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  • Nitrate
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Scientia Horticulturae, 2011, Vol.130(3), pp.485-490
    Description: ► Three S levels, two NH :NO ratios, and AM fungi were tested on Chinese chive. ► Intermediate S was sufficient for optimal growth of . ► Increasing S concentration in the substrate increased organosulfur compounds. ► AM fungi decreased organosulfur compounds. ► Highest yield of organosulfur compounds was produced at NH :NO ratio of 50:50. Tissue concentrations of phytochemicals formed by species may be influenced by plant nutrient supply or rhizosphere microorganism activity. To test these relations, three plant nutritional factors were varied in two experiments with Chinese chive [ ]: (a) increasing sulfur concentrations in the substrate, (b) two ratios of ammonium to nitrate in supply, and (c) inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Shoot dry weight, nutrient composition (nitrate, N, P, S), and organosulfur compounds (measured indirectly as pyruvic acid) were determined. In the first experiment, the supply of intermediate sulfur compared to low sulfur supply resulted in increased shoot dry weight and pyruvic acid concentrations. A further increase in sulfur supply increased plant pyruvic acid production in the absence of effects on dry weight. In the second experiment, AM fungi hardly increased shoot dry weight, nutrient, or pyruvic acid concentrations significantly. Pyruvic acid concentration was increased at an ammonium:nitrate ratio of 50:50 compared to a ratio of 5:95, whereas shoot dry weight was not significantly different. We conclude that both, supply of surplus sulfur or supply of equal amounts of ammonium and nitrate, can contribute to the production of high amounts of health related organosulfur compounds in Chinese chive.
    Keywords: Allium Tuberosum ; Am Fungi ; Ammonium ; Nitrate ; Organosulfur Compounds ; Sulfur ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0304-4238
    E-ISSN: 1879-1018
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Symbiosis, 2017, Vol.73(3), pp.191-200
    Description: We investigated the effect of mineral nitrogen forms on transfer of nitrogen (N) and zinc (Zn) from attached compartments to rhodes grass ( Chloris gayana ) colonised with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). After being pre-cultivated in substrates with adequate nutrient supply and either AMF inoculated (+AM) or left non-inoculated (−AM), rhodes grass was positioned adjacent to an outer compartment holding a similar substrate but applied with labelled nitrogen ( 15 N) either as ammonium (NH 4 + ) or nitrate (NO 3 − ), and a high supply of Zn (150 mg kg −1 DS). Plant roots together with fungal mycelium were either allowed to explore the outer compartment (with root access) or only mycorrhizal hyphae were allowed (without root access). Within each access treatment, biomasses of rhodes grass were not significantly affected by AMF inoculation or N form. AMF contribution to plant 15 N uptake was about double in NH 4 + compared with NO 3 − -supplied treatments while the mycorrhizal influence on plant Zn uptake was insignificant. Without root access, the shoot 15 N/Zn concentration ratio was up to ten-fold higher in +AM than –AM treatments and this ratio increase was clearly more pronounced in NH 4 + than NO 3 − -supplied treatments. In conclusion, rhodes grass in symbiosis with the tested AMF acquired more N when supplied with ammonium. Moreover, there is clear indication that although the AMF have transported both nutrients (N and Zn), N was preferentially transferred as compared to Zn. We confirmed that, while rhodes grass is not able to prevent excessive Zn uptake via roots under conditions of high Zn, mycorrhiza is able to avoid excessive Zn supply to the host plant when the fungus alone has access to contaminated patches.
    Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza ; Ammonium ; Nitrate ; Mycorrhizal nutrient uptake ; (Rhodes grass)
    ISSN: 0334-5114
    E-ISSN: 1878-7665
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Botany, March 2001, Vol.87(3), pp.303-311
    Description: This study compared the influence of NH〈$〉^{\plus}_{\mkern1pt 4}〈$〉or NO〈$〉^{\minus}_{\mkern1pt 3}〈$〉nutrition on the contribution of extraradical hyphae of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae Nicol. and Gerd. Gerd. and Trappe BEG 107 to NH〈$〉^{\plus}_{\mkern1.6pt 4}〈$〉or NO〈$〉^{\minus}_{\mkern1pt 3}〈$〉uptake by Triticum aestivum L. Hano summer wheat with sufficient or insufficient N supply in semi-hydroponic culture. Roots and root-distant hyphae were spatially separated in compartmentalized pots. Although NH〈$〉^{\plus}_{\mkern1pt 4}〈$〉-fed plants supplied with sufficient N had higher N concentrations than their NO〈$〉^{\minus}_{\mkern1pt 3}〈$〉-fed counterparts, this did not favourably affect colonization rates, hyphal length densities or 15 N amounts transported via hyphae to the plants. Ammonium supply did not result in higher P or reduced carbohydrate concentrations in the plants, so these factors could not explain the reduced hyphal lengths. It was concluded that the effect of NH〈$〉^{\plus}_{\mkern1pt 4}〈$〉supply on hyphal length may be related to the reduced root growth and/or a direct effect of NH〈$〉^{\plus}_{\mkern1pt 4}〈$〉on hyphal growth. Plant N deficiency reduced the percentage root length colonized, hyphal length, total 15 N uptake by hyphae and dry weight of both NO〈$〉^{\minus}_{\mkern1pt 3}〈$〉- and NH〈$〉^{\plus}_{\mkern1pt 4}〈$〉-fed mycorrhizal plants. This was more obvious for NO〈$〉^{\minus}_{\mkern1pt 3}〈$〉-fed plants because plant biomass and hyphal lengths of NH〈$〉^{\plus}_{\mkern1pt 4}〈$〉-fed plants were relatively low in mycorrhizal plants irrespective of the N concentration supplied. Copyright 2001 Annals of Botany Company
    Keywords: Ammonium, Arbuscular Mycorrhiza, Glomus Mosseae, Nitrate, Nitrogen Uptake,15n Studies, Triticum Aestivum, Wheat ; Botany
    ISSN: 0305-7364
    E-ISSN: 1095-8290
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 01 January 1995, Vol.15(3-4), pp.257-270
    Description: Colonization of plant roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can greatly increase the plant uptake of phosphorus and nitrogen. The most prominent contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to plant growth is due to uptake of nutrients by extraradical mycorrhizal hyphae. Quantification of hyphal...
    Keywords: Ammonium ; Hyphae ; Hyphosphere ; Nitrate ; Organic Nutrient Sources ; Phosphate ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0738-8551
    E-ISSN: 1549-7801
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, December 2007, Vol.170(6), pp.762-768
    Description: In recent years, interest has grown in cultivating species with enhanced health benefits and/or distinct flavor. Concentrations of phytochemicals determining these desired characteristics may be influenced by nitrogen forms (ammonium or nitrate) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. We examined these relations with the test plant bunching onion ( L.). Three different ammonium‐to‐nitrate (NH : NO) ratios were supplied in combination with or without inoculation with an AM fungus (). The plants were evaluated for dry weight, leaf number, and content of nutrients (N, NO, P, S), sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose), and organosulfur compounds (measured as pyruvic acid). The experiment was carried out under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Plants were grown on perlite amended twice a day with nutrient solution. In nonmycorrhizal plants, the application of nutrient solution with predominant NO or NHNO as N source supported adequate growth of while predominant NH supply resulted in decreased growth and occurrence of wilting symptoms. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased dry weight and leaf number of predominantly NH‐fed or NHNO‐fed plants. While shoot P concentration increased with higher NH supply, shoot N concentration increased in predominantly NH‐fed plants only. Nitrogen form and AM colonization had little effect on shoot S or sugar concentrations. The total content in organosulfur compounds was significantly affected by both, N form and AM colonization. The optimal growth condition for a high formation of organosulfur compounds in this experiment was a nutrient solution with predominant NO supply, but when supported by AM fungi, produced similar amounts of pyruvic acid in NHNO‐fed plants.
