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  • Lang, F  (11)
  • Phosphorus
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, Sept-Oct, 2006, Vol.70(5), p.1731(10)
    Description: Uronates are important constituents of maize mucilage and polyuronates are used as a simplified model of the soil--root interface. We tested whether galacturonate (GA) and polygalacturonate (PGA) impair the diffusion of phosphate (P[O.sub.4]) into and out of pores of a synthetic goethite (147 [m.sup.2] [g.sup.-1]) and whether the effect of maize mucigel (MU) is comparable to PGA. We measured the P[O.sub.4] desorption kinetics of goethites in batch experiments over 2 wk at pH 5. One part of the goethite was equilibrated with organic substances before P[O.sub.4] addition, another part after addition of P[O.sub.4]. Before the desorption experiments, the porosity of our samples was analyzed by [N.sub.2] gas adsorption. In each treatment a rapid initial desorption was followed by a slow desorption reaction, which is assigned to the diffusion of P[O.sub.4] out of mineral pores. No consistent relation between the micro- and mesoporosity and the rate of the slow P[O.sub.4] desorption was observed. Compared with the C-free control, only PGA and MU affected the fraction of P[O.sub.4] mobilized by the fast and slow desorption reaction: when PGA was sorbed to goethite before P[O.sub.4], twice as much P[O.sub.4] was mobilized via the fast reaction than in the treatment where P[O.sub.4] was sorbed before PGA, suggesting a decreased accessibility of goethite pores to P[O.sub.4]. Mucigel, however, showed reversed effects, which is ascribed to its differing chemical composition. In conclusion, PGA seems inappropriate as a model substance for maize MU collected from non-axenic sand cultures. Under the experimental conditions chosen, the efficacy of all organic substances to increase P[O.sub.4] solution concentrations by pore clogging and sorption competition is small.
    Keywords: Phosphates -- Research ; Sorption -- Research
    ISSN: 0361-5995
    E-ISSN: 14350661
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 15 November 2015, Vol.356, pp.136-143
    Description: Phosphorus is an essential yet scarce macronutrient, and as such forest nutrition often relies on cycling of P between biomass and soils through litterfall and roots. For technical and soil protection reasons, modern harvesting systems create thick brash mats on skid trails by depositing residues, thus concentrating P there. What portion of this redistributed P is immobilized, lost, or recycled could be significant to forest nutrition and management. However, open questions exist regarding the quantity and fate of P deposited on skid trials. The aim of this study was to determine how much P is redistributed to skid trails and what happens to that P. We modeled the amount of P deposited on a skid trail during a whole-tree thinning of an Mill. stand, and quantified P stocks in the forest floor and mineral soil five years after the operation. An estimated 60% of harvested P from the encatchment was deposited on the skid trail. Five years after the harvest, forest floor P stocks in the skid trail dropped from an extrapolated 8.9 to 4.4 g m . The difference of 4.5 g m of P was not evident in mineral soil stocks, and loss through runoff or leaching would be minimal. With the greatest concentration of roots in the forest floor on the middle of the skid trail, mineralization and uptake of the missing P was the most likely explanation. This suggests that accumulated P on skid trails can be recycled through uptake by trees. Further testing in other stands and on which vegetation takes up accumulated P is still needed.
