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  • Mycoplasma
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Microbiology, 09 November 2012, Vol.160(1-2), pp.43-52
    Description: Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (HM) are small, cell wall-less bacteria and infections are known for a wide range of animals. One possible indication of equine HM infection was given in 1978, when a ‘haemobartonellosis’ outbreak was diagnosed in Nigerian horses by microscopy. However the first molecular proof of HM in horses was not reported until 2010, when a fragment of about 900 bp of the 16S rRNA of the equine HM was obtained. This sequence was used for the development of a SYBR green I real-time PCR assay specific for equine HM. The lower detection limit of the PCR was ten 16S rDNA copy numbers per ml of blood. The newly designed assay was successfully applied for the detection and quantification of HM in horses in Germany. A high sample prevalence of 26.5% (95% CI: 18.8–35.5%) was found (31 out of 117 horses). The mean bacterial load was 1.10 × 10 16S rDNA copy number/ml blood (range: minimum 1.05 × 10 , maximum 1.27 × 10 ). Equine HM were also detected by microscopy (Giemsa and acridine orange stained blood smears), but results do not correlate very well with PCR results, as microscopy proved rather unspecific and not sensitive. In horses younger than one year, a significant correlation between PCR positive status and anemia was found. No correlation was found in PCR-positive animals older than one year. Therefore we assume that HM infection has a higher clinical relevance in young animals.
    Keywords: Hemotrophic Mycoplasma ; Horse ; Anemia ; Real-Time Pcr ; Sybr Green ; Prevalence ; Microscopic Diagnostic ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0378-1135
    E-ISSN: 1873-2542
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Microbiology, 2010, Vol.144(3), pp.525-526
    Keywords: Mycoplasma Wenyonii ; Candidatus Mycoplasma Haemobos ; Eperythrozoonteganodes ; Eperythrozoon Tuomii ; Haemobartonella Bovis ; Cattle ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0378-1135
    E-ISSN: 1873-2542
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Microbiology, 2010, Vol.145(3), pp.351-353
    Description: Haemotrophic mycoplasmas (HM) are parasites on the surface of red blood cells and known to infect a wide range of animals. However, there are no previous evidences of HM infections in horses. In this study HM were detected for the first time in the blood of two horses suffering from poor performance, apathy, weight loss, and anaemia. Using a HM specific PCR assay and subsequent sequencing the infective agents isolated from the blood of said horses were confirmed as closely related to the HM species and ‘ Mycoplasma haemobos’.
    Keywords: Haemotrophic Mycoplasma ; Horse ; Anaemia ; 16s Rdna Pcr ; Phylogenetic Classification ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0378-1135
    E-ISSN: 1873-2542
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 2010, Vol. 17(12), p.1917
    Description: In felids, three hemotropic mycoplasma species (hemoplasmas) have been described: Mycoplasma haemofelis, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum," and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis." In particular, M. haemofelis may cause severe, potentially life-threatening hemolytic anemia. No routine serological assays for feline hemoplasma infections are available. Thus, the goal of our project was to identify and characterize an M. haemofelis antigen (DnaK) that subsequently could be applied as a recombinant antigen in a serological assay. The gene sequence of this protein was determined using consensus primers and blood samples from two naturally M. haemofelis-infected Swiss pet cats, an experimentally M. haemofelis-infected specific-pathogen-free cat, and a naturally M. haemofelis-infected Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). The M. haemofelis DnaK gene sequence showed the highest identity to an analogous protein of a porcine hemoplasma (72%). M. haemofelis DnaK was expressed recombinantly in an Escherichia coli DnaK knockout strain and purified using Ni affinity, size-exclusion, and anion-exchange chromatography. It then was biochemically and functionally characterized and showed characteristics typical for DnaKs (secondary structure profile, thermal denaturation, ATPase activity, and DnaK complementation). Moreover, its immunogenicity was assessed using serum samples from experimentally hemoplasma-infected cats. In Western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, it was recognized by sera from cats infected with M. haemofelis, "Ca. Mycoplasma haemominutum," and "Ca. Mycoplasma turicensis," respectively, but not from uninfected cats. This is the first description of a full-length purified recombinant feline hemoplasma antigen that can readily be applied in future pathogenesis studies and may have potential for application in a diagnostic serological test.
