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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, December 2012, Vol.50(12), pp.797-804
    Description: Mirror exposure therapy has proven efficacious in improving body image among individuals with shape/weight concerns and eating disorders. No randomized controlled trials have examined the effect of mirror exposure in a healthy-weight clinical sample of eating disordered individuals. The purpose of the current study was to test the efficacy of a five-session acceptance based mirror exposure therapy (A-MET) versus a non directive body image therapy (ND) control as an adjunctive treatment to outpatient eating disorder treatment. Thirty-three males and females aged 14–65 with a body mass index of 18.5–29.9 were randomized to five sessions of A-MET or ND with a 1-month follow-up. Results indicated large to moderate effect size differences for efficacy of A-MET across measures of body checking, body image dissatisfaction, and eating disorder symptoms (  = −0.38 to −1.61) at end of treatment and follow-up. Baseline measures of social comparison and history of appearance-related teasing were predictive of treatment response. There were also differential effects of treatment on participants' perceived homework quality, but no differences in therapeutic alliance. Results suggest that A-MET is a promising adjunctive treatment for residual body image disturbance among normal and overweight individuals undergoing treatment for an eating disorder. Future research and clinical implications are discussed. ► Mirror Exposure is superior to non directive treatment for body image disturbance. ► Mirror Exposure results in secondary improvements in eating disorder symptoms. ► Social comparison was a negative predictor of treatment response. ► Teasing and greater thin-ideal internalization predicted greater treatment response. ► Participants' perception of homework improved in mirror exposure therapy.
    Keywords: Eating Disorders ; Mirror Exposure ; Body Image Disturbance ; Latent Growth Curve Model ; Randomized Control Trial ; Anxiety ; Medicine ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0005-7967
    E-ISSN: 1873-622X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2011, Vol.43(4), pp.1421-1426
    Description: ► The familiarity of rules on the ski slopes and the intuitive behaviour were examined. ► High-risk situations were wrongly assessed by a high percentage. ► The correct intuitive behaviour changes with experience. ► Young age appears to be strongly related to inadequate knowledge. ► Ski resorts and schools should heighten awareness of rules in the high-risk groups. Increases in the numbers of people participating in snow sports raise safety concerns. Despite declining numbers of skiing injuries among recreational skiers, collisions resulting in severe injuries appear to be on the rise. Skiers’ risk of injury depends on a considerable number of different factors but only a few studies have investigated risk-taking behaviour and knowledge of proper skiing behaviour. To promote safe skiing the International Ski Federation (FIS) introduced regulations in 1967. We investigated participants’ familiarity with the FIS regulations on the ski slopes in relation to age, skiing ability and country of origin. Random interviews were conducted with1450 recreational skiers at 17 ski resorts in Tyrol, an Austrian province. A questionnaire assessing skiers’ knowledge of existing rules, their intuitive behaviour in given situations and perceptions of safety was developed. The study revealed that beginners, young skiers and those who were not local residents displayed insufficient knowledge. Risk-inducing situations that could result in collisions, such as moving upwards during carving, were largely assessed incorrectly. Appropriate intuitive behaviour increases with experience, and beginners are less able to implement FIS regulations than more experienced skiers. Ski resorts, the media and schools should direct educational efforts toward these high-risk groups. More research is needed to determine the causal connection between skiing injuries and disregard of the FIS Rules.
    Keywords: Recreational Skiing ; Accident Prevention ; Level of Knowledge ; Fis Rules ; Social Welfare & Social Work ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0001-4575
    E-ISSN: 1879-2057
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  • 3
    In: International Journal of Eating Disorders, June 2018, Vol.51(6), pp.535-541
    Description: Theoretically, legal supplement use precedes and increases the risk for illicit appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use-also referred to as the gateway hypothesis. Little is known about associations between the speed of progression, or gap time, from legal to illicit APED use, and psychological risk factors, such as sociocultural influence, eating disorders, body image disturbance, and impulsivity. The sample taken from two studies included 172 active steroid users (n = 143) and intense-exercising healthy controls (n = 29) between the ages of 18 and 60 (M = 34.16, SD = 10.43), the majority of whom were male (91.9%). Participants, retrospectively, reported APED use and completed measures assessing psychological and behavioral factors, including eating concern, muscle dysmorphia, and impulsivity. Participants had a gap time from initial APED use to anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use that ranged from 0 to 38 years. Continuous survival analysis indicated that interactions between self- versus other sociocultural influence on APED onset and both higher eating concern and impulsivity are associated with a shorter gap time from initial legal to illicit APED use. The results indicate the potential value in developing different strategies for individuals with other sociocultural versus self-influence on illicit APED use, and among more impulsive and eating-concerned APED users. Future research is needed to assess different trajectories of APED use, such that eating-concerned and impulsive individuals who perceive less other sociocultural influence may be at greatest risk for a speedier progression to AAS use.
