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  • Nanoparticles
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 15 November 2012, Vol.112(10)
    Description: In this study, we examined the low substrate temperature ( T s ) growth mechanism of Ag thin films in the atomic shadowing regime ( T s ≪ melting point T m ). The Ag thin films were deposited using glancing angle deposition (GLAD) at different substrate temperatures varying from 320 K to 100 K. Interestingly, it is observed that on lowering the substrate temperature instead of showing a monotonic variation, the Ag film morphology changes from the ordered nanocolumns to random and distorted columns, and then to the columnar bunches of nanowires. These growth results suggest that this temperature regime of effective adatom shadowing does not hold a unique growth mechanism for the GLAD within the low temperature range from 320 K to 100 K and depending on the observed temperature dependent variation in morphological and structural properties of the Ag film, it can be sub-divided into three characteristic zones. The observed growth mechanism of the Ag film is explained in terms of the temperature dependent change in terrace diffusion and the interlayer diffusion of Ag adatoms which finally controls the formation of nucleation centers in initial stage and their evolution during the final growth. The understanding of low temperature growth mechanism along with the identification of appropriate temperature range for the growth of nanocolumnar metallic films during GLAD is the novelty in this work.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 01 December 2012, Vol.112(11)
    Description: In this paper, we develop theoretical frameworks to explain the emergence of ferromagnetism in suspensions and agglomerates of superparamagnetic (SPM) nanoparticles. In the limit of strong anisotropy, the super moments can be treated as a collection of two-state Ising spins. When adequate in number, they interact via dipole-dipole coupling to produce a dipolar field and subsequently a permanent dipole moment. As a result, this effectual ferromagnet exhibits hysteresis on the application of an oscillating magnetic field yielding heat dissipation that is several orders of magnitude larger than in a paramagnet. Using our frameworks, we provide a design for a magnetite-blood suspension that yields heat dissipation in the mW range. Its important physical application is in remedial procedures for destroying tumor and cancer cells. We are also able to explain many experiments reporting manifestations of ferromagnetism in the form of hysteresis loops, return point memory and large heat dissipation in suspensions and aggregates of SPM nanoparticles. Our frameworks can be used to manipulate heat dissipation in variety of combinations of particles and their embedding mediums. They impart a basis to the often used ad-hoc methodologies in this subject.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, Jan 15, 2012, Vol.111(2), p.024314-1-024314-5
    Description: Various studies are carried out for examining the perovskite phase transformation demonstrated by the 0.65Pb([[Mg.sub.1/3][Nb.sub.2/3])[O.sub.3]-0.35PbTi[O.sub.3] nanoparticles derived by sol-gel. The different mechanisms involved in the transformation and the implications of the same are all analyzed.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles -- Usage ; Transmission Electron Microscopes -- Technology Application ; X-ray Diffraction -- Methods ; Ceramics -- Electric Properties ; Ceramics -- Thermal Properties ; Crystallization -- Analysis ; Lead Compounds -- Electric Properties ; Lead Compounds -- Thermal Properties
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Thin Solid Films, 01 May 2012, Vol.520(14), pp.4646-4649
    Description: Electrochemical deposition of ZnO nanorods having a diameter of 80–150 nm and length ~ 2 μm has been carried out. Au particles were sputtered on the ZnO nanorods for different sputtering times (from 0 to 100 s). The Photoluminescence spectra of bare ZnO nanorods showed a weak bandgap emission at around 375 nm and a broad defect-related emission band centered at ~ 596 nm. After the Au sputtering, the defect-related emission disappeared for all the samples. Moreover, the band edge emission intensity was enhanced with Au sputtering time 50 s. The enhancement factor reached a maximum value for the Au sputtering time of 50 s The enhancement in band edge emission is due to the transfer of electrons from defect states to the Au nanoparticles that cause not only an increase of resonant electron density, but also creates energetic electrons in the higher energy states. These resonant electrons can escape from the surface of the Au nanoparticles to conduction band of ZnO nanorods leading to the suppression of defect related emission intensity.
    Keywords: Zno ; Surface Plasmon ; Nanorods ; Sputtering ; Photoluminescence ; Electrochemical Deposition ; Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    E-ISSN: 1879-2731
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Materials Letters, 15 December 2015, Vol.161, pp.64-67
    Description: CdS nanorods decorated with CoFe O (CFO) nanoparticles have been synthesized by using a facile soft chemical method. The surface of the nanorods was carefully functionalized with citrate ions to attach the CFO nanoparticles. The CFO nanoparticles decorated CdS nanorods were found to exhibit enhanced visible light driven photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye as compared to CdS and CFO nanostructures. The enhancement in the photocatalytic activity is attributed to the formation of heterojunction between the CdS and CFO which significantly suppresses the recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers. Also, due to the magnetic behavior of CFO this coupled nanostructure can be easily separable from the aqueous solution by applying an external magnetic field.
