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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: International Urogynecology Journal, 2014, Vol.25(9), pp.1179-1184
    Description: Byline: Linda Brubaker (1), Charles W. Nager (2), Holly E. Richter (3), Anthony Visco (4), Ingrid Nygaard (5), Matthew D. Barber (6), Joseph Schaffer (7), Susan Meikle (8), Dennis Wallace (9), Noriko Shibata (10), Alan J. Wolfe (10) Keywords: Microbiome; Urinary bacteria; Urinary urgency incontinence; Urinary tract infection Abstract: Introduction and hypothesis This study's aims were to detect and quantify bacterial DNA in the urine of randomized trial participants about to undergo treatment for urinary urgency incontinence (UUI) without clinical evidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) and to determine if the presence of bacterial DNA in baseline urine relates to either baseline urinary symptoms or UTI risk after urinary tract instrumentation. Methods Women without clinical evidence of baseline UTI were randomized to cystoscopic onabotulinum toxin A injection and oral placebo medication versus cystoscopic placebo injection and active oral medication. Bacterial DNA in participants' catheterized urine was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results Bacterial DNA was detected in the urine of 38.7 % of participants (60 out of 155). In these 60 qPCR-positive participants, baseline daily UUI episodes were greater than in the 95 qPCR-negative participants (5.71 [[+ or -]2.60] vs 4.72 [[+ or -]2.86], p=0.004). Neither symptom severity by questionnaire nor treatment outcome was associated with qPCR status or with qPCR level in qPCR-positive subjects. In contrast, the presence of urinary bacterial DNA was associated with UTI risk: only 10 % of the qPCR-positive women developed a UTI post-treatment, while 24 % of the qPCR-negative women did so. The median qPCR level for qPCR-positive samples did not differ significantly by UTI status (UTI 2.58x10.sup.5 vs no UTI 1.35x10.sup.5 copies/mL, p=0.6). Conclusions These results may indicate a urinary bacterial contribution to both baseline UUI and the risk of post-treatment UTI. Author Affiliation: (1) Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Urology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, 2160 S. First Avenue, Boulevard 120, Room 420, Maywood, IL, 60153, USA (2) Department of Reproductive Medicine, UC San Diego Health System, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA (3) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA (4) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA (5) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA (6) Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA (7) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA (8) Gynecologic Health and Disease Branch, The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA (9) Health Sciences Division, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA (10) Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA Article History: Registration Date: 29/12/2013 Received Date: 10/10/2013 Accepted Date: 28/12/2013 Online Date: 11/02/2014 Article note: The ABC trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01166438.
    Keywords: Microbiome ; Urinary bacteria ; Urinary urgency incontinence ; Urinary tract infection
    ISSN: 0937-3462
    E-ISSN: 1433-3023
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  • 2
    Language: Japanese
    In: Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology, February 2008, Vol.56(2), pp.95-100
    Description: Quantitative measurement of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been performed by PCR method. However, PCR method has problems such as a special instrument, a complicated manual skill and a high cost. Recently, simple and highly sensitive HCV core antigen (Ag) method has been developed. We performed fundamental evaluation of HCV core Ag method, and compared HCV core Ag method with HCV PCR high-range method. The intra-assay and inter-assay variation coefficients for HCV core Ag were calculated to be within the ranges of 1.0-11.3% and 0.8-9.3%, respectively. The test of dilution linearity revealed the unstableness in the vicinity of a cut-off level of 50 fmol/L. Based on the result of the high-range method; sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and agreement rate were 97.0%, 100%, 100%, 82.0%, and 96.5%, respectively. The correlation between the HCV core Ag method and the high-range method was r = 0.87. Cost per sample and time from sample preparation to final report for HCV core Ag were cheaper and shorter than those of HCV PCR method, respectively. We consider that the HCV core Ag method seems to be useful as the quantitative measurement of HCV with respect to rapidness, easiness and low cost.
