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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • Nutrient Uptake
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  • 1
    In: New Phytologist, May 2005, Vol.166(2), pp.601-609
    Description: •  We investigated the growth and nutrient uptake of the Lycopersicon esculentum symbiosis mycorrhiza‐defective plant mutant rmc, challenged with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal propagules, in the presence or absence of roots of the commercial wild‐type tomato cv. Golden Queen (GQ). •  Two plants shared the middle (combi) compartment of a horizontal three‐compartment split‐root pot with one part of their root system; the other part was grown separately in an outer (solo) pot. Combinations of rmc and GQ plants were grown together in soil that was either mycorrhiza‐free (–M) or prepared with AM fungal inoculum (+M). •  Surface colonization of rmc roots was strongly increased in the presence of (+M) GQ roots. AM fungal inoculation increased phosphorus uptake of GQ plants, but decreased growth and P uptake of rmc plants. Growth and P uptake of (+M) GQ plants were reduced when plants were grown in combination with rmc rather than another GQ plant. •  AM fungi in the (combi) compartment may have preferentially formed hyphae spreading infection rather than functioning in P uptake in (+M) GQ plants grown in combination with rmc. Surface colonization of (+M) rmc roots, in the presence of GQ roots, was probably established at the expense of carbohydrates from associated GQ plants. Possible reasons for a decreased P uptake of rmc plants in response to AM fungal inoculation are proposed.
    Keywords: Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Am ; Inoculum Potential ; Phosphorus P Deficiency ; Plant Defence Response ; Mutant ; Symbiosis‐Defective Plant Mutants ; Tomato
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2004, Vol.261(1), pp.245-255
    Description: The aim of the present study was to quantify the contribution of AMF to phosphorus (P) nutrition of the host plant when the P availability in the soil was limited by drought. To investigate the potential of AMF hyphae in taking up P from dry soil, mycorrhizal [+M] and nonmycorrhizal [−M] Sorghum bicolor L. plants were grown in a vertical split root system that consisted of two compartments placed upon one the other. The upper compartment was filled with well fertilised soil and the plant roots were allowed to grow into the lower compartment through a perforated bottom. The lower compartment was filled with an expanded clay substrate and nutrient solution, to supply the plants with water and all nutrients except P. The soil in the upper compartments was either dried [−W] or kept moist [+W] during a period of four weeks before harvest. The total plant P content did not differ significantly between the [−M] and the [+M] plants within the [+W] treatment. In contrast, the P content of the [+M] plants was almost twice as high as the [−M] plants when the soil in the upper compartment was dried. The concentrations of all elements except P in plant shoot tissue were sufficient for adequate plant growth. Phosphorus concentrations in the shoots of [−M/−W] plants indicated P deficiency, and these plants also had significantly lower dry matter and transpiration compared to the plants in all other treatments. From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that mycorrhizal colonisation seems to be particularly benefical to P uptake from dry soil
    Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus ; partial soil drying ; phosphorus uptake ; Sorghum bicolor
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 2010, Vol.173(3), pp.353-359
    Description: In most plant species, nutrient uptake is facilitated upon root association with symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The aim of the present experiment was to test how the form in which nitrogen (N) is supplied to the growth medium affects substrate pH, AM development, and contribution of the symbiosis to phosphorus (P) uptake from sparingly available or soluble resources. Cowpea ( L. Walp) plants inoculated or noninoculated with AM fungi ( sp.) were grown in pots with a sand substrate supplied with nutrient solution. The nutrient solution was prepared either with a high or a low concentration of soluble P, and NO‐N : NH‐N ratios of 9:1 or 5:5. The substrate supplied with low‐P nutrient solution was either or not additionally amended with ground rock phosphate. Despite a high level of root colonization, AM fungi used in the present study did not appear to increase plant availability of rock phosphate. It cannot be excluded that the ability of AM root systems to acquire P from sparingly available resources differs depending on the plant and fungal genotypes or environmental conditions. The absence from the growth substrate of P‐solubilizing microorganisms able to associate with AM mycelia might also have been a reason for this observation in our study. Increased supply of NH relative to NO improved plant P availability from rock phosphate, but also had a negative effect on the extent of AM‐fungal root colonization, irrespective of the plant P‐nutritional status. Whether increasing levels of NH can also negatively affect the functioning of the AM symbiosis in terms of plant element uptake, pathogen protection or soil‐structure stabilization deserves further investigation.
