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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, December 2016, Vol.195, pp.31-39
    Description: Engineered nanoparticles released into soils may be coated with humic substances, potentially modifying their surface properties. Due to their amphiphilic nature, humic coating is expected to affect interaction of nanoparticle at the air-water interface. In this study, we explored the roles of the air-water interface and solid-water interface as potential sites for nanoparticle attachment and the importance of hydrophobic interactions for nanoparticle attachment at the air-water interface. By exposing Ag nanoparticles to soil solution extracted from the upper soil horizon of a floodplain soil, the mobility of the resulting “soil-aged” Ag nanoparticles was investigated and compared with the mobility of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles as investigated in an earlier study. The mobility was determined as a function of hydrologic conditions and solution chemistry using column breakthrough curves and numerical modeling. Specifically, we compared the mobility of both types of nanoparticles for different unsaturated flow conditions and for pH = 5 and pH = 9. The soil-aged Ag NP were less mobile at pH = 5 than at pH = 9 due to lower electrostatic repulsion at pH = 5 for both types of interfaces. Moreover, the physical flow field at different water contents modified the impact of chemical forces at the solid-water interface. An extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (eDLVO) model did not provide satisfactory explanation of the observed transport phenomena unlike for the citrate-coated case. For instance, the eDLVO model assuming sphere-plate geometry predicts a high energy barrier (〉 90 ) for the solid-water interface, indicating that nanoparticle attachment is less likely. Furthermore, retardation through reversible sorption at the air-water interface was probably less relevant for soil-aged nanoparticles than for citrate-coated nanoparticles. An additional cation bridging mechanism and straining within the flow field may have enhanced nanoparticle retention at the solid-water interface. The results indicate that the mobility of engineered Ag nanoparticles is sensitive to solution chemistry, especially pH and the concentration of multivalent cations, and to the unsaturated flow conditions influencing particle interaction at biogeochemical interfaces.
    Keywords: Unsaturated Transport ; Water Dynamics ; Cation Bridging ; Amphiphilic ; Edlvo ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Geography
    ISSN: 0169-7722
    E-ISSN: 1873-6009
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2010, Vol.5(12), p.e14213
    Description: Due to the use of organophosphates (OP) as pesticides and the availability of OP-type nerve agents, an effective medical treatment for OP poisonings is still a challenging problem. The acute toxicity of an OP poisoning is mainly due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNS). This results in an increase in the synaptic concentration of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, overstimulation of cholinergic receptors and disorder of numerous body functions up to death. The standard treatment of OP poisoning includes a combination of a muscarinic antagonist and an AChE reactivator (oxime). However, these oximes can not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) sufficiently. Therefore, new strategies are needed to transport oximes over the BBB. ; In this study, we combined different oximes (obidoxime dichloride and two different HI 6 salts, HI 6 dichloride monohydrate and HI 6 dimethanesulfonate) with human serum albumin nanoparticles and could show an oxime transport over an BBB model. In general, the nanoparticulate transported oximes achieved a better reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE than free oximes. ; With these nanoparticles, for the first time, a tool exists that could enable a transport of oximes over the BBB. This is very important for survival after severe OP intoxication. Therefore, these nanoparticulate formulations are promising formulations for the treatment of the peripheral and the CNS after OP poisoning.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biotechnology ; Neurological Disorders ; Pharmacology -- Drug Development
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Controlled Release, 2007, Vol.118(1), pp.54-58
    Description: Apolipoprotein E3, A-I as well as B-100 were covalently attached to human serum albumin nanoparticles via the NHS-PEG-Mal 3400 linker. Loperamide as a model drug was bound to these nanoparticles, and the antinociceptive reaction of these preparations was recorded after intravenous injection in mice by the tail-flick test. After 15 min, all three nanoparticle preparations with the coupled apolipoproteins E3, A-I, and B-100 yielded considerable antinociceptive effects, which lasted over 1 h. The maximally possible effects [MPE] of these preparations amounted to 95%, 65%, and 50%, respectively, and were statistically different from the controls ( 〈 0.02), whereas the loperamide solution achieved no effect. This result demonstrates that more than one mechanism is involved in the interaction of nanoparticles with the brain endothelial cells and the resulting delivery of drugs to the central nervous system.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles ; Apolipoprotein A-I ; Apolipoprotein B-100 ; Apolipoprotein E3 ; Human Serum Albumin (HSA) ; Brain Uptake ; Drug Targeting ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0168-3659
    E-ISSN: 1873-4995
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Controlled Release, 2005, Vol.103(1), pp.99-111
    Description: Oligodesoxynucleotides (ODNs) or the corresponding phosphorothioates (PTOs) spontaneously form spherical nanoparticles (“proticles”) with protamine in aqueous solutions. The proticles can cross cellular membranes and release the ODNs within the cells. Thus, they represent a potential drug delivery system. The major disadvantages of this system are a lack of stability in salt solutions and its inability to also release PTOs. The present study shows, using PTOs and protamine free base, that these shortcomings can be eliminated by the addition of human serum albumin (HSA) as a third component to the starting mixture. The “ternary” proticles thus obtained contain maximally a few percent of the HSA that was originally present. Nevertheless, they differ from the previously studied “binary” proticles: (1) They are stable in salt solutions for at least several hours. (2) They show a high cellular uptake into murine fibroblasts, and they readily release the PTOs after uptake. The ternary proticles therefore represent a considerable improvement over binary proticles for use as drug delivery systems.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles ; Phosphorothioates ; Protamine ; Human Serum Albumin (HSA) ; Cellular Release ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0168-3659
    E-ISSN: 1873-4995
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Controlled Release, 2005, Vol.106(1), pp.181-187
    Description: Nanoparticles prepared by self-assembly from oligonucleotides (ONs), protamine free base, and human serum albumin (“ternary proticles”) are spheres of diameters around 200 nm. Substitution of the protamine free base by protamine sulfate leads to proticles of only around 40 nm in diameter with otherwise unchanged properties. The availability of drug delivery systems of very similar composition but grossly different size may be advantageous when dealing with cells which show size-dependent particle uptake. These nanoparticles are promising candidates for ON delivery to cells because of the following reasons: (1) They are stable for several hours in solutions of up to physiological ionic strength; (2) they are efficiently taken up by cells; (3) after cellular uptake, they easily release the ONs even when these are present as phosphorothioates.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles ; Phosphorothioates ; Protamine Sulfate ; Human Serum Albumin ; Cellular Release ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0168-3659
    E-ISSN: 1873-4995
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