    Keywords: Hepatitis C Antigens -- Analysis ; Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques -- Methods ; Viral Core Proteins -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0047-1860
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Biomaterials, April 2015, Vol.47, pp.62-71
    Description: The nanoscale structure-function relationship is a key determinant of bone toughness or micro-fragility. The loss of bone toughness during the aging process has been accepted based on empirical evidence, but this concept has not yet been fully supported by evidence at the material level. Here, we demonstrate a reduction in bone toughening mechanism in mimetic aged cortical bone obtained from deficient ( ) mice and assessed by dynamic mechanical analysis. The strain-rate nanoindentation tests showed enhanced stiffening of the wild-type calvarial bone and a large dimensional recovery during rapid loading following the constant displacement test. Such strain-dependent stiffening was likely associated with nanoscale dilatational bands and subsequent strain-energy transfer to the superior wild-type cross-linked collagen matrix network. The absence of dilatational bands formed by hydroxyapatite crystals and non-collagenous proteins in the bone samples likely diminished the intrinsic bone toughening mechanisms almost independent of viscoelastic behaviors. Such nanoscale structural alternations that occur during aging processes lead to crack propagation and result in overall bone fractures under large external stresses. In addition, dynamic mechanical analysis using instrumented nanoindentation was useful for the evaluation of bone mechanical properties in this pathological model of a genetic knockout mouse.
    Keywords: Bone ; Mechanical Properties ; Ageing ; Dynamic Mechanical Analysis ; Nanoindentation ; Medicine ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0142-9612
    ISSN: 20452322
    E-ISSN: 1878-5905
    E-ISSN: 20452322
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Diabetic Medicine, 10/16/2017
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/dme.13524/abstract Byline: K. Iseri, M. Iyoda, Y. Shikida, T. Inokuchi, T. Morikawa, N. Hara, T. Hirano, T. Shibata Abstract Background Type B insulin resistance syndrome is a rare disease characterized by refractory transient hyperglycaemia and severe insulin resistance associated with circulating anti-insulin receptor antibodies. A standardized treatment regimen for type B insulin resistance syndrome has yet to be established. Case report We report the case of a 64-year-old man undergoing haemodialysis for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and diabetic nephropathy, who developed rapid onset of hyperglycaemia (glycated albumin 52.1%). Type B insulin resistance syndrome was diagnosed, on the basis of positivity for anti-insulin receptor antibodies and the man's autoimmune history of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Although severe hyperglycaemia persisted in spite of corticosteroids and high-dose insulin therapy, rituximab treatment resulted in remarkable improvement of the man's severe insulin resistance and disappearance of anti-insulin receptor antibodies without any adverse effects. Conclusions According to a literature review of 11 cases in addition to the present case, rituximab appears to be a safe and effective strategy for the treatment of corticosteroid-resistant type B insulin resistance syndrome.
    Keywords: Hyperglycemia – Development and Progression ; Hyperglycemia – Care and Treatment ; Insulin Resistance – Development and Progression ; Insulin Resistance – Care and Treatment ; Diabetic Nephropathies – Development and Progression ; Diabetic Nephropathies – Care and Treatment;
    ISSN: Diabetic Medicine
    E-ISSN: 07423071
    E-ISSN: 14645491
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 28 May 2002, Vol.99(11), pp.7367-72
    Description: Prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), a major cyclooxygenase product in a variety of tissues and cells, readily undergoes dehydration to yield the bioactive cyclopentenone-type PGs of the J(2)-series, such as 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)). The observation that the level of 15d-PGJ(2) increased in the tissue cells from patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis suggested that the formation of 15d-PGJ(2) may be closely associated with neuronal cell death during chronic inflammatory processes. In vitro experiments using SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells revealed that 15d-PGJ(2) induced apoptotic cell death. An oligonucleotide microarray analysis demonstrated that, in addition to the heat shock-responsive and redox-responsive genes, the p53-responsive genes, such as gadd45, cyclin G1, and cathepsin D, were significantly up-regulated in the cells treated with 15d-PGJ(2). Indeed, the 15d-PGJ(2) induced accumulation and phosphorylation of p53, which was accompanied by a preferential redistribution of the p53 protein in the nuclei of the cells and by a time-dependent increase in p53 DNA binding activity, suggesting that p53 accumulated in response to the treatment with 15d-PGJ(2) was functional. The 15d-PGJ(2)-induced accumulation of p53 resulted in the activation of a death-inducing caspase cascade mediated by Fas and the Fas ligand.
