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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 02 June 2015, Vol.112(22), pp.6979-84
    Description: Fragment-based screening methods can be used to discover novel active site or allosteric inhibitors for therapeutic intervention. Using saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR and in vitro activity assays, we have identified fragment-sized inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) with distinct chemical scaffolds and mechanisms compared to nonnucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) and nucleoside/nucleotide RT inhibitors (NRTIs). Three compounds were found to inhibit RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of HIV-1 RT in the micromolar range while retaining potency against RT variants carrying one of three major NNRTI resistance mutations: K103N, Y181C, or G190A. These compounds also inhibit Moloney murine leukemia virus RT but not the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Steady-state kinetic analyses demonstrate that one of these fragments is a competitive inhibitor of HIV-1 RT with respect to deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) substrate, whereas a second compound is a competitive inhibitor of RT polymerase activity with respect to the DNA template/primer (T/P), and consequently also inhibits RNase H activity. The dNTP competing RT inhibitor retains activity against the NRTI-resistant mutants K65R and M184V, demonstrating a drug resistance profile distinct from the nucleotide competing RT inhibitors indolopyridone-1 (INDOPY-1) and 4-dimethylamino-6-vinylpyrimidine-1 (DAVP-1). In antiviral assays, the T/P competing compound inhibits HIV-1 replication at a step consistent with an RT inhibitor. Screening of additional structurally related compounds to the three fragments led to the discovery of molecules with improved potency against HIV-1 RT. These fragment inhibitors represent previously unidentified scaffolds for development of novel drugs for HIV-1 prevention or treatment.
    Keywords: HIV ; STD-NMR ; Allosteric Inhibitors ; Fragment-Based Drug Discovery ; Reverse Transcriptase ; Drug Discovery -- Methods ; HIV-1 -- Enzymology ; Prodrugs -- Isolation & Purification ; Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors -- Isolation & Purification
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(9)
    Description: The increasing resistance to current therapeutic agents for HIV drug regiment remains a major problem for effective acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapy. Many potential inhibitors have today been developed which inhibits key cellular pathways in the HIV cycle. Inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) function provides a novel target for anti-HIV chemotherapy. Here we report on the applicability of conceptually different in silico approaches as virtual screening (VS) tools in order to efficiently identify RNase H inhibitors from large chemical databases. The methods used here include machine-learning algorithms (e.g. support vector machine, random forest and kappa nearest neighbor), shape similarity (rapid overlay of chemical structures), pharmacophore, molecular interaction fields-based fingerprints for ligands and protein (FLAP) and flexible ligand docking methods. The results show that receptor-based flexible docking experiments provides good enrichment (80–90%) compared to ligand-based approaches such as FLAP (74%), shape similarity (75%) and random forest (72%). Thus, this study suggests that flexible docking experiments is the model of choice in terms of best retrieval of active from inactive compounds and efficiency and efficacy schemes. Moreover, shape similarity, machine learning and FLAP models could also be used for further validation or filtration in virtual screening processes. The best models could potentially be use for identifying structurally diverse and selective RNase H inhibitors from large chemical databases. In addition, pharmacophore models suggest that the inter-distance between hydrogen bond acceptors play a key role in inhibition of the RNase H domain through metal chelation.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Retrovirology, 01 August 2011, Vol.8(1), p.69
    Description: Abstract Background N348I in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) confers resistance to zidovudine (AZT) and nevirapine. Biochemical studies demonstrated that N348I indirectly increases AZT resistance by decreasing the frequency of secondary ribonuclease H (RNase H) cleavages that reduce the RNA/DNA duplex length of the template/primer (T/P) and diminish the efficiency of AZT-monophosphate (MP) excision. By contrast, there is some discrepancy in the literature in regard to the mechanisms associated with nevirapine resistance: one study suggested that it is due to decreased inhibitor binding while others suggest that it may be related to the decreased RNase H cleavage phenotype. From a structural perspective, N348 in both subunits of RT resides distal to the enzyme's active sites, to the T/P binding tract and to the nevirapine-binding pocket. As such, the structural mechanisms associated with the resistance phenotypes are not known. Results Using a novel modelled structure of RT in complex with an RNA/DNA T/P, we identified a putative interaction between the β14-β15 loop in the p51 subunit of RT