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  • Otitis Media
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, 2015, Vol.197(1-2), p.277(9)
    Description: The Gram-negative commensal bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) can cause respiratory tract diseases that include otitis media, sinusitis, exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and bronchitis. During colonization and infection, NTHI withstands oxidative stress generated by reactive oxygen species produced endogenously, by the host, and by other copathogens and flora. These reactive oxygen species include superoxide, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals, whose killing is amplified by iron via the Fenton reaction. We previously identified genes that encode proteins with putative roles in protection of the NTHI isolate strain 86-028NP against oxidative stress. These include catalase (HktE), peroxiredoxin/glutaredoxin (PgdX), and a ferritin-like protein (Dps). Strains were generated with mutations in hktE, pgdX, and dps. The hktE mutant and a pgdX hktE double mutant were more sensitive than the parent to killing by H2O2. Conversely, the pgdX mutant was more resistant to H2O2 due to increased catalase activity. Supporting the role of killing via the Fenton reaction, binding of iron by Dps significantly mitigated the effect of H2O2-mediated killing. NTHI thus utilizes several effectors to resist oxidative stress, and regulation of free iron is critical to this protection. These mechanisms will be important for successful colonization and infection by this opportunistic human pathogen.
    Keywords: Overlapping Genes – Research ; Haemophilus Influenzae – Risk Factors ; Haemophilus Influenzae – Care and Treatment ; Haemophilus Influenzae – Genetic Aspects ; Oxidative Stress – Research ; Gene Mutation – Research
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 2
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2008, Vol. 76(3), p.967
    Description: Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells involved in the initiation and modulation of immune responses after immunization via their ability to process and present antigen to naive T cells. We wanted to examine the role of DCs in the development of protective immunity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI)-induced experimental otitis media (OM) after intranasal immunization of chinchillas with an NTHI P5-derived synthetic peptide immunogen called LB1. As chinchilla DCs have not been described, we adapted well-established protocols to induce the differentiation of chinchilla bone marrow precursor cells into DCs, which resulted in cells that were morphologically and phenotypically similar to DCs of other species. In vitro, chinchilla DCs readily internalized LB1, upregulated expression of the maturation markers CD80 and major histocompatibility complex class II, and presented processed LB1 to primed CD3 super(+) T cells, which resulted in antigen-specific T-cell proliferation. In vivo, LB1-activated DCs trafficked from the chinchilla nasal cavity primarily to the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues and were detected in close proximity to CD3 super(+) T cells within this lymphoid aggregate. These data are the first to characterize chinchilla DCs and their functional properties. Furthermore, they suggest an important role for chinchilla DCs in the development of protective immunity against experimental NTHI-induced OM after intranasal immunization.
    Keywords: Synthetic Peptides ; Bone Marrow ; Major Histocompatibility Complex ; Immunization ; Lymphoid Tissue ; Dendritic Cells ; Differentiation ; Otitis Media ; Osteoprogenitor Cells ; Lymphocytes T ; Cd80 Antigen ; Nose ; Cd3 Antigen ; Antigen-Presenting Cells ; Cell Proliferation ; Haemophilus Influenzae ; Rodentia ; Immunology ; Microorganisms & Parasites;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 3
    In: The Journal of Bacteriology, 2007, Vol. 189(3), p.1004
    Description: Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a gram-negative bacterium and a common commensal organism of the upper respiratory tract in humans. NTHi causes a number of diseases, including otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and bronchitis. During the course of colonization and infection, NTHi must withstand oxidative stress generated by insult due to multiple reactive oxygen species produced endogenously by other copathogens and by host cells. Using an NTHi-specific microarray containing oligonucleotides representing the 1821 open reading frames of the recently sequenced NTHi isolate 86-028NP, we have identified 40 genes in strain 86-028NP that are upregulated after induction of oxidative stress due to hydrogen peroxide. Further comparisons between the parent and an isogenic oxyR mutant identified a subset of 11 genes that were transcriptionally regulated by OxyR, a global regulator of oxidative stress. Interestingly, hydrogen peroxide induced the OxyR-independent upregulation of expression of the genes encoding components of multiple iron utilization systems. This finding suggested that careful balancing of levels of intracellular iron was important for minimizing the effects of oxidative stress during NTHi colonization and infection and that there are additional regulatory pathways involved in iron utilization.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 4
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2005, Vol. 73(1), p.599
    Description: Bacteria have evolved strategies to resist killing by antimicrobial peptides (APs), important effectors of innate immunity. The sap (sensitivity to antimicrobial peptides) operon confers resistance to AP-mediated killing of SALMONELLA: We have recently shown that sapA gene expression is upregulated in the middle ear in a chinchilla model of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI)-induced otitis media. Based on these findings, we constructed an NTHI strain containing a Lux reporter plasmid driven by the sapA promoter and demonstrated early yet transient expression of the sap operon within sites of the chinchilla upper airway upon infection. We hypothesized that the sap operon products mediate NTHI resistance to APs. In order to test this hypothesis, we constructed a nonpolar mutation in the sapA gene of NTHI strain 86-028NP, a low- passage-number clinical isolate. The sapA mutant was approximately eightfold more sensitive than the parent strain to killing by recombinant chinchilla beta- defensin 1. We then assessed the ability of this mutant to both colonize and cause otitis media in chinchillas. The sapA mutant was significantly attenuated compared to the parent strain in its ability to survive in both the nasopharynx and the middle ear of the chinchilla. In addition, the mutant was impaired in its ability to compete with the parent strain in a dual-strain challenge model of infection. Our results indicate that the products of the sap operon are important for resisting the activity of APs and may regulate, in part, the balance between normal carriage and disease caused by NTHI.
