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  • Mortality
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: BMJ Case Reports, 15 April 2015, Vol.2015
    Description: Calciphylaxis is a rare, potentially life-threatening syndrome of progressive cutaneous necrosis from calcium deposition. It is well described in uraemic diseases. However, its mechanism is poorly understood and information on non-uraemic causes is lacking. This is the first report of a biopsy-proven non-uraemic calciphylaxis in a nonagenarian.
    Keywords: Calciphylaxis -- Diagnosis ; Hyperparathyroidism -- Complications ; Renal Insufficiency -- Complications;
    E-ISSN: 1757-790X
    E-ISSN: 1757790X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 November 2016, Vol.571, pp.416-425
    Description: Worldwide, air pollution has become a main environmental cause of premature mortality. This burden is largely due to fine particles. Recent cohort studies have confirmed the health risks associated with chronic exposure to PM for European and French populations. We assessed the mortality impact of PM in continental France using these new results. Based on a meta-analysis of French and European cohorts, we computed a shrunken estimate of PM –mortality relationship for the French population (RR 1.15 [1.05:1.25] for a 10 μg/m increase in PM ). This RR was applied to PM annual concentrations estimated at a fine spatial scale, using a classical health impacts assessment method. The health benefits associated with alternative scenarios of improving air quality were computed for 36,219 French municipalities for 2007–2008. 9% of the total mortality in continental France is attributable to anthropogenic PM . This represents 〉 48,000 deaths per year, and 950,000 years of life lost per year, more than half occurring in urban areas larger than 100,000 inhabitants. If none of the municipalities exceeded the World Health Organization guideline value for PM (10 μg/m ), the total mortality could be decreased by 3%, corresponding to 400,000 years of life saved per year. Results were consistent with previous estimates of the long-term mortality impacts of fine particles in France. These findings show that further actions to improve air quality in France would substantially improve health.
    Keywords: Air Pollution ; Mortality ; Fine Particles ; Health Impact Assessment ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Legal Medicine, 2017, Vol.131(4), pp.1023-1037
    Description: Older traffic participants have higher risks of injury than the population up to 65 years in case of comparable road traffic accidents and further, higher mortality rates at comparable injury severities. Rib fractures as risk factors are currently discussed. However, death on scene is associated with hardly survivable injuries and might not be a matter of neither rib fractures nor age. As 60% of traffic accident fatalities are estimated to die on scene, they are not captured in hospital-based trauma registries and injury patterns remain unknown. Our database comprises 309 road traffic fatalities, autopsied at the Institute of Legal Medicine Munich in 2004 and 2005. Injuries are coded according to Abbreviated Injury Scale, AIS© 2005 update 2008 [1]. Data used for this analysis are age, sex, site of death, site of accident, traffic participation mode, measures of injury severity, and rib fractures. The injury patterns of elderly, aged 65+ years, are compared to the younger ones divided by their site of death. Elderly with death on scene more often show serious thorax injuries and pelvic fractures than the younger. Some hints point towards older fatalities showing less frequently serious abdominal injuries. In hospital, elderly fatalities show lower Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) compared to the younger. The number of rib fractures is significantly higher for the elderly but is not the reason for death. Results show that young and old fatalities have different injury patterns and reveal first hints towards the need to analyze death on scene more in-depth.
    Keywords: Traffic fatalities ; Elderly ; Rib fracture ; Injury pattern ; Prehospital mortality ; Abbreviated Injury Scale
    ISSN: 0937-9827
    E-ISSN: 1437-1596
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environment International, December 2015, Vol.85, pp.5-14
    Description: Long-term exposure to air pollution (AP) has been shown to have an impact on mortality in numerous countries, but since 2005 no data exists for France. We analyzed the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality at the individual level in a large French cohort followed from 1989 to 2013. The study sample consisted of 20,327 adults working at the French national electricity and gas company . Annual exposure to PM , PM , PM , NO , O , SO , and benzene was assessed for the place of residence of participants using a chemistry-transport model and taking residential history into account. Hazard ratios were estimated using a Cox proportional-hazards regression model, adjusted for selected individual and contextual risk factors. Hazard ratios were computed for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in air pollutant concentrations. The cohort recorded 1967 non-accidental deaths. Long-term exposures to baseline PM , PM , NO and benzene were associated with an increase in non-accidental mortality (Hazard Ratio, HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.20 per 5.9 μg/m , PM ; HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.15 per 2.2 μg/m , NO : HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.31 per 19.3 μg/m and benzene: HR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.22 per 1.7 μg/m ).The strongest association was found for PM : HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.25 per 7.8 μg/m . PM , PM and SO were associated with non-accidental mortality when using time varying exposure. No significant associations were observed between air pollution and cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. Long-term exposure to fine particles, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and benzene is associated with an increased risk of non-accidental mortality in France. Our results strengthen existing evidence that outdoor air pollution is a significant environmental risk factor for mortality. Due to the limited sample size and the nature of our study (occupational), further investigations are needed in France with a larger representative population sample.