    Keywords: Arbuscular Mycorrhiza ; Nitrate‐To‐Ammonium Ratio ; Rock Phosphate ; Vigna Unguiculata
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 1996, Vol.184(2), pp.291-298
    Description: During a seven-month period the effect of different nitrogen (N) availability in soil on growth and nutrient uptake was studied in three-year-old Norway spruce ( Picea abies [L.] Karst.) trees. The plants were grown in pots on N-poor forest soil supplied with various amounts and forms (inorganic and organic) of N. Increasing supply of inorganic N (as NH 4 NO 3 ) increased the formation of new shoots and shoot dry weight. The root/shoot dry weight ratio of new growth was drastically decreased from 1.6 in plants without N supply to 0.5 in plants supplied with high levels of NH 4 NO 3 . This decrease in root/shoot dry weight ratio was associated with distinct changes in root morphology in favour of shorter and thicker roots. The addition of keratin as organic N source did neither affect growth nor root morphology of the trees. The amount of N taken up by plants was closely related to the supply of inorganic N, and trees supplied with highest levels of NH 4 NO 3 also had the highest N contents in the dry matter of needles and roots. In contrast, N contents in needles of trees grown without additional N, or with keratin supply, were in the deficiency range. Supply of NH 4 NO 3 decreased the contents of phosphate (P) and potassium (K) and therefore markedly increased N/P and N/K ratios in the needles. On the other hand, the contents of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and manganese (Mn) in the needles were increased in the plants supplied with inorganic N, suggesting high soil availability and promotion of uptake of these divalent cations by high nitrate uptake. The observed effects on root/shoot dry weight ratio, root morphology, and mineral nutrient composition of the needles indicated that high inorganic N supply may increase above-ground productivity but at the same time decrease the tolerance of trees against soil-borne (e.g. deficiency of other mineral nutrients) stress factors.
    Keywords: foliar nutrient contents ; nitrogen ; Picea abies ; root growth ; root morphology ; root/shoot ratio
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 5
    In: New Phytologist, November 1991, Vol.119(3), pp.397-404
    Description: To study phosphorus (P) depletion and soil pH changes at the root–soil interface (rhizosphere) and at the hyphaesoil interface, mycorrhizal and non‐mycorrhizal white clover ( L.) plants were grown for 7 wk in two sterilized soils (Luvisol and Cambisol) in pots comprising five compartments: a central one for root growth, two adjacent compartments, separated from the central compartment by a nylon net of 30 μm mesh size, for growth of vesicular‐arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal [ (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerdemann & Trappe] hyphae (hyphal compartments), and two outer compartments, separated from the hyphal compartments by a 0.45 μm membrane, which neither roots nor hyphae could penetrate (bulk soil compartments). Phosphorus was supplied as Ca(HPO) at a rate of 50 mg P kg soil in the root compartment and 150 mg P kg soil in the hyphal and bulk soil compartments. Nitrogen was supplied as (NH)SO at the rate of 300 mg N kg soil uniformly to all compartments. In both soils, shoot dry weight and P uptake were much higher in mycorrhizal plants compared with non‐mycorrhizal plants. Hyphae of VA mycorrhizal fungi contributed 70% (Cambisol) or 80% (Luvisol) to total P uptake of mycorrhizal plants. In the hyphal compartments, concentrations of both HO‐extractable soil P (Cambisol and Luvisol) and NaHCO‐extractable soil P (Luvisol) were decreased drastically. Soil P depletion profiles developed not only at the root‐soil interface (rhizosphere), but also at the hyphae‐soil interface and extended several millimetres from the hyphae surface into the soil. Likewise, the soil pH was decreased at the root‐soil interface, in the hyphal compartment and also at the hyphae‐soil interface. The results demonstrate that, similarly to roots, hyphae of VA mycorrhizal fungi have the ability to form a P depletion zone and a zone of altered pH in the adjacent soil. Thus, as well as at the root‐soil interface, soil conditions at the hyphae–soil interface may also differ considerably from conditions in the bulk soil.