    Keywords: Am Fungi ; Ammonium ; Nitrate ; Organosulfur Compounds ; Pyruvic Acid
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Trees, 1991, Vol.5(1), pp.14-21
    Description: Relationships between root zone temperature, concentrations and uptake rates of NH 4 + and NO 3 − were studied in non-mycorrhizal roots of 4-year-old Norway spruce under controlled environmental conditions. Additionally, in a forest stand NH 4 + and NO 3 − uptake rates along the root axis and changes in the rhizosphere pH were measured. In the concentration (C min ) range of 100–150 μM uptake rates of NH 4 + were 3–4 times higher than those of NO 3 − The preference for NH 4 + uptake was also reflected in the minimum concentration (C min ) values. Supplying NH 4 NO 3 , the rate of NO 3 − uptake was very low until the NH 4 + concentrations had fallen below about 100 μM. The shift from NH 4 + to NO 3 − uptake was correlated with a corresponding shift from net H + production to net H + consumption in the external solution. The uptake rates of NH 4 + were correlated with equimolar net production of H + . With NO 3 − nutrition net consumption of H + was approximately twice as high as uptake rates of NO 3 − In the forest stand the NO 3 − concentration in the soil solution was more than 10 times higher than the NH 4 + concentration (〈100 μM), and the rhizosphere pH of non-mycorrhizal roots considerably higher than the bulk soil pH. The rhizosphere pH increase was particularly evident in apical root zones where the rates of water and NO 3 − uptake and nitrate reductase activity were also higher. The results are summarized in a model of water and nutrient transport to, and uptake by, non-mycorrhizal roots of Norway spruce in a forest stand. Model calculations indicate that delivery to the roots by mass flow may meet most of the plant demand of nitrogen and calcium, and that non-mycorrhizal root tips have the potential to take up most of the delivered nitrate and calcium.
    Keywords: Ammonium ; Calcium ; Nitrate ; Picea abies ; Rhizosphere pH
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 1999, Vol.162(3), pp.301-307
    Description: To understand the effect of increased soil N supply on tree growth and nutrient uptake, three‐year‐old Norway spruce seedlings were grown in pots on low‐nutrient mineral forest soil supplemented with N in mineral or organic form. Outdoor shaded growth conditions were used, to test the hypothesis that shaded plants are particularly susceptible to high soil N supply. Plants were harvested eleven months after planting. Shoot growth was not affected by the N supply, but N concentrations in needles and roots were increased in plants supplied with mineral N (150 or 300 mg N [kg soil]). Root growth was drastically reduced and root/shoot ratios were decreased in plants with higher N uptake. A high supply of mineral N to soil also decreased the concentrations of other essential elements (P, K) in the needles and thus had effects on plant growth which may impair the stress resistance of trees. Organic N in the form of keratin (150 mg N [kg soil]) did not influence plant growth significantly. The adverse effects of high mineral N supply were particularly pronounced under shaded conditions in comparison to results from other experiments using higher light intensity and temperature conditions. Einfluß des Stickstoffangebots im Boden auf Wachstum und Nährstoffaufnahme von Jungfichten unter schattigen Bedingungen Die Auswirkungen eines erhöhten Stickstoffangebots auf Wachstum und Nährstoffaufnahme von dreijährigen Fichtenjungpflanzen wurden in einem Gefäßversuch unter schattigen Freilandbedingungen untersucht. Dabei wurde die Vermutung getestet, daß beschattete Fichten besonders empfindlich auf ein hohes Stickstoffangebot reagieren. Nach elf Monaten Versuchsdauer hatte die Stickstoffversorgung des Bodens keinen signifikanten Einfluß auf das Sproßwachstum. Die Stickstoffkonzentrationen in Nadeln und Wurzeln waren jedoch erhöht, wenn dem Boden mineralischer Stickstoff zugegeben worden war (150 bzw. 300 mg N [kg Boden]). Die mit mineralischem Stickstoff versorgten Pflanzen zeigten ein stark vermindertes Wurzelwachstum und ein verringertes Wurzel‐/Sproßverhältnis. In diesen Pflanzen waren auch die Nadelkonzentrationen an Phosphor und Kalium deutlich vermindert. Keratin als organische Stickstoffquelle (150 mg N [kg Boden]) hatte keinen Einfluß auf das Baumwachstum. Die negativen Effekte hoher Gehalte an mineralischem Stickstoff im Boden waren in diesem Versuch stärker ausgeprägt als in ähnlichen Versuchen unter optimalen Licht‐ und Temperaturbedingungen.