    Keywords: Haemophilus Influenzae ; Salmonella ; Haemophilus Influenzae ; Salmonella ; Operons ; Otitis Media ; Antimicrobial Peptides ; Middle Ear ; Sapa Gene ; Immunity ; Mutation ; Respiratory Tract ; Promoters ; Nasopharynx ; Plasmids ; Defensins ; Operons ; Otitis Media ; Antimicrobial Peptides ; Middle Ear ; Sapa Gene ; Immunity ; Mutation ; Respiratory Tract ; Promoters ; Nasopharynx ; Plasmids ; Defensins ; Ear, Nose and Respiratory Tract ; Bacterial Genetics ; Eap Operon ; Eap Operon;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 5
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2003, Vol. 71(6), p.3454
    Description: The gram-negative bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is the predominant pathogen in chronic otitis media with effusion and, with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis, is a causative agent of acute otitis media. To identify potential virulence determinants, bacterial gene expression was monitored by differential fluorescence induction during early disease progression in one specific anatomical niche of a chinchilla model of NTHI-induced otitis media. Genomic DNA fragments from NTHI strain 86-028NP were cloned upstream of the promoterless gfpmut3 gene. NTHI strain 86-028NP served as the host for the promoter trap library. Pools of 2,000 transformants were inoculated into the left and right middle ear cavities of chinchillas. Middle ear effusions were recovered by epitympanic tap at 24 and 48 h, and clones containing promoter elements that were induced in vivo and producing green fluorescent protein were isolated by two-color fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Insert DNA was sequenced and compared to the complete genome sequence of H. influenzae strain Rd. In a screen of 16,000 clones, we have isolated 44 clones that contain unique gene fragments encoding biosynthetic enzymes, metabolic and regulatory proteins, and hypothetical proteins of unknown function. An additional eight clones contain gene fragments unique to our NTHI isolate. Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, we have confirmed that 26 clones demonstrated increased gene expression in vivo relative to expression in vitro. These data provide insight into the response of NTHI bacteria as they sense and respond to the middle ear microenvironment during early events of otitis media.
    Keywords: Disease Models, Animal ; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Haemophilus Influenzae -- Genetics ; Otitis Media -- Microbiology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 6
    In: The Journal of Bacteriology, 2005, Vol. 187(13), p.4627
    Description: In 1995, the Institute for Genomic Research completed the genome sequence of a rough derivative of Haemophilus influenzae serotype d, strain KW20. Although extremely useful in understanding the basic biology of H. influenzae, these data have not provided significant insight into disease caused by nontypeable H. influenzae, as serotype d strains are not pathogens. In contrast, strains of nontypeable H. influenzae are the primary pathogens of chronic and recurrent otitis media in children. In addition, these organisms have an important role in acute otitis media in children as well as other respiratory diseases. Such strains must therefore contain a gene repertoire that differs from that of strain Rd. Elucidation of the differences between these genomes will thus provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of nontypeable H. influenzae. The genome of a representative nontypeable H. influenzae strain, 86-028NP, isolated from a patient with chronic otitis media was therefore sequenced and annotated. Despite large regions of synteny with the strain Rd genome, there are large rearrangements in strain 86-028NP's genome architecture relative to the strain Rd genome. A genomic island similar to an island originally identified in H. influenzae type b is present in the strain 86-028NP genome, while the mu-like phage present in the strain Rd genome is absent from the strain 86-028NP genome. Two hundred eighty open reading frames were identified in the strain 86-028NP genome that were absent from the strain Rd genome. These data provide new insight that complements and extends the ongoing analysis of nontypeable H. influenzae virulence determinants.
