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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2011, Vol.75(18), pp.5122-5139
    Description: ► Hydroxybenzoic acids retard ferrihydrite formation due to Fe(III) complexation. ► Hydroquinone ligands are most effective in retarding ferrihydrite formation. ► Hydroxybenzoic acids decrease the structural long-range order of ferrihydrite. ► Hydroxybenzoic acids increase the structural strain in ferrihydrite. ► The ferrihydrite structure contains 13 ± 3% tetrahedral Fe(III). Organic ligands are known to interfere with the polymerization of Fe(III), but the extent of interference has not been systematically studied as a function of structural ligand properties. This study examines how the number and position of phenol groups in hydroxybenzoic acids affect both ferrihydrite formation and its local (〈5 Å) Fe coordination. To this end, acid Fe(III) nitrate solutions were neutralized up to pH 6.0 in the presence of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4HB), 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4DHB), and the hydroquinone 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4DHB). The initial molar ligand/Fe ratios ranged from 0 to 0.6. The precipitates were dialyzed, lyophilized, and subsequently studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The solids contained up to 32 wt.% organic C (4HB ∼ 2,4DHB 〈 3,4DHB). Only precipitates formed in 3,4DHB solutions comprised considerable amounts of Fe(II) (Fe(II)/Fe ≤ 6 mol%), implying the abiotic mineralization of the catechol-group bearing ligand during Fe(III) hydrolysis under oxic conditions. Hydroxybenzoic acids decreased ferrihydrite formation in the order 4HB ∼ 2,4DHB ≪ 3,4DHB, which documents that phenol group position rather than the number of phenol groups controls the ligand’s interaction with Fe(III). The coordination numbers of edge- and double corner-sharing Fe in the precipitates decreased by up to 100%. Linear combination fitting (LCF) of Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra revealed that this decrease was due to increasing amounts of organic Fe(III) complexes in the precipitates. Although EXAFS derived coordination numbers of Fe in ferrihydrite remained constant within error, all organic ligands decreased the coherently scattering domain (CSD) size of ferrihydrite as indicated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis (4HB 〈 2,4DHB ≪ 3,4DHB). With decreasing particle size of ferrihydrite its Fe(O,OH) octahedra became progressively distorted as evidenced by an increasing loss of centrosymmetry of the Fe sites. Pre-edge peak analysis of the Fe K-edge XANES spectra in conjunction with LCF results implied that ferrihydrite contains on an average 13 ± 3% tetrahedral Fe(III), which is in very good agreement with the revised single-phase structural model of ferrihydrite (Michel, F. M., Barron, V., Torrent, J., Morales, M. P. et al. (2010) Ordered ferrimagnetic form of ferrihydrite reveals links among structure, composition, and magnetism. , 2787–2792). The results suggest that hydroxybenzoic acid moieties of natural organic matter (NOM) effectively suppress ferrihydrite precipitation as they kinetically control the availability of inorganic Fe(III) species for nucleation and/or polymerization reactions. As a consequence, NOM can trigger the formation of small ferrihydrite nanoparticles with increased structural strain. These factors may eventually enhance the biogeochemical reactivity of ferrihydrite formed in NOM-rich environments. This study highlights the role of hydroquinone structures of NOM for Fe complexation, polymerization, and redox speciation.
