycling. Plants are also directly or indirectly involved in biological phosphorus cycling. Molecular approaches are powerful for understanding plant functions and the plant–microbe interactions involved in phosphorus cycling. In this chapter, the application of molecular tools to the study of the role of plants and rhizosphere microorganisms in phosphorus cycling is discussed.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 10
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology, Phosphorus in Action: Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling, pp.459-471
    Description: Phosphorus (P) is both an agent of global change, with P loads increasing in most global environments due to the loss of mined phosphate from agricultural, industrial, and urban environments, and is affected by global change processes such as land degradation or the need for P in biofuel production. P plays a fundamental role in food security and, because the only source for new P inputs to agriculture are phosphate rock deposits, P is a strategic, limited resource. Increasing the food supply for a growing world population requires additional P while sources are slowly being depleted. Sustainability of food, fiber, and fuel demands efforts towards maximizing the efficient use of this nutrient and defining priorities for its use. However, P is being used in production systems in such a way that large amounts of P leak into down-stream ecosystems. The negative effects of eutrophication are well known and occur now at a global scale. P use will have to be accompanied by greater efforts towards re-use, recycling, and strategic targeted applications.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, General ; Plant Physiology ; Microbiology ; Agriculture ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISBN: 9783642152702
    ISBN: 3642152708
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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