    Keywords: Ammonium ; Induced Nutrient Deficiency ; Nitrate ; Picea Abies ; Root Growth ; Shoot/Root Ratio
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 8
    Dissertation
    Dissertation
    Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Landwirtschaftlich-Gärtnerische Fakultät
    Language: English
    Description: Aufgrund seines Nährstoffaneignungsvermögens und Stimulierung des Pflanzenmetabolismus kann der Arbuskuläre Mykorrhiza (AM) Pilz im Gartenbau nutzbringend eingesetzt werden. Der Fokus der Arbeit liegt auf den Möglichkeiten des AM Pilzes a) pflanzenernährerische Probleme zu lösen, b) die Blütenbildung bei Zierpflanzen zu steigern und c) das Gesundheitspotential von Gemüse für den Menschen zu erhöhen (sekundäre Pflanzenmetaboliten). Zur Lösung pflanzenernährerischer Probleme wurden Porree, Pelargonie und Poinsettie auf Torf-Substraten mit 20% und 40% Kompostzusatz untersucht. Ferner wurde Salat auf Torf-Substrat mit drei P Behandlungen getestet: substrateigenes P, Rohphosphat und lösliches P. Frühlingszwiebeln und Schnittknoblauch wurden in Nährlösungen auf Perlit mit niedrigem, mittlerem und hohem NH4+/NO3- Verhältnis ernährt. Gemessen wurde die AM Kolonisation, die Trockenmasse und die N, P, K, S, NO3-, Mg und Zn Konzentrationen im Spross. Die Blütenbildung von Pelargonien und Poinsettien wurde auf Torf-Kompost-Substraten untersucht. Der Einfluss auf die sekundäre Metaboliten von Frühlingszwiebeln und Schnittknoblauch wurde zusammen mit drei NH4+/NO3- Verhältnissen geprüft (s.o.). Untersucht wurden Glukose, Fruktose, Saccharose, lösliche Feststoffe und organische Schwefelverbindungen (gemessen als Pyruvat). Eine AM Kolonisation konnte die Nährstoffversorgung der Pflanze verbessern und die Blütenbildung erhöhen. Jedoch profitierten die Pflanzen unter den beschriebenen experimentellen Bedingungen nicht durchgängig in ihrem Wachstum und Metaboliten vom AM Pilz. Die Zugaben von Kompost ermöglichte die Verbesserung der Substratqualität für die Nährstoffversorgung und das Pflanzenwachstum unter ökologischen Gartenbaubedingungen. Der Ertrag von gesundheitsfördernden organischen Schwefelverbindungen konnte in Abhängigkeit von der jeweiligen Allium Spezies, durch eine Variation des Ammonium/Nitrat Verhältnissen und/oder durch einen AM Effekt auf das Wachstum gesteigert werden. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can be beneficial for horticultural crops due to their nutrient acquisition properties and stimulation of the plant metabolism. The present work focuses on the prospects of AM fungi a) to solve plant nutritional problems, b) to induce flower development of ornamental plants, and c) to improve the health potential of crop plants for humans. Contribution of AM fungi to plant nutritional problems were investigated with leek, pelargonium and poinsettia plants on peat-based substrates with 20% and 40% compost additions. Moreover, lettuce plants were supplied on peat-based substrates with substrate own P, rock phosphate, or highly soluble P. Bunching onion and chinese chive were propagated on perlite in nutrient solution with low, medium and high NH4+:NO3- ratios. Mycorrhizal colonization, dry weight, and N, P, K, S, NO3-, Mg and Zn concentrations in plants were measured. Mycorrhizal effects on bud and flower development of pelargonium and poinsettia plants were investigated on peat-based compost substrates. Treatment effects on secondary metabolites in bunching onion and chinese chive were determined by exposing mycorrhizal and non mycorrhizal plants to three NH4+:NO3- supply ratios. The metabolites measured were glucose, fructose, and sucrose, total soluble solids, and organosulfur compounds (measured as pyruvic acid). Colonization improved plant nutrient status and flower development. Under the described experimental conditions, however, plants did not consistently benefit in growth or plant composition from the mycorrhizal symbiosis. Additions of compost were a means of improving the substrate quality for an increased plant nutrient acquisition and plant growth in organic horticulture. The plant quality of Allium species in respect to organosulfur compounds was increased by taking the individual Allium species into consideration, their specific requirements for an optimal NH4+:NO3- supply ratio, and a possible AM effect on plant growth.
    Keywords: Ammonium ; Arbukulärer Mykorrhizapilz ; Allium Spec. ; Blütenbildung ; Nitrat ; Ökologischer Gartenbau ; Organische Schwefelverbindungen ; Pelargonie ; Poinsettie ; Rohphosphat ; Salat ; Torf-Kompost Substrat ; Allium Spec. ; Ammonium ; Arbucular Mycorrhizal Fungi ; Compost ; Flower Development ; Lettuce ; Nitrate ; Organic Horticulture ; Organosulfur Compounds ; Peat ; Pelargonium ; Poinsettia ; Rock Phosphate ; 630 Landwirtschaft ; Veterinärmedizin ; 39 Landwirtschaft ; Garten ; Ddc:630
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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