    Keywords: Bacterial Genetics ; Genetics and Evolution;
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 7
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2004, Vol. 72(5), p.3002
    Description: In 1995, The Institute for Genomic Research completed the genomic sequence of a rough derivative of Haemophilus influenzae serotype d, strain KW20. This sequence, though extremely useful in understanding the basic biology of H. influenzae, has yet to provide significant insight into our understanding of disease caused by nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHI), because serotype d strains are not generally pathogens. In contrast, NTHI strains are frequently mucosal pathogens and are the primary pathogens of chronic otitis media as well as a significant cause of acute otitis media in children. Thus, it is of great importance to further understand their biology. We used a DNA-based microarray approach to identify genes present in a clinical isolate of NTHI that were absent from strain Rd. We also sequenced the genome of a second NTHI isolate from a child with chronic otitis media to threefold coverage and then used an array of bioinformatics tools to identify genes present in this NTHI strain but absent from strain Rd. These methods were complementary in approach and results. We identified, in both strains, homologues of H. influenzae lav, an autotransported protein of unknown function; tnaA, which encodes tryptophanase; as well as a homologue of Pasteurella multocida tsaA, which encodes an alkyl peroxidase that may play a role in protection against reactive oxygen species. We also identified a number of putative restriction-modification systems, bacteriophage genes and transposon-related genes. These data provide new insight that complements and extends our ongoing analysis of NTHI virulence determinants.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, August 26, 2014, Vol.9(8)
    Description: Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are Gram-negative commensal bacteria that reside in the nasopharynx. NTHi can also cause multiple upper and lower respiratory tract diseases that include sinusitis, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, and otitis media. In numerous bacterial species the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) acts as a global regulator of iron homeostasis by negatively regulating the expression of iron uptake systems. However in NTHi strain 86-028NP and numerous other bacterial species there are multiple instances where Fur positively affects gene expression. It is known that many instances of positive regulation by Fur occur indirectly through a small RNA intermediate. However, no examples of small RNAs have been described in NTHi. Therefore we used RNA-Seq analysis to analyze the transcriptome of NTHi strain 86-028NPrpsL and an isogenic 86-028NPrpsL[DELTA]fur strain to identify Fur-regulated intergenic transcripts. From this analysis we identified HrrF, the first small RNA described in any Haemophilus species. Orthologues of this small RNA exist only among other Pasteurellaceae. Our analysis showed that HrrF is maximally expressed when iron levels are low. Additionally, Fur was shown to bind upstream of the hrrF promoter. RNA-Seq analysis was used to identify targets of HrrF which include genes whose products are involved in molybdate uptake, deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, and amino acid biosynthesis. The stability of HrrF is not dependent on the RNA chaperone Hfq. This study is the first step in an effort to investigate the role small RNAs play in altering gene expression in response to iron limitation in NTHi.
    Keywords: Hemophilus Infections -- Analysis ; Bacteria -- Analysis ; Rna -- Analysis ; Gene Expression -- Analysis
    ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, Oct 5, 2011, Vol.6(10), p.e25923
    Description: Strains of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae show enormous genetic heterogeneity and display differential virulence potential in different clinical settings. The igaB gene, which encodes a newly identified IgA protease, is more likely to be present in the genome of COPD strains of H. influenzae than in otitis media strains. Analysis of igaB and surrounding sequences in the present study showed that H. influenzae likely acquired igaB from Neisseria meningitidis and that the acquisition was accompanied by a ~20 kb genomic inversion that is present only in strains that have igaB. As part of a long running prospective study of COPD, molecular typing of H. influenzae strains identified a clonally related group of strains, a surprising observation given the genetic heterogeneity that characterizes strains of nontypeable H. influenzae. Analysis of strains by 5 independent methods (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, igaB gene sequences, P2 gene sequences, pulsed field gel electrophoresis) established the clonal relationship among the strains. Analysis of 134 independent strains collected prospectively from a cohort of adults with COPD demonstrated that ~10% belonged to the clonal group. We conclude that a clonally related group of strains of nontypeable H. influenzae that has two IgA1 protease genes (iga and igaB) is adapted for colonization and infection in COPD. This observation has important implications in understanding population dynamics of H. influenzae in human infection and in understanding virulence mechanisms specifically in the setting of COPD.
    Keywords: Genomes -- Analysis ; Genomes -- Health Aspects ; Proteases -- Analysis ; Proteases -- Health Aspects ; Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease -- Analysis ; Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease -- Health Aspects ; Immunoglobulin A -- Analysis ; Immunoglobulin A -- Health Aspects ; Virulence (Microbiology) -- Analysis ; Virulence (Microbiology) -- Health Aspects ; Hemophilus Infections -- Analysis ; Hemophilus Infections -- Health Aspects ; Genes -- Analysis ; Genes -- Health Aspects ; Genomics -- Analysis ; Genomics -- Health Aspects
    ISSN: 1932-6203
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