    Keywords: Hyphae–Soil Interface Hyphosphere ; Phosphorus ; Soil Ph ; White Clover ; Va Mycorrhiza
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Mycorrhiza, 2007, Vol.17(5), pp.469-474
    Description: Two challenges frequently encountered in the production of ornamental plants in organic horticulture are: (1) the rate of mineralization of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from organic fertilizers can be too slow to meet the high nutrient demand of young plants, and (2) the exclusive use of peat as a substrate for pot-based plant culture is discouraged in organic production systems. In this situation, the use of beneficial soil microorganisms in combination with high quality compost substrates can contribute to adequate plant growth and flower development. In this study, we examined possible alternatives to highly soluble fertilizers and pure peat substrates using pelargonium ( Pelargonium peltatum L’Her.) as a test plant. Plants were grown on a peat-based substrate with two rates of compost addition and with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Inoculation with three different commercial AM inocula resulted in colonization rates of up to 36% of the total root length, whereas non-inoculated plants remained free of root colonization. Increasing the rate of compost addition increased shoot dry weight and shoot nutrient concentrations, but the supply of compost did not always completely meet plant nutrient demand. Mycorrhizal colonization increased the number of buds and flowers, as well as shoot P and potassium (K) concentrations, but did not significantly affect shoot dry matter or shoot N concentration. We conclude that addition of compost in combination with mycorrhizal inoculation can improve nutrient status and flower development of plants grown on peat-based substrates.
    Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhiza ; Compost ; Organic horticulture ; Pelargonium
    ISSN: 0940-6360
    E-ISSN: 1432-1890
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  • 7
    In: HortScience, 06/2006, Vol.41(3), pp.628-632
    Description: Organic horticultural production systems often are characterized by the use of beneficial soil microorganisms because the application of soluble inorganic P or N fertilizers is not endorsed. Due to the limited supply of soluble nutrients in organic production systems, nutrient deficiency may limit plant growth and yield. The sole use of peat for pot-based cultures is also discouraged in organic production systems. Therefore, we have studied viable alternatives for highly soluble fertilizers and pure peat substrates using leek [Allium ampeloprasum L. var. Porrum] as a test plant. Plants were grown on peat-based substrates with different rates of compost additions, and with and without inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Inoculation with a commercial AM fungus inoculum resulted in colonization rates of up to 70% of total root length, whereas not inoculated plants remained free of root colonization. Mycorrhizal fungus colonization increased shoot Zn and K concentrations, but did not significantly affect shoot dry matter or shoot N and P concentrations. In contrast, compost addition increased plant growth, and also increased P and K concentrations in plants. We conclude that plants with high rates of mycorrhizal colonization can be obtained on peat-based substrates, but that under these conditions plants may not consistently benefit in growth from the mycorrhizal symbiosis. In contrast, additions of compost are a possible means to improve the substrate quality in organic horticultural production. ; Includes references ; p. 628-632.
    Keywords: Zinc ; Mycorrhizal Fungi ; Allium Ampeloprasum ; Phosphorus ; Microbial Colonization ; Organic Production ; Allium Porrum ; Growing Media ; Inoculation Methods ; Nitrogen ; Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae ; Peat ; Dry Matter Accumulation ; Nutrient Uptake ; Plant Growth ; Potassium ; Composts ; Plant Nutrition ; Leeks;
    ISSN: 0018-5345
    E-ISSN: 2327-9834
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  • 8
    In: Canadian Journal of Botany (Revue canadienne de botanique), 1997, Vol.75(5), pp.723-729
    Description: The influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus mosseae , on the adverse effects of soil compaction on growth and phosphorus (P) uptake of red clover was studied in a model experiment. The pots used in the experiment had three compartments, a central one with a soil bulk density of 1.3g∙cm 3 and two outer compartments with three different levels of soil bulk density (1.3, 1.6, or 1.8g∙cm 3 ). The soil in the outer compartments was fertilized with P and was either freely accessible to roots and hyphae, or separated by nets and accessible to hyphae only. At a soil bulk density of 1.3g∙cm 3 , mycorrhizal plants did not absorb more P than nonmycorrhizal plants except when access of roots to the outer compartments was restricted by nets. At high soil bulk density, root growth was drastically decreased. However, hyphae of G . mosseae absorbed P even from highly compacted soil, and induced a P-depletion zone of about 30mm from the root surface. In consequence, at higher soil bulk density shoot P concentration and the total amount of P in the shoot were higher in mycorrhizal than in nonmycorrhizal plants. This experiment showed that hyphae of G . mosseae are more efficient in obtaining P from compacted soil than mycorrhizal or nonmycorrhizal roots of red clover. Key words : arbuscular mycorrhiza, phosphorus, red clover ( Trifolium pratense L.), soil bulk density, soil compaction.