    Keywords: Cofe2o4 ; Cds ; Photocatalysis ; Magnetic ; Nanorods ; Heterojunction ; Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0167-577X
    E-ISSN: 1873-4979
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 15 October 2011, Vol.110(8)
    Description: Origin of the Raman mode in nanocrystalline zinc oxide in the vicinity of A 1 (LO) phonon mode induced by energetic heavy ions is reported. The evolution of this mode in the irradiated films is ascribed to the effect of disorder and the high density of lattice defects induced by irradiation. The presence of such defects is confirmed by the reduction in the intensity of E 2 (high) mode and band bending of the near band edge absorption. A softening of the evolved Raman mode with increasing in ion fluence is also observed. This softening cannot be attributed to spatial confinement of phonons, as the sizes of the crystallites are large. Therefore, it is explained in terms of the combined effects of phonon localization by lattice defects and the structural strain in the lattice induced by electronic energy loss transferred by energetic heavy ions.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2011, Vol.390(1), pp.167-172
    Description: ► PVP stabilized Ag nanoparticles by chemical reduction route in aqueous medium. ► Varying NaOH amount critical in determining nanostructures formed. ► Anisotropic and fractal aggregate nanostructures obtained. ► LSPR behavior complements SAXS analysis. We study polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) stabilization of aqueous phase silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) sols. Glucose is used as the reducing agent. Addition of increasing amounts of NaOH cause interesting variations in sol pH and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) behavior. The LSPR information is coupled with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis and TEM imaging to delineate various nanoparticle characteristics. Both fractal aggregate nanostructures and anisotropic objects are found to form under different NaOH conditions.
    Keywords: Silver Nanoparticles ; Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance ; Saxs Analysis ; Anisotropic Nanostructures ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0927-7757
    E-ISSN: 1873-4359
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2011, Vol.384(1), pp.668-674
    Description: TEM image of sample S6 having bimodal particles size distribution. Smaller nanostructures are Ag-rich while the larger nanostructures are Cu-rich. ► Starch stabilized Ag–Cu NPs by chemical reduction route in aqueous medium. ► In all Ag–Cu systems, hexagonal Ag (rich)-2H phase formed. ► Bimodal size distribution of mass fractal aggregate nanoparticles. ► Effect of nanoparticle aggregation and alloy formation on the sol LSPR. We report the aqueous phase chemical reduction synthesis of starch stabilized Ag–Cu alloy nanoparticles. Changing the proportions of Ag and Cu precursor salts leads to different levels of solid solubility. The variations in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorbance of sols are analyzed from the perspective of nanoparticles composition and their structural features. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis of the Ag–Cu nanoparticles sols shows the formation of mass fractal aggregate nanostructures in all cases.
    Keywords: Ag–Cu Alloy Nanoparticles ; Saxs Analysis ; Fractal Aggregates ; Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0927-7757
    E-ISSN: 1873-4359
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Oct 30, 2012, Vol.237-238, p.355(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.08.064 Byline: Ritu Singh (a)(d), Virendra Misra (a), Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam (b), Lalit Kumar Singh Chauhan (c), Rana Pratap Singh (d) Keywords: [gamma]-HCH; Stabilized bimetallic iron nanoparticles; Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; Degradation/degradation products; Remediation Abstract: Display Omitted Author Affiliation: (a) Ecotoxicology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001, UP, India (b) Analytical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001, UP, India (c) Petroleum Toxicology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001, UP, India (d) Department of Environmental Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Raebareli Road, Lucknow 226 025, UP, India Article History: Received 3 March 2012; Revised 24 August 2012; Accepted 25 August 2012
    Keywords: Mass Spectrometry ; Palladium ; Chromatography ; Research Institutes ; Nanoparticles
    ISSN: 0304-3894
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, September 2015, Vol.2015(26), pp.4437-4442
    Description: A Schiff‐base receptor bearing different functionalities was synthesized from dipicolinic acid hydrazide and characterized with several spectroscopic techniques. To explore its practical application as a sensor, the receptor was processed into organic nanoaggregates () in aqueous medium by the reprecipitation method. The nanoaggregates were characterized by techniques such as dynamic light scattering and TEM, and their recognition properties for metal ions were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The nanoaggregates showed selectivity for Cu over other metal ions. The structure of the complex Cu thus formed was determined by single‐crystal X‐ray crystallography. Complex Cu was further employed as a sensor for detection of biogenic amines in aqueous medium, and showed selective sensing of spermine with a detection limit of 7.62 n. The color change on addition of spermine to the complex can be seen with the naked eye. Moreover, stability in the physiological pH range and negligible effect of ionic environment provided the opportunity for real‐time application of the sensor in aqueous medium. A sensor based on the copper complex of imine‐based nanoaggregates can be used for nanomolar selective determination of spermine in aqueous samples without interference from any of the potential interferents. The distinct color change can be seen with the naked eye. The sensor can be used for real‐time analysis of spermine in various samples.
    Keywords: Colorimetry ; Sensors ; Biogenic Amines ; Nanoparticles ; Schiff Bases ; Copper
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    E-ISSN: 1099-0682
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