and the RNA template. Substitution of the asparagine at codon 348 in the p51 subunit with either isoleucine or leucine abrogated the observed protein-RNA interaction, thus, providing a possible explanation for the decreased RNase H phenotype. By contrast, alanine or glutamine substitutions exerted no effect. To validate this model, we introduced the N348I, N348L, N348A and N348Q mutations into RT and purified enzymes that contained subunit-specific mutations. N348I and N348L significantly decreased the frequency of secondary RNase H cleavages and increased the enzyme's ability to excise AZT-MP. As predicted by the modelling, this phenotype was due to the mutation in the p51 subunit of RT. By contrast, the N348A and N348Q RTs exhibited RNase H cleavage profiles and AZT-MP excision activities similar to the wild-type enzyme. All N348 mutant RTs exhibited decreased nevirapine susceptibility, although the N348I and N348L mutations conferred higher fold resistance values compared to N348A and N348Q. Nevirapine resistance was also largely due to the mutation present in the p51 subunit of RT. Conclusions This study demonstrates that N348I-mediated AZT and nevirapine resistance is due to the mutation in the p51 subunit of RT.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 1742-4690
    E-ISSN: 1742-4690
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(2), p.e31558
    Description: We previously demonstrated in vitro that zidovudine (AZT) selects for A371V in the connection domain and Q509L in ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) which, together with the thymidine analog mutations D67N, K70R and T215F, confer greater than 100-fold AZT resistance. The goal of the current study was to determine whether AZT monotherapy in HIV-1 infected patients also selects the A371V, Q509L or other mutations in the C-terminal domains of HIV-1 RT. ; Full-length RT sequences in plasma obtained pre- and post-therapy were compared in 23 participants who received AZT monotherapy from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group study 175. Five of the 23 participants reached a primary study endpoint. Mutations significantly associated with AZT monotherapy included K70R (p = 0.003) and T215Y (p = 0.013) in the polymerase domain of HIV-1 RT, and A360V (p = 0.041) in the connection domain of HIV-1 RT. HIV-1 drug susceptibility assays demonstrated that A360V, either alone or in combination with thymidine analog mutations, decreased AZT susceptibility in recombinant viruses containing participant-derived full-length RT sequences or site-directed mutant RT. Biochemical studies revealed that A360V enhances the AZT-monophosphate excision activity of purified RT by significantly decreasing the frequency of secondary RNase H cleavage events that reduce the RNA/DNA duplex length and promote template/primer dissociation. ; The A360V mutation in the connection domain of RT was selected in HIV-infected individuals that received AZT monotherapy and contributed to AZT resistance.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Genetics And Genomics ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e37442
    Description: Simplification of antiretroviral treatment (ART) with darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy has achieved sustained suppression of plasma viral load (pVL) in clinical trials; however, its effectiveness and safety profile has not been evaluated in routine clinical practice. ; We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of HIV-1-infected patients who initiated DRV/r monotherapy once daily with a pVL 50 copies/mL) at week 48, and time to VF. Other causes of treatment discontinuation and changes in lipid profile were evaluated up to week 48. Ninety-two patients were followed for a median (IQR) of 73 (57–92) weeks. The median baseline and nadir CD4+ T-cell counts were 604 (433–837) and 238 (150–376) cells/mm3, respectively. Patients had previously received a median of 5 (3–9) ART lines and maintained a pVL〈50 copies/mL for a median of 76 (32–176) weeks before initiating DRV/r monotherapy. Nine (9.8%) patients developed VF at week 48; time to VF was 47.1 (IQR: 36.1–47.8) weeks among patients with VF. Other reasons for changing ART were gastrointestinal disturbances (n = 3), rash (n = 1), and impaired CD4 recovery (n = 2). Median low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased from 116.1 mg/dL at baseline to 137.3 mg/dL at 48 weeks (p = 0.001). ; Treatment simplification with DRV/r monotherapy seems safe and effective in routine clinical practice. Further research is needed to elucidate the effect of DRV/r monotherapy on cholesterol levels.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(11), p.e47505
