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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Brain Topography, 2012, Vol.25(4), pp.423-430
    Description: Music is capable of inducing emotional arousal. While previous studies used brief musical excerpts to induce one specific emotion, the current study aimed to identify the physiological correlates of continuous changes in subjective emotional states while listening to a complete music piece. A total of 19 participants listened to the first movement of Ludwig van Beethoven’s 5th symphony (duration: ~7.4 min), during which a continuous 76-channel EEG was recorded. In a second session, the subjects evaluated their emotional arousal during the listening. A fast fourier transform was performed and covariance maps of spectral power were computed in association with the subjective arousal ratings. Subjective arousal ratings had good inter-individual correlations. Covariance maps showed a right-frontal suppression of lower alpha-band activity during high arousal. The results indicate that music is a powerful arousal-modulating stimulus. The temporal dynamics of the piece are well suited for sequential analysis, and could be necessary in helping unfold the full emotional power of music.
    Keywords: Arousal ; Emotion ; Music ; EEG ; Frontal alpha-asymmetry
    ISSN: 0896-0267
    E-ISSN: 1573-6792
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  • 2
    In: Psychophysiology, September 2013, Vol.50(9), pp.909-919
    Description: The present study investigates the relation of perceived arousal (continuous self‐rating), autonomic nervous system activity (heart rate, heart rate variability) and musical characteristics (sound intensity, musical rhythm) upon listening to a complex musical piece. Twenty amateur musicians listened to two performances of hopin's “Tristesse” with different rhythmic shapes. Besides conventional statistical methods for analyzing psychophysiological reactions (heart rate, respiration rate) and musical variables, semblance analysis was used. Perceived arousal correlated strongly with sound intensity; heart rate showed only a partial response to changes in sound intensity. Larger changes in heart rate were caused by the version with more rhythmic tension. The low‐/high‐frequency ratio of heart rate variability increased—whereas the high frequency component decreased—during music listening. We conclude that autonomic nervous system activity can be modulated not only by sound intensity but also by the interpreter's use of rhythmic tension. Semblance analysis enables us to track the subtle correlations between musical and physiological variables.
    Keywords: Music ; Subjective Arousal ; Sound Intensity ; Heart Rate ; Heart Rate Variability ; Respiration Rate ; Tempo Rubato ; Semblance Analysis
    ISSN: 0048-5772
    E-ISSN: 1469-8986
    E-ISSN: 15405958
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  • 3
    In: Cerebral Cortex, 2018, Vol. 28(12), pp.4222-4233
    Description: Despite many behavioral and neuroimaging investigations, it remains unclear how the human cortex represents spectrotemporal sound features during auditory imagery, and how this representation compares to auditory perception. To assess this, we recorded electrocorticographic signals from an epileptic patient with proficient music ability in 2 conditions. First, the participant played 2 piano pieces on an electronic piano with the sound volume of the digital keyboard on. Second, the participant replayed the same piano pieces, but without auditory feedback, and the participant was asked to imagine hearing the music in his mind. In both conditions, the sound output of the keyboard was recorded, thus allowing precise time-locking between the neural activity and the spectrotemporal content of the music imagery. This novel task design provided a unique opportunity to apply receptive field modeling techniques to quantitatively study neural encoding during auditory mental imagery. In both conditions, we built encoding models to predict high gamma neural activity (70–150 Hz) from the spectrogram representation of the recorded sound. We found robust spectrotemporal receptive fields during auditory imagery with substantial, but not complete overlap in frequency tuning and cortical location compared to receptive fields measured during auditory perception.
    Keywords: Auditory Cortex ; Electrocorticography ; Frequency Tuning ; Spectrotemporal Receptive Fields
    ISSN: 1047-3211
    E-ISSN: 1460-2199
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain, 2015, Vol.25(4), pp.357-365
    Description: Humans constantly predict their environment to facilitate mutual interaction. Predictions are connected with emotions as nonfatal penalties and rewards (for incorrect and correct expectancies, respectively) that result in negative and positive emotions. Music is an ideal stimulus to explore the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of prediction related emotions. Using the high spatial and temporal resolution of stereotactic depth electrodes, we identified activation patterns and examined their distribution in the bilateral Amygdalae and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). We used music excerpts with either (a) a deceptive cadence (i.e., an unexpected chord/breach) or (b) a tonic chord inserted instead of a deceptive cadence (regular chord/no breach). These events were followed by a chord progression leading to and ending on the tonic after a breach (c) or (d) on a tonic after no breach. We computed the differences of the analytic amplitudes in the theta band at these time-points (i.e., events a–d) by using t tests. We found a significant difference between the unexpected chord (a) and the expected chord (b) in the analytic amplitude of the theta band in the left amygdala. Further we found a difference between the 2 resolutions (c and d) in the analytic amplitude of the theta band within the OFC. In conclusion, our case study supports the notion that the amygdala and the OFC are important for emotional responses to musical expectancy breaches as well as of their resolution.
    Keywords: Emotion ; Expectancy ; Ieeg ; Music ; Theta
    ISBN: 1433822334
    ISSN: 0275-3987
    E-ISSN: 2162-1535
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