    Keywords: Nutrient Cycling ; Plant Uptake ; Whole-Tree Harvesting ; Brash Mats ; Allometric Modeling ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 2012, Vol.93(1), pp.75-88
    Description: Topsoil constituents are eroded from agricultural sites and leached towards drainage channels. This transfer can affect aquatic ecosystems and deteriorate the efficiency of drainage systems and fertilisers. As long as erosion cannot be completely avoided, the recycling of sediments and associated nutrients may offer a sustainable solution to these problems. The aim of our case study at the island Sant Erasmo, lagoon of Venice (Italy) was to assess the ecological problems and potentials of sediment recycling. With our assessment we concentrated on (1) the origin of channel sediments, (2) the benefit of sediment application for increasing the nutrient stocks of the soils, and (3) the risk of heavy metal (HM) contamination of arable soils by sediment application. Samples from soils of horticultural sites, sediments, and waters from adjacent drainage channels and lagoon sediments were analyzed for the concentrations of nutrients (P and K) and HM (Cu, Pb, and Zn). Potentially available channel sediment masses and element stocks were calculated for the soil fertility classes of Sant Erasmo based on local measurements of sediment depths and analyses of aerial photographs by a geographic information system. In a column experiment, leaching of both nutrients and Cu from recently dredged sediments was analyzed. Heavy metal concentrations of soils and channel sediments were much higher than of lagoon sediments. The similarity of the chemical properties of the channel sediments and of top soil samples implies that topsoil material is eroded into the channels. The amount of sediments accumulated in the channels corresponded to soil erosion rates between 2 and 23 t ha −1  a −1 . Channel sediments contained higher concentrations of nutrients and organic carbon but slightly lower concentrations of HM than the soils of adjacent horticultural sites. Sediment P and K yields would be sufficient to replace fertiliser application at the horticultural sites for up to 51 and 35 years, respectively. The column experiment indicated that Cu mobilization induced by oxidation processes is restricted to the first years after sediments are applied to the soils. Our study emphasizes that for a comprehensive assessment of sediment recycling in agricultural systems the available sediment stocks as well as the contents of nutrients and pollutants of the sediment in relation to soils have to be considered.
    Keywords: Phosphorus ; Heavy metals ; Nutrient cycling ; Leaching experiment
    ISSN: 1385-1314
    E-ISSN: 1573-0867
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2016, Vol.179(2), pp.129-135
    Description: Phosphorus is one of the major limiting factors of primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems and, thus, the P demand of plants might be among the most important drivers of soil and ecosystem development. The P cycling in forest ecosystems seems an ideal example to illustrate the concept of ecosystem nutrition. Ecosystem nutrition combines and extents the traditional concepts of nutrient cycling and ecosystem ecology. The major extension is to consider also the loading and unloading of nutrient cycles and the impact of nutrient acquiring and recycling processes on overall ecosystem properties. Ecosystem nutrition aims to integrate nutrient related aspects at different scales and in different ecosystem compartments including all processes, interactions and feedbacks associated with the nutrition of an ecosystem. We review numerous previous studies dealing with P nutrition from this ecosystem nutrition perspective. The available information contributes to the description of basic ecosystem characteristics such as emergence, hierarchy, and robustness. In result, we were able to refine Odum's hypothesis on P nutrition strategies along ecosystem succession to substrate related ecosystem nutrition and development. We hypothesize that at sites rich in mineral‐bound P, plant and microbial communities tend to introduce P from primary minerals into the biogeochemical P cycle (acquiring systems), and hence the tightness of the P cycle is of minor relevance for ecosystem functioning. In contrast, tight P recycling is a crucial emergent property of forest ecosystems established at sites poor in mineral bound P (recycling systems). We conclude that the integration of knowledge on nutrient cycling, soil science, and ecosystem ecology into holistic ecosystem nutrition will provide an entirely new view on soil–plant–microbe interactions.
    Keywords: Ecosystem Properties ; P Recycling ; P Nutrition Strategy ; Forest Nutrition ; P Acquiring
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 5
    In: Environmental Microbiology, June 2016, Vol.18(6), pp.1988-2000
    Description: Phosphorus () is an important macronutrient for all biota on earth but similarly a finite resource. Microorganisms play on both sides of the fence as they effectively mineralize organic and solubilize precipitated forms of soil phosphorus but conversely also take up and immobilize . Therefore, we analysed the role of microbes in two beech forest soils with high and low content by direct sequencing of metagenomic deoxyribonucleic acid. For inorganic solubilization, a significantly higher microbial potential was detected in the ‐rich soil. This trait especially referred to  olibacter usiatus, likewise one of the dominating species in the data sets. A higher microbial potential for efficient phosphate uptake systems () was detected in the ‐depleted soil. Genes involved in starvation response regulation (, ) were prevalent in both soils. This underlines the importance of effective phosphate (ho) regulon control for microorganisms to use alternative sources during phosphate limitation. Predicted genes were primarily harboured by hizobiales, ctinomycetales and cidobacteriales.