    Description: Telomerase is a specialized reverse transcriptase responsible for the de novo synthesis of telomeric DNA repeats. In addition to its established reverse transcriptase and terminal transferase activities, recent reports have revealed unexpected cellular activities of telomerase, including RNA-dependent RNA polymerization. This telomerase characteristic, distinct from other reverse transcriptases, indicates that clinically relevant reverse transcriptase inhibitors might have unexpected telomerase inhibition profiles. This is particularly important for the newer generation of RT inhibitors designed for anti-HIV therapy, which have reported higher safety margins than older agents. Using an in vitro primer extension assay, we tested the effects of clinically relevant HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors on cellular telomerase activity. We observed that all commonly used nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), including zidovudine, stavudine, tenofovir, didanosine and abacavir, inhibit telomerase effectively in vitro. Truncated telomere synthesis was consistent with the expected mode of inhibition by all tested NRTIs. Through dose-response experiments, we established relative inhibitory potencies of NRTIs on in vitro telomerase activity as compared to the inhibitory potencies of the corresponding dideoxynucleotide triphosphates. In contrast to NRTIs, the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) nevirapine and efavirenz did not inhibit the primer extension activity of telomerase, even at millimolar concentrations. Long-term, continuous treatment of human HT29 cells with select NRTIs resulted in an accelerated loss of telomere repeats. All tested NRTIs exhibited the same rank order of inhibitory potencies on telomerase and HIV RT, which, according to published data, were orders-of-magnitude more sensitive than other DNA polymerases, including the susceptible mitochondria-specific DNA polymerase gamma. We concluded that telomerase activity could be inhibited by common NRTIs, including currently recommended RTI agents tenofovir and abacavir, which warrants large-scale clinical and epidemiological investigation of the off-target effects of long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with these agents.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Infectious Diseases ; Molecular Biology ; Cell Biology ; Pharmacology ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(9), p.e44333
    Description: Since the antiretroviral therapy (ART) was introduced to patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the HIV related mortality and morbidity have been significantly reduced. The major obstacle for long-term successful anti-HIV treatment is the emergence of drug resistant mutants. Current data of drug resistance was mainly obtained on HIV-1 subtype B but rarely on non-B virus, even more rare with newly emerged circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). The lack of such data limits the rational management of ART for the increasing number of patients infected by non-subtype B virus. In this study, a HIV-1 CRF07_BC strain CNGZD was isolated from a HIV patient and its genome was sequenced and deposited in GenBank (JQ423923). Potential drug resistant mutants of this CRF07_BC virus strain were selected in PBMCs cultures in the presence of Nevirapine (NVP), which is the most frequently used antiretroviral drug in China. Four combination profiles of mutations were identified in the NVP-selected mutants, which were initiated with A98G, V108I, Y181C and I135T/I382L and followed by more than two other mutations at the end of the selections, respectively. A total of seven previously reported mutations (A98G, V106M, V108I, I135T, Y181C, V189I, K238N) and seven novel mutations (P4H, T48I, I178M, V314A, I382L/V, T386A) in the reverse transcriptase gene were found in these NVP-selected mutants. Phenotypic analysis in the NVP-selected mutants showed that all the mutations, except P4H, contribute to NVP resistance. Among them, V106M and Y181C reduce NVP susceptibility for more than 20-fold, while the other mutations cause less than 20 folds drug resistance. Although the information obtained in this in vitro selection study may not fully cover resistant mutations which will actually occur in patients, it has still provided useful information for rational management of ART in patients infected with HIV CRF_BC subtype.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Computational Biology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Nucleic acids research, October 2014, Vol.42(18), pp.11687-96
    Description: Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs) are routinely used to treat HIV-1 infection, yet their mechanism of action remains unclear despite intensive investigation. In this study, we developed complementary single-molecule fluorescence and ensemble fluorescence anisotropy approaches to discover how NNRTIs modulate the intra-molecular conformational changes and inter-molecular dynamics of RT-template/primer (T/P) and RT-T/P-dNTP complexes. We found that NNRTI binding to RT induces opening of the fingers and thumb subdomains, which increases the dynamic sliding motion of the enzyme on the T/P and reduces dNTP binding affinity. Further, efavirenz promotes formation of the E138-K101 salt bridge between the p51 and p66 subunits of RT, which contributes to opening of the thumb/fingers subdomains. Engineering a more polar salt bridge between p51 and p66 resulted in even greater increases in the thumb/fingers opening, RT sliding, dNTP binding disruption and in vitro and in vivo RT inhibition than were observed with wild-type RT. We also observed that K103N, a clinically relevant NNRTI resistance mutation, does not prevent binding between efavirenz and RT-T/P but instead allows formation of a stable and productive RT-T/P-dNTP complex, possibly through disruption of the E138-K101 salt bridge. Collectively, these data describe unique structure-activity-resistance relationships that could be exploited for drug development.