    Keywords: Air Pollution ; Mortality ; Cohort Study ; Epidemiology ; France ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0160-4120
    E-ISSN: 1873-6750
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Retrovirology, 01 December 2018, Vol.15(1), pp.1-11
    Description: Abstract Objectives To investigate the impact of early combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on inflammation biomarkers and immune activation during acute and early chronic HIV-1 infection. Methods We included 12 acute (AHI), 11 early chronic (EcHI), and 18 late chronic HIV-1-infected (LcHI)...
    Keywords: HIV-1 Acute Infection ; Inflammation ; Cart ; Immune Activation ; Ip-10 ; Il-18 ; Biology
    E-ISSN: 1742-4690
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  • 6
    In: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2019, Vol.81(2), pp.138-144
    Description: OBJECTIVES:: Identifying factors associated with mortality among acutely ill HIV-infected children presenting with advanced HIV disease may help clinicians optimize care for those at highest risk of death. DESIGN:: Using data from a randomized controlled trial (NCT02063880), we determined baseline sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory cofactors of mortality among HIV-infected children in Kenya. METHODS:: We enrolled hospitalized, HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy–naive children (0–12 years), initiated antiretroviral therapy, and followed up them for 6 months. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for death and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS:: Of 181 enrolled children, 39 (22%) died. Common diagnoses at death were pneumonia or suspected pulmonary tuberculosis [23 (59%)] and gastroenteritis [7 (18%)]. Factors associated with mortality in univariate analysis included age 〈2 years [HR 3.08 (95% CI: 1.50 to 6.33)], orphaned or vulnerable child (OVC) [HR 2.05 (95% CI: 1.09 to 3.84)], weight-for-age Z score 〈−2 [HR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.05 to 5.00)], diagnosis of pneumonia with hypoxia [HR 5.25 (95% CI: 2.00 to 13.84)], oral thrush [HR 2.17 (95% CI: 1.15 to 4.09)], persistent diarrhea [HR 3.81 (95% CI: 1.89 to 7.69)], and higher log10 HIV-1 viral load [HR 2.16 (95% CI: 1.35 to 3.46)] (all P 〈 0.05). In multivariable analysis, age 〈2 years and OVC status remained significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS:: Young age and OVC status independently predicted mortality. Hypoxic pneumonia, oral thrush, and persistent diarrhea are important clinical features that predict mortality. Strategies to enhance early diagnosis in children and improve hospital management of critically ill HIV-infected children are needed.
    Keywords: Kenya ; Hazards ; Gastroenteritis ; Gastroenteritis ; Mortality ; Pneumonia ; Hypoxia ; Age ; Diagnosis ; Age ; Antiretroviral Drugs ; Mortality ; Therapy ; Statistical Analysis ; Diagnosis ; Tuberculosis ; Drug Therapy ; Antiretroviral Therapy ; Mortality ; Children ; Hypoxia ; Pneumonia ; Age ; Children ; Confidence Intervals ; Antiretroviral Agents ; Mortality ; Human Immunodeficiency Virus–HIV ; Tuberculosis ; Diarrhea ; Pneumonia ; Regression Analysis ; Hypoxia ; Cofactors ; Death ; Death ; Tuberculosis ; Tuberculosis;
    ISSN: 1525-4135
    E-ISSN: 19447884
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