    Keywords: Soil Microbiology – Analysis ; Nucleic Acids – Analysis ; Phosphates – Analysis ; Forest Soils – Analysis ; Soil Phosphorus – Analysis;
    ISSN: 1462-2912
    E-ISSN: 1462-2920
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 September 2017, Vol.8(10), p.358
    Description: Forest harvesting removes and redistributes nutrients through felling and forwarding. Substantial quantities of nutrients can accumulate in brash mats on permanent skid trails, but their availability and uptake after multiple thinnings on soils susceptible to leaching are unknown. In this study, we modeled the deposition of base cations and phosphorus on a permanent skid trail after five thinnings of a Picea abies (L.) Karst. stand, and measured the resulting nutrient stocks in both the forest floor and mineral soil. An estimated 35%, 44%, 41%, and 61% of harvested Ca, K, Mg, and P, respectively, were redistributed to the skid trail. Of those deposited stocks, 32–65% of nutrients remained in decomposed brash material on the skid trail. Mineral soil stocks for Ca, K, and P were significantly higher in the skid trail than in the stand, which included minor increases in bioavailable pools. Skid trail root densities were not lower than the stand while bulk densities were only partially higher. Both would not limit nutrient uptake. There were no significant relations between needle nutrient concentrations and distance to the skid trail. Altogether, these results indicate that nutrient uptake from the skid trail was minimal despite their accumulation, chemical availability, and physical accessibility. This suggests that other factors such as liming and frequent thinning disturbances can repress uptake of available nutrients on skid trails.
    Keywords: Soil Management ; Picea Abies ; Brash Mats ; Needle Nutrition ; Whole-Tree Harvesting ; Liming ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2018, Vol.432(1), pp.289-301
    Description: The accumulation of organic layers in forests is linked to decreasing nutrient availability. Organic layers might represent a source of phosphorus (P) nutrition of trees in forests. Our aims were i) to test if the fate of P in a tree sapling-soil system differs between nutrient-poor and nutrient-rich sites, and ii) to assess the influence of organic layers on the fate of P in a tree sapling-soil system at either site.We conducted a 33P labeling experiment of mesocosms of beech (Fagus sylvatica) saplings.Recovery of 33P in the organic layer was greater under nutrient-poor than under nutrient-rich conditions likely caused by the abundance of microorganisms and roots. Under nutrient-poor conditions, we found that the mobilization of P followed by efficient uptake promoted tree sapling growth if the organic layer was present. The presence of organic layers did not significantly influence P uptake by beech saplings under nutrient-rich conditions suggesting mechanisms of P mobilization in addition to organic matter mineralization.Our results highlight the importance of organic layers for P nutrition of young beech trees growing on nutrient-poor soils in temperate forest ecosystems. The role of organic layers should be considered for sustainable forest management.
    Keywords: P tracer ; Phosphorus nutrition ; Forest floor ; Soil ; Beech ; Phosphorus uptake
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2018, Vol.427(1), pp.53-69
    Description: Background and aims Phosphorus (P) availability is crucial for forest ecosystem productivity and soil organic matter (SOM) is an important source for P. This study was conducted to reveal carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and P distributions in functional SOM fractions. We hypothesised that (1) most of the organic P (P.sub.org) is part of the particulate SOM, (2) particulate SOM stores increasing share of P with decreasing soil P content and (3) the C:P.sub.org ratio of mineral-associated SOM is smaller than that of particulate SOM. Methods We analysed soil samples from five temperate forest sites (Fagus sylvatica) under different geological parent material with a wide range of total P concentrations. Density fractionation was used to separate free light fraction (fLF), particulate SOM occluded within soil aggregates (occluded light fraction; oLF), and mineral associated SOM (heavy fraction; HF). We determined the mass balance of P in these fractions, in addition to the C and N concentrations. Additionally, the P speciation of the topsoil was analysed by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the P K-edge. Results The fLF contained 18-54% and the oLF 1-15% of total P (P.sub.tot). High percentage of P in these light fractions was associated to soil minerals. Phosphorous in particulate SOM within aggregates tend to increase with decreasing soil P. The HF containing mineral-associated OM, comprised 38-71% of P.sub.tot and their C:P.sub.org ratios were consistently lower than those of the fLF irrespective of the P status of the soil. Conclusions We show that all three functional SOM fractions contain variable amount of both organic and inorganic P species. The free light fraction shows no response to changing P stocks of soils.. Despite physically protected particulate SOM, oLF, becomes increasingly relevant as P cache in soils with declining P status.