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 0016-7037
    E-ISSN: 1872-9533
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2010, Vol.74(19), pp.5574-5592
    Description: In oxic environments contaminated with arsenate (As(V)), small polyhydroxycarboxylates such as citrate may impact the structure of precipitating ferrihydrite (Fh) and thus the surface speciation of As(V). In this study, ‘2-line’ Fh was precipitated from ferric nitrate solutions that were neutralized to pH 6.5 in the presence of increasing citrate concentrations and in the absence or presence of As(V). The initial citrate/Fe and As/Fe ratios were 0–50 mol% and 5 mol%, respectively. The reaction products, enriched with up to 0.32 mol citrate per mole Fe, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fe and As K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Citrate decreased the particle size of Fh by impairing the polymerization of Fe(O,OH) octahedra via edge and corner linkages. In the presence of citrate and As(V), coordination numbers of Fe decreased by up to 28% relative to pure Fh. Citrate significantly reduced the static disorder of Fe–O bonds, implying a decreased octahedral distortion in Fh. Mean bond distances in Fh were not affected by citrate and remained constant within error at 1.98 Å for Fe–O, 3.03 Å for Fe–Fe1, and 3.45 Å for Fe–Fe2. Likewise, citrate had no effect on the As–Fe (3.31 Å) bond distance in As(V) coprecipitated with Fh. The As K-edge EXAFS data comply with the formation of (i) only monodentate binuclear ( C) As(V) surface complexes and (ii) combinations of C, monodentate mononuclear ( V), and outersphere As(V) surface complexes. Our results suggest that increasing citrate concentrations led to a decreasing V/ C ratio and/or that citrate increasingly impaired the formation of outersphere As(V) complexes. Moreover, citrate stabilized colloidal suspensions of Fh (pH 4.3–6.6, ∼0.45 M) and reduced Fh formation at the expense of soluble Fe(III)-citrate complexes. At initial citrate/Fe ratios ⩾25 mol%, between 8% and 41% of total Fe was bound in Fe(III)-citrate complexes after Fh formation. Polynuclear Fe(III)-citrate species were found to bind As(V) via surface complexes indistinguishable by EXAFS from those of As(V) adsorbed to or coprecipitated with Fh. Our study implies that low molecular weight polyhydroxycarboxylates may enhance the mobility of As(V) in aqueous systems of high ionic strength (e.g., neutralizing acid mine drainage) by colloidal stabilization of suspended Fh particles and the formation of ternary As(V) complexes.
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 0016-7037
    E-ISSN: 1872-9533
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science and Technology, 01 April 2016, Vol.50(8)
    Description: Here, peatlands have received significant atmospheric inputs of As and S since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, but the effect of S deposition on the fate of As is largely unknown. It may encompass the formation of As sulfides and organosulfur-bound As, or the indirect stimulation of As biotransformation processes, which are presently not considered as important As immobilization pathways in wetlands. To investigate the immobilization mechanisms of anthropogenically derived As in peatlands subjected to long-term atmospheric pollution, we explored the solid-phase speciation of As, Fe, and S in English peat bogs by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, we analyzed the speciation of As in pore- and streamwaters. Linear combination fits of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data imply that 62–100% (average: 82%) of solid-phase As (Astot: 9–92 mg/kg) was present as organic As(V) and As(III). In agreement with appreciable concentrations of organoarsenicals in surface waters (pH: 4.0–4.4, Eh: 165–190 mV, average Astot: 1.5–129 μg/L), our findings reveal extensive biotransformation of atmospheric As and the enrichment of organoarsenicals in the peat, suggesting that the importance of organometal(loid)s in wetlands subjected to prolonged air pollution is higher than previously assumed.
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0013-936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2009, Vol.73(7), pp.1795-1812
    Description: The application of stable Fe isotopes as a tracer of the biogeochemical Fe cycle necessitates a mechanistic knowledge of natural fractionation processes. We studied the equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation upon sorption of Fe(II) to aluminum oxide (γ-Al O ), goethite (α-FeOOH), quartz (α-SiO ), and goethite-loaded quartz in batch experiments, and performed continuous-flow column experiments to study the extent of equilibrium and kinetic Fe isotope fractionation during reactive transport of Fe(II) through pure and goethite-loaded quartz sand. In addition, batch and column experiments were used to quantify the coupled electron transfer-atom exchange between dissolved Fe(II) (Fe(II) ) and structural Fe(III) of goethite. All experiments were conducted under strictly anoxic conditions at pH 7.2 in 20 mM MOPS (3-( -morpholino)-propanesulfonic acid) buffer and 23 °C. Iron isotope ratios were measured by high-resolution MC-ICP-MS. Isotope data were analyzed with isotope fractionation models. In batch systems, we observed significant Fe isotope fractionation upon equilibrium sorption of Fe(II) to all sorbents tested, except for aluminum oxide. The equilibrium enrichment factor, , of the Fe(II) –Fe(II) couple was 0.85 ± 0.10‰ (±2 ) for quartz and 0.85 ± 0.08‰ (±2 ) for goethite-loaded quartz. In the goethite system, the sorption-induced isotope fractionation was superimposed by atom exchange, leading to a Fe shift in solution towards the isotopic composition of the goethite. Without consideration of atom exchange, the equilibrium enrichment factor was 2.01 ± 0.08‰ (±2 ), but decreased to 0.73 ± 0.24‰ (±2 ) when atom exchange was taken into account. The amount of structural Fe in goethite that equilibrated isotopically with Fe(II) via atom exchange was equivalent to one atomic Fe layer of the mineral surface (∼3% of goethite-Fe). Column experiments showed significant Fe isotope fractionation with Fe(II) spanning a range of 1.00‰ and 1.65‰ for pure and goethite-loaded quartz, respectively. Reactive transport of Fe(II) under non-steady state conditions led to complex, non-monotonous Fe isotope trends that could be explained by a combination of kinetic and equilibrium isotope enrichment factors. Our results demonstrate that in abiotic anoxic systems with near-neutral pH, sorption of Fe(II) to mineral surfaces, even to supposedly non-reactive minerals such as quartz, induces significant Fe isotope fractionation. Therefore we expect Fe isotope signatures in natural systems with changing concentration gradients of Fe(II) to be affected by sorption.