    Keywords: Apoptosis -- Drug Effects ; Immunologic Factors -- Pharmacology ; Neurons -- Physiology ; Prostaglandin D2 -- Analogs & Derivatives
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Atherosclerosis, December 2013, Vol.231(2), pp.365-370
    Description: Intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, and pulse wave velocity of the central artery (PWV) have been widely used to evaluate progression of atherosclerosis. Our previous work has revealed that IMT, FMD and PWV are related to each other, and the combination of these measurements was useful in identifying patients with atherosclerotic disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether combination of these measurements would predict future cardiovascular events better than each test alone. From November 2000 to March 2008, 274 consecutive elderly subjects (men/women; 114/160, mean age; 71 ± 12 years) were enrolled in this study. We measured IMT, FMD, and PWV in all of these subjects and followed them for a mean of 41 ± 28 months. During the follow-up period, vascular events occurred in 42 patients (15.3%). IMT (hazard ratio = 1.28 [95%CI, 1.09–1.50],  = 0.002 per 0.1 mm increase in mean IMT) and brachial-ankle (ba) PWV (hazard ratio = 1.06 [95%CI, 1.01–1.10],  = 0.015 per 1 m/s increase in baPWV) were independent predictors of future vascular events by Cox proportional hazard analysis, although FMD did not reach statistical significance (hazard ratio = 0.85 [95%CI, 0.72–1.01],  = 0.062 per 1% increase in %FMD). Importantly, the number of tests showing results in the worst tertile was a more powerful predictor (hazard ratio = 2.21 [95%CI, 1.42–3.43],  = 0.0004 for number of tests showing worst tertile) of future vascular events than either IMT, baPWV, or FMD alone. When both IMT and baPWV (with respective cut-off values of 0.98 mm and 19.1 m/s) were taken into consideration, the efficacy increased as compared with each test alone (odds ratio 4.9). These results indicate that IMT and baPWV, especially when combined, are useful in predicting future vascular events in elderly subjects.
    Keywords: Intima-Media Thickness ; Flow-Mediated Dilation ; Pulse Wave Velocity ; Vascular Event ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0021-9150
    E-ISSN: 1879-1484
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Japanese journal of clinical oncology, 01 August 2018, Vol.48(8), pp.777-780
    Description: A randomized phase III trial comparing watchful waiting with first-line rituximab for advanced stage follicular lymphoma commenced in Japan in December 2016. Watchful waiting is the current standard treatment for stages III and IV (Ann Arbor classification) follicular lymphoma with low tumour burden. This study aimed to confirm the superiority of early administration of first-line rituximab in terms of event-free survival to watchful waiting for stages III and IV follicular lymphoma with low tumour burden. A total of 290 patients will be accrued from 50 Japanese institutions within 5 years. The primary endpoint is event-free survival defined as the period from registration to diagnosis of high tumour burden, therapy using cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, or death. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, progression-free survival, cytotoxic chemotherapy/radiotherapy-free survival, histological transformation-free survival, response rate, adverse events and serious adverse events. This trial has been registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000025187 (http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm).
    Keywords: Tumor Burden ; Watchful Waiting ; Lymphoma, Follicular -- Drug Therapy ; Rituximab -- Therapeutic Use
    ISSN: 03682811
    E-ISSN: 1465-3621
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine, March 2016, Vol.238(3), pp.205-12
    Description: Denosumab (DMAb), a complete human type monoclonal antibody directed against the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, has gained attention as a novel treatment for osteoporosis. However, its efficacy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. We describe a 64-year-old man with severe bone loss and persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) after renal transplantation, whose condition failed to respond to conventional pharmacologic or surgical interventions. He underwent parathyroidectomy with left forearm autograft of crushed tiny parathyroid gland (PTG) particles. However, the autografted PTGs became swollen and caused persistent SHPT in spite of two additional parathyroidectomies of the left forearm. A single subcutaneous administration of DMAb induced hypocalcemia, which was corrected by calcium supplementation and high-dose calcitriol. Eventually, combination therapy with DMAb and calcitriol led to a decline in the patient's elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels, normalization of laboratory markers of bone metabolism, and improvement in bone mineral density in a short period of time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of severe bone loss with persistent SHPT in a renal transplant recipient effectively treated with the combination therapy of DMAb and vitamin D (VD). Although DMAb itself exerts no direct effects on PTGs, the DMAb treatment improved the patient's bone loss. In addition, administration of DMAb allowed for high-dose VD therapy which ultimately controlled SHPT and prevented DMAb-induced hypocalcemia. Therefore, this combination therapy might be a reasonable therapeutic strategy to reverse severe bone loss due to therapy-resistant SHPT in patients with CKD.