    Keywords: Eating Concern ; Gap Time ; Impulsivity ; Sociocultural Influence ; Steroids
    ISSN: 0276-3478
    E-ISSN: 1098-108X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Psychology and Aging, 2011, Vol.26(3), pp.701-715
    Description: Face cognition is considered a specific human ability, clearly differentiable from general cognitive functioning. Its specificity is primarily supported by cognitive-experimental and neuroimaging research, but recently also from an individual differences perspective. However, no comprehensive behavioral data are available, which would allow estimating lifespan changes of the covariance structure of face-cognition abilities and general cognitive functioning as well as age-differences in face cognition after accounting for interindividual variability in general cognition. The present study aimed to fill this gap. In an age-heterogeneous (18–82 years) sample of 448 adults, we found no factorial dedifferentiation between face cognition and general cognition. Age-related differences in face memory were still salient after taking into account changes in general cognitive functioning. Face cognition thus remains a specific human ability compared with general cognition, even until old age. We discuss implications for models of cognitive aging and suggest that it is necessary to include more explicitly special social abilities in those models.
    Keywords: Face Cognition ; Abstract Cognition ; Adult Lifespan
    ISSN: 0882-7974
    E-ISSN: 1939-1498
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Psychology and Aging, 2013, Vol.28(1), pp.243-248
    Description: We investigated the specificity of face compared with object cognition from an individual differences and aging perspective by determining the amount of overlap between these abilities at the level of latent constructs across age. Confirmatory factor analytic models tested the specificity of speed and accuracy measures for face and object cognition ( N = 448; 18 to 88 years). Accuracy measures were distinguishable and slightly dedifferentiated across age, which was not due to loss of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. There was no face specificity for speed measures. These results support the specificity of face cognition from differential and developmental perspective only for performance accuracy.
    Keywords: Face Cognition ; Object Cognition ; Individual Differences ; Age Differences
    ISSN: 0882-7974
    E-ISSN: 1939-1498
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Kidney International, 01 December 2012, Vol.82(11), pp.1239-1240
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0085-2538
    E-ISSN: 1523-1755
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 2011, Vol.70(6), pp.557-564
    Description: Despite the importance of respiration and hyperventilation in anxiety disorders, research on breathing disturbances associated with hyperventilation is rare in the field of music performance anxiety (MPA, also known as stage fright). The only comparable study in this area reported a positive correlation between negative feelings of MPA and hyperventilation complaints performance. The goals of this study were (a) to extend these previous findings to the period performance, (b) to test whether a positive correlation also exists between hyperventilation complaints and the experience of stage fright as a problem, (c) to investigate instrument-specific symptom reporting, and (d) to confirm gender differences in negative feelings of MPA and hyperventilation complaints reported in other studies. We assessed 169 university students of classical music with a questionnaire comprising: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for negative feelings of MPA, the Nijmegen Questionnaire for hyperventilation complaints, and a single item for the experience of stage fright as a problem. We found a significant positive correlation between hyperventilation complaints and negative feelings of MPA before performance and a significant positive correlation between hyperventilation complaints and the experience of stage fright as a problem. Wind musicians/singers reported a significantly higher frequency of respiratory symptoms than other musicians. Furthermore, women scored significantly higher on hyperventilation complaints and negative feelings of MPA. These results further the findings of previous reports by suggesting that breathing disturbances associated with hyperventilation may play a role in MPA prior to going on stage. Experimental studies are needed to confirm whether hyperventilation complaints associated with negative feelings of MPA manifest themselves at the physiological level.
