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  • 1
    Book
    Book
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    Description: This volume contains the lectures given in honor to Georg Färber as tribute to his contributions in the area of real-time and embedded systems. The chapters of many leading scientists cover a wide range of aspects, like robot or automotive vision systems or medical aspects..
    Keywords: Engineering ; Communications Engineering, Networks ; Computer Communication Networks ; Multimedia Information Systems ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642243486
    ISBN: 3642243487
    E-ISSN: 36422434
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  • 2
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    Description: We are currently witnessing a rapid growth in the number of sensors in our automobiles. Accompanied by a trend towards higher data rate, storage capabilities, and processing power per sensor it seems safe to state that the role of information acquisition and processing is of increasing importance to the automotive domain. While radar, lidar, and video sensors were only introduced to selected upper class automobiles around the turn of the millennium, such sensors are readily available for medium sized vehicles by now and are expected to become standard in any vehicle in the not so far future. Combined with vehicular communication systems it is expected that this trend will not only show quantitative effects on driving comfort, but in the long term will provide a totally new quality of traffic operation including concerted navigation for safe, comfortable, and efficient driving.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Communications Engineering, Networks ; Computer Communication Networks ; Multimedia Information Systems ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642243486
    ISBN: 3642243487
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 3
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    Description: Considerate re-use of elements of the Sobel-gradient operator also for corner detection in a new scheme allows unified extraction of edge-, corner- and linearly shaded blob features that can be done in real time taking recent microprocessor technology (GPUs) into account. In turn, this allows much more detailed visual recognition of complex road scenes in connection with corresponding knowledge bases on motion processes for dynamic vision. These subjects are discussed in a survey fashion as background material. The article concentrates on the new corner detection scheme looking directly for curvature components of the intensity function in several pairs of orthogonal directions. Typical results are shown for traffic scenes on highways. The new scheme is especially suited for recognizing blinking spot lights and brake (stop) lights.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Communications Engineering, Networks ; Computer Communication Networks ; Multimedia Information Systems ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642243486
    ISBN: 3642243487
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 4
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    Description: Historically, real-time systems have been focussed on providing single, specific solutions to single, specific applications, treating all activities with the same methods, geared towards the most demanding scenarios. While the high cost of such an approach is acceptable for applications with dramatic failure consequences it is no longer justified in a growing number of new applications. In these, real-time behavior is demanded only for parts of the systems, few faults can be tolerated. Instead of strict real-time behavior for the entire system, these applications demand “also real-time”, or some temporal control.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Communications Engineering, Networks ; Computer Communication Networks ; Multimedia Information Systems ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642243486
    ISBN: 3642243487
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 5
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    Description: Understanding the connection between algorithms and solvers for large scale systems on the one hand, and appropriate architectures that execute them efficiently on the other is key to the effective design of modern signal processing applications. This trend has started with the emergence of digital media, large scale signal processing for image coding and analysis, digital mobile telephony and digital processing in medical imaging. In many cases dedicated, hardware or software dominated methods on a single processor have been used, only in recent times more generic methods based on general purpose array architectures, either dedicated to media processing or for general computing have become realizable. Massive use of parallelism becomes attractive and should, in the future, allow us to tackle large scale problems in a streamlined fashion.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Communications Engineering, Networks ; Computer Communication Networks ; Multimedia Information Systems ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642243486
    ISBN: 3642243487
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 6
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    Description: A cyber-physical system (CPS) consists of two interacting subsystems, a distributed computer system (the C-system) and a physical system (the P-system) that is controlled by the C-system. The different models of time – dense time in the P-system and discrete time in the C-system – lead to an observation uncertainty at the interface of these two subsystems. Within the C-system, the jitter of the communication system can be the source of an inconsistent system state. This paper investigates the effects of the observations uncertainty and the jitter of the communication system on the causality and determinism of the system behavior in a CPS that contains a global notion of time. It comes to the conclusion that in general it is not possible to build a faithful model of a P-system in the C-system. Based on the gained insight some guidelines for the design of cyber-physical systems are given and a short note on the faithfulness of timeless (asynchronous) C- systems are contained in the final part of the paper.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Communications Engineering, Networks ; Computer Communication Networks ; Multimedia Information Systems ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642243486
    ISBN: 3642243487
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 7
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    Description: This paper deals with techniques and methods for modelling systems that work on discrete and also on continuous streams of data. Such systems are called hybrid systems. We model the interface behaviour of such systems by functions that map streams of input onto streams of output data. I/O state machines, also known as Mealy (and as Moore) machines, can model such systems. Their observable behaviour, called interface abstraction, is modelled by functions on sets of discrete and hybrid streams. We work out foundations for specifying and abstracting such systems as well as refinements of continuous streams into discrete ones. By introducing event views as logical abstraction of continuous streams the logical behaviour of continuous systems in terms of discrete events is captured. This provides a concept of logical abstraction for continuous streams in terms of discrete event streams.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Communications Engineering, Networks ; Computer Communication Networks ; Multimedia Information Systems ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642243486
    ISBN: 3642243487
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 8
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    Description: The FlexRay protocol was introduced by an international consortium including several car manufacturers to cope with growing real-time requirements of advanced driver assistance functions and safety functions in the automotive domain. The FlexRay protocol offers a static and dynamic segment with a high data rate of 10 Mbit/s. While the event-triggered dynamic segment is used mainly for diagnosis, maintenance, and calibration data, the time-triggered static segment might be used for critical data with strict real-time requirements. In addition to standard linear bus and star topologies, the FlexRay bus allows hybrid topologies including a dual channel mode to increase the reliability. However, in contrast to the prevailing CAN bus [4] in the automotive domain, the configuration of the FlexRay bus is significantly more complex: It requires a large set of parameters and a predefined schedule. This chapter introduces a scheduling concept for the static segment of the FlexRay based on the transformation to a two-dimensional bin packing problem.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Communications Engineering, Networks ; Computer Communication Networks ; Multimedia Information Systems ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642243486
    ISBN: 3642243487
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 9
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    Description: Most of the industrial robots nowadays still employ strategies that neglect or minimize the effects of task dynamics. This simplifies task planning and reduces the required sensor capacities. In order to gain maximum performance with such an approach, these robotic systems are typically highly specialized and offer little flexibility. The potential areas of application for robots, however, gradually extend beyond the classical industrial settings in large scale enterprises. The envisioned range of use includes small-scale enterprises and households. This trend requires the development of efficient and flexible systems with advanced cognitive capabilities, such as perception, action, learning, or planning. The main research direction of the robotic basketball project is the development of advanced sensory and motor skills for robotic manipulators.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Communications Engineering, Networks ; Computer Communication Networks ; Multimedia Information Systems ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642243486
    ISBN: 3642243487
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 10
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    Language: English
    Description: The ideas behind the L4 microkernel were born back in the mid-1990’s when Jochen Liedtke reexamined the design of the earlier generation microkernels around Mach. Trying to prove that a minimal kernel can still provide high system performance, he developed first L3, then L4. The fundamental principle of his microkernels is that a concept will only be allowed inside the kernel, if user-land implementations would be unable to achieve the required functionality. This leads to truly minimalist kernels supporting only address spaces, threads and interprocess communication. These basic services are enough to run isolated user-level processes on top of L4. Any additional functionality must be implemented as a server process. This includes components like file systems, networking and even device drivers, all of which are usually subsumed as an operating system personality.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Communications Engineering, Networks ; Computer Communication Networks ; Multimedia Information Systems ; Engineering ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9783642243486
    ISBN: 3642243487
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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