    Description: l'aide d'un modle exprimental, les auteurs ont tudi l'influence d'un champignon mycorhizien arbusculaire, le Glomus mosseae , sur les effets ngatifs de la compaction du sol spar rapport la croissance et la nutrition en phosphore (P) du trfle rouge. Les pots utiliss pour l'exprience ont trois compartiments; le compartiment central contient du sol avec une densit de masse (bulk density) de 1,3g∙cm 3 et les deux compartiments externes du sol avec trois densits de masses diffrentes (1,3, 1,6 ou 1,8g∙cm 3 ). Le sol dans les compartiments externes est fertilis avec P et est librement accessible aux racines et aux hyphes, ou est spar par un filet, ne le rendant accessible qu'aux hyphes. Avec une densit de masse de 1,3g∙cm 3 , les plantes mycorhiziennes n'absorbent pas plus de P que les plantes non-mycorhiziennes, sauf lorsque l'accs au compartiment est empch par les filets. Les densits de masse leves rduisent drastiquement la croissance des racines. Cependant, les hyphes du G . mosseae absorbent du P mme partir des sols fortement compacts, et induisent un puisement en P dans un rayon de 30mm autour de la surface racinaire. Consquemment, aux densits de masse les plus leves, la teneur en P et la quantit totale de P dans la tige sont suprieures chez les plantes mycorhizes comparativement aux plantes non-mycorhizes. Cette exprience montre que les hyphes du G . mosseae sont plus efficaces pour l'obtention du P partir de sols compacts que les racines, mycorhizes ou non, du trfle rouge. Mots cls : mycorhizes arbusculaires, phosphore, trfle rouge ( Trifolium pratense L.), densit de masse du sol, compaction du sol. [Traduit par la rdaction]
    Keywords: Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae ; Trifolium Pratense ; Bulk Density ; Soil Compaction ; Roots ; Nutrient Uptake ; Shoots ; Hyphae ; Phosphorus ; Glomus Mosseae ; Soil Density ; Growth;
    ISSN: 0008-4026
    E-ISSN: 1480-3305
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 01 January 1995, Vol.15(3-4), pp.257-270
    Description: Colonization of plant roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can greatly increase the plant uptake of phosphorus and nitrogen. The most prominent contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to plant growth is due to uptake of nutrients by extraradical mycorrhizal hyphae. Quantification of hyphal nutrient uptake has become possible by the use of soil boxes with separated growing zones for roots and hyphae. Many (but not all) tested fungal isolates increased phosphorus and nitrogen uptake of the plant by absorbing phosphate, ammonium, and nitrate from soil. However, compared with the nutrient demand of the plant for growth, the contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to plant phosphorus uptake is usually much larger than the contribution to plant nitrogen uptake. The utilization of soil nutrients may depend more on efficient uptake of phosphate, nitrate, and ammonium from the soil solution even at low supply concentrations than on mobilization processes in the hyphosphere. In contrast to ectomycorrhizal fungi, nonsoluble nutrient sources in soil are used only to a limited extent by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Side effects of mycorrhizal colonization on, for example, plant health or root activity may also influence plant nutrient uptake.
    Keywords: Ammonium ; Hyphae ; Hyphosphere ; Nitrate ; Organic Nutrient Sources ; Phosphate ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0738-8551
    E-ISSN: 1549-7801
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  • 10
    In: Experimental Agriculture, 1992, Vol.28(4), pp.433-442
    Description: SUMMARY Inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAMF) improved growth of chick-pea ( Cicer arielinum L.) and doubled phosphorus (P) uptake at low and intermediate levels of P fertilization in a pot experiment on sterilized low-P calcareous soil. In field experiments at Tel Hadya, northern Syria, growth, shoot P concentration and seed yield of spring-sown chickpea remained unaffected by inoculation with VAMF or by P fertilization. The mycorrhizal infection of chickpea was high (approximately 75% of root length mycorrhizal at the flowering stage) irrespective of inoculation with VAMF or P fertilization and may ensure efficient P uptake under field conditions.
    Keywords: Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae ; Phosphorus Fertilizers ; Calcareous Soils ; Cicer Arietinum ; Soil Fungi ; Nutrient Uptake ; Soil Inoculation ; Growth;
    ISSN: 0014-4797
    E-ISSN: 1469-4441
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