    Keywords: Breathing ; Hyperventilation ; Musicians ; Performance Anxiety ; Stage Fright
    ISSN: 0022-3999
    E-ISSN: 1879-1360
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  • 8
    In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, May 2017, Vol.41(5), pp.987-997
    Description: Byline: Tom Hildebrandt, Elizabeth E. Epstein, Robyn Sysko, Donald A. Bux Keywords: Type A/B Classification; Factor Analysis; Factor Mixture Model; Typology Background The type A/B classification model for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has received considerable empirical support. However, few studies examine the underlying latent structure of this subtyping model, which has been challenged as a dichotomization of a single drinking severity dimension. Type B, relative to type A, alcoholics represent those with early age of onset, greater familial risk, and worse outcomes from alcohol use. Methods We examined the latent structure of the type A/B model using categorical, dimensional, and factor mixture models in a mixed-gender community treatment-seeking sample of adults with an AUD. Results Factor analytic models identified 2 factors (drinking severity/externalizing psychopathology and internalizing psychopathology) underlying the type A/B indicators. A factor mixture model with 2 dimensions and 3 classes emerged as the best overall fitting model. The classes reflected a type A class and 2 type B classes (B1 and B2) that differed on the respective level of drinking severity/externalizing pathology and internalizing pathology. Type B1 had a greater prevalence of women and more internalizing pathology and B2 had a greater prevalence of men and more drinking severity/externalizing pathology. The 2-factor, 3-class model also exhibited predictive validity by explaining significant variance in 12-month drinking and drug use outcomes. Conclusions The model identified in this study may provide a basis for examining different sources of heterogeneity in the course and outcome of AUDs.
    Keywords: Type A/B Classification ; Factor Analysis ; Factor Mixture Model ; Typology
    ISSN: 0145-6008
    E-ISSN: 1530-0277
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  • 9
    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2011, Vol.43(1), pp.101-107
    Description: PURPOSE:: To develop and evaluate two artificial neural network (ANN) models based on single-sensor accelerometer data and an ANN model based on the data of two accelerometers for the identification of types of physical activity in adults. METHODS:: Forty-nine subjects (21 men and 28 women; age range = 22-62 yr) performed a controlled sequence of activities: sitting, standing, using the stairs, and walking and cycling at two self-paced speeds. All subjects wore an ActiGraph accelerometer on the hip and the ankle. In the ANN models, the following accelerometer signal characteristics were used: 10th, 25th, 75th, and 90th percentiles, absolute deviation, coefficient of variability, and lag-one autocorrelation. RESULTS:: The model based on the hip accelerometer data and the model based on the ankle accelerometer data correctly classified the five activities 80.4% and 77.7% of the time, respectively, whereas the model based on the data from both sensors achieved a percentage of 83.0%. The hip model produced a better classification of the activities cycling, using the stairs, and sitting, whereas the ankle model was better able to correctly classify the activities walking and standing still. All three models often misclassified using the stairs and standing still. The accuracy of the models significantly decreased when a distinction was made between regular versus brisk walking or cycling and between going up and going down the stairs. CONCLUSIONS:: Relatively simple ANN models perform well in identifying the type but not the speed of the activity of adults from accelerometer data.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Physical Therapy;
    ISSN: 0195-9131
    E-ISSN: 15300315
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Eating Disorders, March 2013, Vol.46(2), pp.108-118
    Description: OBJECTIVE: Proposed DSM-5 severity dimensions reveal ambiguity regarding the extent to which certain features define boundaries between similar diagnoses or represent underlying dimensions within a broader category of bulimic syndromes. The current study utilized a novel mixed modeling approach that can simultaneously model latent dimensions and latent categories to address this ambiguity.METHOD: Data from structured clinical interviews in 528 adult participants were analyzed.RESULTS: A three-class solution with one severity dimension that was invariant across groups provided the best-fitting model. Both latent Classes 1 and 2 included bulimic syndromes but were distinguished by greater purging and weight phobia in latent Class 1. Latent Class 3 resembled a noneating disorder class. External validation analyses supported significant differences among empirically derived groups.DISCUSSION: Weight phobia contributes to categorical distinctiveness among bulimic syndromes whereas other features (purging, binge eating, and weight) may do so only in specific combinations. Uniform severity criteria may be appropriate across bulimic syndromes.
    Keywords: Bulimia Nervosa ; Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified ; Factor Mixture Analysis ; Nosology
    ISSN: 0276-3478
    E-ISSN: 1098-108X
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