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 0016-7037
    E-ISSN: 1872-9533
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 07 October 2014, Vol.48(19), pp.11320-9
    Description: Elevated solution concentrations of As in anoxic natural systems are usually accompanied by microbially mediated As(V), Mn(III/IV), and Fe(III) reduction. The microbially mediated reductive dissolution of Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides mainly liberates sorbed As(V) which is subsequently reduced to As(III). Manganese oxides have been shown to rapidly oxidize As(III) and Fe(II) under oxic conditions, but their net effect on the microbially mediated reductive release of As and Fe is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the microbial reduction of As(V)-bearing ferrihydrite (molar As/Fe: 0.05; Fe tot: 32.1 mM) by Shewanella sp. ANA-3 (10(8) cells/mL) in the presence of different concentrations of birnessite (Mn tot: 0, 0.9, 3.1 mM) at circumneutral pH over 397 h using wet-chemical analyses and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Additional abiotic experiments were performed to explore the reactivity of birnessite toward As(III) and Fe(II) in the presence of Mn(II), Fe(II), ferrihydrite, or deactivated bacterial cells. Compared to the birnessite-free control, the highest birnessite concentration resulted in 78% less Fe and 47% less As reduction at the end of the biotic experiment. The abiotic oxidation of As(III) by birnessite (k initial = 0.68 ± 0.31/h) was inhibited by Mn(II) and ferrihydrite, and lowered by Fe(II) and bacterial cell material. In contrast, the oxidation of Fe(II) by birnessite proceeded equally fast under all conditions (k initial = 493 ± 2/h) and was significantly faster than the oxidation of As(III). We conclude that in the presence of birnessite, microbially produced Fe(II) is rapidly reoxidized and precipitates as As-sequestering ferrihydrite. Our findings imply that the ability of Mn-oxides to oxidize As(III) in water-logged soils and sediments is limited by the formation of ferrihydrite and surface passivation processes.
    Keywords: Arsenic -- Chemistry ; Ferric Compounds -- Chemistry ; Iron -- Chemistry ; Oxides -- Chemistry ; Shewanella -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 2013, Vol.47(21), pp.12165-73
    Description: The speciation of As in wetlands is often controlled by natural organic matter (NOM), which can form strong complexes with Fe(III). Here, we elucidated the molecular-scale interaction of arsenite (As(III)) with Fe(III)-NOM complexes under reducing conditions. We reacted peat (40-250 μm size fraction, 1.0 g Fe/kg) with 0-15 g Fe/kg at pH 〈2, removed nonreacted Fe, and subsequently equilibrated the Fe(III) complexes formed with 900 mg As/kg peat at pH 7.0, 8.4, and 8.8. The solid-phase speciation of Fe and As was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (Fe) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (As, Fe). Our results show that the majority of Fe in the peat was present as mononuclear Fe(III) species (RFe-C = 2.82-2.88 Å), probably accompanied by small Fe(III) clusters of low nuclearity (RFe-Fe = 3.25-3.46 Å) at high pH and elevated Fe contents. The amount of As(III) retained by the original peat was 161 mg As/kg, which increased by up to 250% at pH 8.8 and an Fe loading of 7.3 g/kg. With increasing Fe content of peat, As(III) increasingly formed bidentate mononuclear (RAs-Fe = 2.88-2.94 Å) and monodentate binuclear (RAs-Fe = 3.35-3.41 Å) complexes with Fe, thus yielding direct evidence of ternary complex formation. The ternary complex formation went along with a ligand exchange reaction between As(III) and hydroxylic/phenolic groups of the peat (RAs-C = 2.70-2.77 Å). Our findings thus provide spectroscopic evidence for two yet unconfirmed As(III)-NOM interaction mechanisms, which may play a vital role in the cycling of As in sub- and anoxic NOM-rich environments such as peatlands, peaty sediments, swamps, or rice paddies.