    Keywords: HIV Reverse Transcriptase -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors -- Pharmacology
    ISSN: 03051048
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
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  • 9
    In: PLoS ONE, 2014, Vol.9(9)
    Description: Introduction Resistance of the reverse transcriptase (RT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) to the tenofovir nucleotide drug has not been observed since its introduction for treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 2008. In contrast, frequent viral breakthrough and resistance has been documented for adefovir. Our computational study addresses an inventory of the structural differences between these two nucleotide analogues and their binding sites and affinities to wildtype (wt) and mutant RT enzyme structures based on in silico modeling, in comparison with the natural nucleotide substrates. Results Tenofovir and adefovir only differ by an extra CH 3 -moiety in tenofovir, introducing a center of chirality at the carbon atom linking the purine group with the phosphates. (R)-Tenofovir (and not (S)-tenofovir) binds significantly better to HBV-RT than adefovir. “Single hit” mutations in HBV-RT associated with adefovir resistance may affect the affinity for tenofovir, but to a level that is insufficient for tenofovir resistance. The RT-Surface protein gene overlap in the HBV genome provides an additional genetic constraint that limits the mutational freedom required to generate drug-resistance. Different pockets near the nucleotide binding motif (YMDD) in HBV-RT can bind nucleotides and nucleotide analogues with different affinities and specificities. Conclusion The difference in binding affinity of tenofovir (more than two orders of magnitude in terms of local concentration), a 30x higher dosage of the (R)-tenofovir enantiomer as compared to conformational isomeric or rotameric adefovir, and the constrained mutational space due to gene overlap in HBV may explain the absence of resistance mutations after 6 years of tenofovir monotherapy. In addition, the computational methodology applied here may guide the development of antiviral drugs with better resistance profiles.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    In: PLoS ONE, 2016, Vol.11(12)
    Description: Understanding the factors that modulate the evolution of virus populations is essential to design efficient control strategies. Mathematical models predict that factors affecting viral within-host evolution may also determine that at the between-host level. Although HIV-1 within-host evolution has been associated with clinical factors used to monitor AIDS progression, such as patient age, CD4 cells count, viral load, and antiretroviral experience, little is known about the role of these clinical factors in determining between-host HIV-1 evolution. Moreover, whether the relative importance of such factors in HIV-1 evolution vary in adult and children patients, in which the course of infection is different, has seldom been analysed. To address these questions, HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) pol sequences of 163 infected children and 450 adults of Madrid, Spain, were used to estimate genetic diversity, rates of synonymous and non-synonymous mutations, selection pressures and frequency of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs). The role and relative importance of patient age, %CD4, CD4/mm 3 , viral load, and antiretroviral experience in HIV-1B evolution was analysed. In the pediatric HIV-1B population, three clinical factors were primary predictors of virus evolution: Higher HIV-1B genetic diversity was observed with increasing children age, decreasing CD4/mm 3 and upon antiretroviral experience. This was mostly due to higher rates of non-synonymous mutations, which were associated with higher frequency of DRMs. Using this data, we have also constructed a simple multivariate model explaining between 55% and 66% of the variance in HIV-1B evolutionary parameters in pediatric populations. On the other hand, the analysed clinical factors had little effect in adult-infecting HIV-1B evolution. These findings highlight the different evolutionary dynamics of HIV-1B in children and adults, and contribute to understand the factors shaping HIV-1B evolution and the appearance of drug-resistance mutation in pediatric patients.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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