    Keywords: Western Blotting ; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ; Adenosinetriphosphatase ; Hemolytic Anemia ; Secondary Structure ; Infection ; Serological Tests ; Protein Structure ; Anion-Exchange Chromatography ; Thermal Denaturation ; Complementation ; Immunogenicity ; Dnak Protein ; Conserved Sequence ; Primers ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Mycoplasma Haemominutum ; Escherichia Coli ; Mycoplasma Haemofelis ; Lynx Lynx ; Mycoplasma ; Vaccines ; Immunology;
    ISSN: 1556-6811
    ISSN: 15566811
    ISSN: 1556679X
    E-ISSN: 1556679X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Microbiology, 09 November 2012, Vol.160(1-2), pp.227-232
    Description: belongs to haemotrophic mycoplasmas (HMs) which cause infectious anaemia in a large variety of mammals. To date, no cultivation system for or other HMs has been established. We hypothesised that could grow in classical media supplemented with nutrients ( glucose, iron-binding proteins) which are naturally available from its host environment, the porcine blood. Blood from experimentally -infected pigs was used to inoculate either standard SP-4 medium supplemented with iron-binding proteins (transferrin, haemin, and haemoglobin) or glucose-enriched Hayflick medium. A quantitative -specific real-time PCR assay was applied to determine and quantify loads weekly during 12 week-incubation. The first 2 weeks after inoculation loads decreased remarkably and then persisted at a stationary level over the observation time of 12 weeks in iron-binding protein- or glucose supplemented media variants. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of liquid sub-cultures on Hayflick agar showed small, densely-packed microcolonies of irregular cells of reduced size (0.2–0.6 μm) indicating nanotransformation. The partial 16S rDNA sequence of these cultured nanocells was 99.9% identical to . cells derived from liquid cultures interact with porcine erythrocytes by fibril-like structures. We conclude, that the modified media used for cultivation are obviously unfavourable for growth but lead to culture persistence. adapt to inappropriate culture conditions by alteration into nanoforms.
    Keywords: Haemotrophic Mycoplasma ; Culture ; Quantitative Pcr ; Scanning Electron Microscopy ; Nanotransformation ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0378-1135
    E-ISSN: 1873-2542
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  • 6
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2004, Vol. 42(8), p.3775
    Description: Bovine anaplasmosis is a vector-borne disease that results in substantial economic losses in other parts of the world but so far not in northern Europe. In August 2002, a fatal disease outbreak was reported in a large dairy herd in the Swiss canton of Grisons. Diseased animals experienced fever, anorexia, agalactia, and depression. Anemia, ectoparasite infestation, and, occasionally, hemoglobinuria were observed. To determine the roles of vector-borne pathogens and to characterize the disease, blood samples were collected from all 286 animals: 50% of the cows were anemic. Upon microscopic examination of red blood cells, Anaplasma marginale inclusion bodies were found in 47% of the cows. The infection was confirmed serologically and by molecular methods. Interestingly, we also found evidence of infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, large Babesia and Theileria spp., and Mycoplasma wenyonii. The last two species had not previously been described in Switzerland. Anemia was significantly associated with the presence of the infectious agents detected, with the exception of A. phagocytophilum. Remarkably, concurrent infections with up to five infectious vector-borne agents were detected in 90% of the ill animals tested by PCR. We concluded that A. marginale was the major cause of the hemolytic anemia, while coinfections with other agents exacerbated the disease. This was the first severe disease outbreak associated with concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens in alpine Switzerland; it was presumably curtailed by culling of the entire herd. It remains to be seen whether similar disease outbreaks will have to be anticipated in northern Europe in the future.
    Keywords: Babesia ; Mycoplasma Wenyonii ; Theileria ; Anaplasma Marginale ; Switzerland ; Vectors ; Pathogens ; Anaplasmosis ; Infection ; Cattle ; Cattle;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Research, 2009, Vol.40(5)
    Description: The natural transmission routes of the three feline haemotropic mycoplasmas - Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' (CMt) - are largely unknown. Since CMt has been detected in the saliva of infected cats using PCR, we hypothesised...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, Molecular Biology ; Molecular Biology ; Life Sciences ; Genetics ; Animal Genetics ; Life Sciences ; Cellular Biology ; Life Sciences ; Cellular Biology ; Cell Behavior ; Life Sciences ; Microbiology and Parasitology ; Life Sciences ; Immunology ; Life Sciences ; Neurons and Cognition ; Life Sciences ; Santé Publique et Épidémiologie
    ISSN: 0928-4249
    E-ISSN: 1297-9716
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