    Keywords: Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary ; Kidney Transplantation ; Bone Density Conservation Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Calcitriol -- Therapeutic Use ; Denosumab -- Therapeutic Use ; Osteoporosis -- Drug Therapy
    ISSN: 00408727
    E-ISSN: 1349-3329
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  • 9
    Language: Japanese
    In: No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery, April 2016, Vol.44(4), pp.283-93
    Description: It has been pointed out that the motor evoked potential(MEP)with a subdural electrode is useful in the intraoperative monitoring for unruptured aneurysm surgery. However, in some cases, we experienced postoperative ischemic complications despite evaluating the motor function via MEP monitoring. Herein, we have reported the usefulness and problems of intraoperative monitoring with MEP to evaluate brain dysfunction caused by insufficiency of cerebral blood flow. Out of 279 aneurysm surgery procedures, we performed MEP monitoring in 142 cases and successfully recorded in 126 cases. We compared the ischemic complication rate of the group for which MEP was monitored with that of the group for which MEP was not monitored. The whole ischemic complication rate was decreased in the group that underwent MEP monitoring. Thus, it was suggested that MEP monitoring was useful for avoiding ischemic complications. In internal carotid artery aneurysms, the amplitude of MEP changed and recovered in 2 cases and disappeared in one case. In anterior cerebral artery aneurysms, the amplitude of MEP changed and recovered in 2 cases. In middle cerebral artery aneurysms, the amplitude of MEP changed and recovered in 5 cases. We could avoid ischemic complications by intraoperative MEP monitoring in many cases. However, in some cases, we found ischemic complications that were not detected by MEP monitoring with a subdural electrode. In these cases, transcranial stimulation in combination with subdural electrode might be effective in avoiding ischemic complications that might occur after dural closure.
    Keywords: Evoked Potentials, Motor ; Intracranial Aneurysm -- Physiopathology
    ISSN: 0301-2603
    E-ISSN: 18821251
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, 2012, Vol.119(4), pp.324-329
    Description: The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of memantine (10 mg) was determined in Japanese subjects. Subjects were assigned to four groups based on baseline creatinine clearance (CL ): normal renal function (〉 80 mL/min, n = 6), and mild (50 to ≤ 80 mL/min, n = 6), moderate (30 to 〈 50 mL/min, n = 6), and severe renal impairment (5 to 〈 30 mL/min, n = 7). Mean memantine maximum plasma concentration (C ) was similar in the groups (12.66, 17.25, 15.75, and 15.83 ng/mL, respectively), as was mean time to C (6.2, 5.2, 4.3, and 5.4 h, respectively). However, exposure to memantine determined from mean area under the plasma concentration–time curve was 1.62-, 1.97-, and 2.33-times higher in subjects with mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment, respectively, as compared to controls with normal renal function. Mean memantine plasma elimination half-life increased according to increasing renal impairment (61.15, 83.00, 100.13, and 124.31 h, respectively), while mean cumulative urinary recovery of unchanged memantine in 72 h after dosing decreased according to increasing renal impairment (33.68%, 33.47%, 23.60%, and 16.17%, respectively). These results are the same as those in the previous study on caucasian individuals, when compared per body weight. It is suggested that the dose of memantine should be halved in patients with renal impairment.
    Keywords: Memantine ; Renal Impairment ; Pharmacokinetics ; Dose ; Dementia ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 1347-8613
    E-ISSN: 1347-8648
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