    Keywords: Arsenites -- Metabolism ; Ferric Compounds -- Chemistry ; Soil -- Chemistry ; Soil Pollutants -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science and Technology, 06 September 2016, Vol.50(17)
    Description: Reductive release of the potentially toxic metalloid As from Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides has been identified as an important process leading to elevated As porewater concentrations in soils and sediments. Despite the ubiquitous presence of Mn oxides in soils and their oxidizing power toward As(III), their impact on interrelated As, Fe, and Mn speciation under microbially reducing conditions remains largely unknown. For this reason, we employed a column setup and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the influence of increasing birnessite concentrations (molar soil Fe-to-Mn ratios: 4.8, 10.2, and 24.7) on As speciation and release from an As-contaminated floodplain soil (214 mg As/kg) under anoxic conditions. Our results show that birnessite additions significantly decreased As leaching. The reduction of both As and Fe was delayed, and As(III) accumulated in birnessite-rich column parts, indicating the passivation of birnessite and its transformation products toward As(III) oxidation and the precipitation of Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides. Microbial Mn reduction resulted in elevated soil pH values, which in turn lowered the microbial activity in the birnessite-enriched soil. We conclude that in Mn-oxide-rich soil environments undergoing redox fluctuations, the enhanced As adsorption to newly formed Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides under reducing conditions leads to a transient stabilization of As.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0013-936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science and Technology, 02 January 2018, Vol.52(2)
    Description: X-ray amorphous Fe(III)-As(V) coprecipitates are common initial products of oxidative As- and Fe-bearing sulfide weathering, and often control As solubility in mine wastes or mining-impacted soils. The formation conditions of these solids may exert a major control on their mineralogical composition and, hence, As release in the gastric tract of humans after incidental ingestion of As-contaminated soil. Here, we synthesized a set of 35 Fe(III)-As(V) coprecipitates as a function of pH (1.5-8) and initial molar Fe/As ratio (0.8-8.0). The solids were characterized by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility measurements, and their As bioaccessibility (BAAs) was evaluated using the gastric-phase Solubility/Bioavailability Research Consortium in vitro assay (SBRC-G). The coprecipitates contained 1.01-4.51 mol/kg As (molar Fe/Assolid: 1.00-8.29) and comprised varying proportions of X-ray amorphous hydrous ferric arsenates (HFAam) and As(V)-adsorbed ferrihydrite. HFAam was detected up to pH 6 and its fraction decreased with increasing pH and molar Fe/As ratio. Bioaccessible As ranged from 2.9 to 7.3% of total As (x¯ = 4.8%). The BAAs of coprecipitates formed at pH = 4 was highest at formation pH 3 and 4 and controlled by the intrinsically high solubility of the HFAam component, possibly enhanced by sorbed sulfate. In contrast, the BAAs of coprecipitates dominated by As(V)-adsorbed ferrihydrite was much lower and controlled by As readsorption and/or surface precipitation in the gastric fluid. Bioaccessible As increased up to 95% with increasing liquid-to-solid ratio, indicating an enhanced solubility of these solids due to interactions between Fe and the glycine buffer. We conclude (i) that natural Fe(III)-As(V) coprecipitates exhibit a particularly high solubility in the human gastric tract when formed at pH ∼ 3-4 in the presence of sulfate, and (ii) that the in vitro bioaccessibility of As in Fe(III)-As(V) coprecipitates as assessed by tbe SBRC-G assay depends critically on their solid-phase concentration in As-contaminated soil and mine-waste materials.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0013-936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2008, Vol.72(4), pp.1128-1142
    Description: Ferrihydrite (Fh) coprecipitated with exopolymers of plants and microbes may differ in its geochemical reactivity from its abiotic counterpart. We synthesized Fh in the presence and absence of acid polysaccharides (polygalacturonic acid (PGA), alginate, xanthan) and characterized the physical and structural properties of the precipitates formed [Mikutta C., Mikutta R., Bonneville S., Wagner F., Voegelin A., Christl I. and Kretzschmar R. (2008) Synthetic coprecipitates of exopolysaccharides and ferrihydrite. Part I: Characterization. ]. In this paper, we focus on the reactivity of PGA and alginate coprecipitates and pure Fh, and studied their interaction with the microbial siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB) in the presence and absence of low molecular weight organic (LMWO) acid anions (malate, citrate). Batch adsorption and dissolution experiments were performed in the dark at pH 7 in 10 mM NaClO background electrolyte. In the dissolution experiments, different modes of ligand addition were applied (single, simultaneous, stepwise). With an estimated Langmuir sorption maximum of 15 mmol/mol Fe, a PGA coprecipitate with 11% C sorbed about four times as much DFOB as pure Fh, and the amount of DFOB sorbed was ∼4-fold larger than estimated from the sum of DFOB sorption to pure Fh and PGA alone. The apparent initial dissolution rates, , and pseudo-first order rate coefficients, , of the coprecipitates exceeded those of pure Fh by up to two orders of magnitude. Citrate and malate exerted a strong synergistic effect on the DFOB-promoted dissolution of pure Fh, whereas synergistic effects of both anions were absent or negligible for the coprecipitates. of the citrate and DFOB-promoted dissolution of PGA coprecipitates increased with increasing molar C/Fe ratio of the coprecipitates, independent of the charge of the LMWO ligand. Our results indicate that polyuronates stabilize Fh particles sterically and /or electrostatically, thus increasing the mineral surface area accessible to LMWO ligands. In contrast, pure Fh was coagulated at pH 7 (pH of Fh = 7.1), and hence only a small fraction of the Fh surface underwent dissolution. The increase in ligand-accessible surface area of Fh upon coprecipitation with acid polysaccharides seems to primarily control the kinetics of the ligand-promoted dissolution at neutral pH. In pH environments where the solubility of Fe(III) is very low, dissolution rates of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides in such coprecipitates may therefore exceed those of pure minerals by several orders of magnitude, despite a similar crystallinity of the minerals.
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 0016-7037
    E-ISSN: 1872-9533
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, March-April, 2006, Vol.70(2), p.541(9)
    Description: Biogenetic polysugars may affect the sorption characteristics of soil mineral particles in the rhizosphere. We hypothesized that polygalacturonate [PGA, ([[C.sub.6][H.sub.7][O.sub.6]).sub.n.sup.-]] coatings on goethite reduce the diffusion of phosphate into the pores of the adsorbent. Goethite was preloaded with PGA (0-10 mg C [g.sup.-1]). The samples were characterized by [N.sub.2] and C[O.sub.2] adsorption, electrophoretic mobility measurements, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). The phosphate sorption kinetics was studied with batch experiments over 2 wk at pH 5 and an initial phosphate concentration of 250 [micro]M. Pore volume and specific surface area of the goethite samples declined after PGA addition. The PGA coatings reduced the [zeta]-potential of goethite from 42.3 to -39.6 mV at the highest C loading. With increasing PGA-C content and decreasing [zeta]-potential the amount of phosphate sorbed after 2 wk decreased linearly (P 〈 0.001). Sorption of phosphate to pure and PGA-coated goethite showed an initial fast sorption followed by a slow sorption reaction. At the smallest C loading (5.5 mg C [g.sup.-1]) the portion of phosphate retained by the slow reaction was smaller than for the treatment without any PGA, while at higher C loadings the fraction of slowly immobilized phosphate increased. Our results suggest that at low C-loadings PGA impaired the intraparticle diffusion of phosphate. In contrast, the slow step-by-step desorption of PGA (〈52% within 2 wk) or the diffusion of phosphate through PGA coatings or both are rate limiting for the slow phosphate reaction at C loadings 〉 5.5 mg C [g.sup.-1].
    Keywords: Soil Phosphorus -- Research ; Soil Chemistry -- Research ; X-ray Analysis
    ISSN: 0361-5995
    E-ISSN: 14350661
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