    Keywords: Ecosystem nutrition ; Density fractions ; Soil organic matter ; C:N:P ratio ; Phosphorus ; P K-edge XANES
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2018, Vol.427(1), pp.71-86
    Description: Background and aims Nanoparticles and colloids affect the mobilisation and availability of phosphorus for plants and microorganisms in soils. We aimed to give a description of colloid sizes and composition from forest soil profiles and to evaluate the size-related quality of colloids for P fixation. Methods We investigated the size-dependent elemental composition and the P content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) isolated from five German (beech-dominated) forest soil profiles of varying bulk soil P content by field-flow fractionation (FFF) coupled to various detectors. Results Three size fractions of WDC were separated: (i) nanoparticles 25 nm (NP) rich in C.sub.org, (ii) fine colloids (25 nm-240 nm; FC) composed mainly of C.sub.org, Fe and Al, probably as associations of Fe- and Al- (hydr)oxides and organic matter, and (iii) medium-sized colloids (240 nm-500 nm; MC), rich in Fe, Al and Si, indicating the presence of phyllosilicates. The P concentration in the overall WDC was up to 16 times higher compared to the bulk soil. The NP content decreased with increasing soil depth while the FC and MC showed a local maximum in the mineral topsoil due to soil acidification, although variant distributions in the subsoil were observed. NP were of great relevance for P binding in the organic surface layers, whereas FC- and MC-associated P dominated in the Ah horizon. Conclusion The nanoparticles and colloids appeared to be of high relevance as P carriers in the forest surface soils studied, regardless of the bulk soil P content.
    Keywords: Colloids ; Field-flow fractionation ; Forest soil ; Nanoparticles ; Phosphorus
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Microbiological Methods, June 2016, Vol.125, pp.91-97
    Description: Phosphorus (P) is of central importance for cellular life but likewise a limiting macronutrient in numerous environments. Certainly microorganisms have proven their ability to increase the phosphorus bioavailability by mineralization of organic-P and solubilization of inorganic-P. On the other hand they efficiently take up P and compete with other biota for phosphorus. However the actual microbial community that is associated to the turnover of this crucial macronutrient in different ecosystems remains largely anonymous especially taking effects of seasonality and spatial heterogeneity into account. In this study seven oligonucleotide primers are presented which target genes coding for microbial acid and alkaline phosphatases ( , ), phytases ( ), phosphonatases ( ) as well as the quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase ( ) and different P transporters ( , ). Illumina amplicon sequencing of soil genomic DNA underlined the high rate of primer specificity towards the respective target gene which usually ranged between 98% and 100% ( : 87%). As expected the primers amplified genes from a broad diversity of distinct microorganisms. Using DNA from a beech dominated forest soil, the highest microbial diversity was detected for the alkaline phosphatase ( ) gene which was amplified from 15 distinct phyla respectively 81 families. Noteworthy the primers also allowed amplification of from 6 fungal orders. The genes coding for acid phosphatase ( ) and the quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase ( ) were amplified from 20 respectively 17 different microbial orders. In comparison the phytase and phosphonatase ( , ) primers covered 13 bacterial orders from 2 different phyla respectively. Although the amplified microbial diversity was apparently limited both primers reliably detected all orders that contributed to the P turnover in the investigated soil as revealed by a previous metagenomic approach. Genes that code for microbial P transporter ( , ) were amplified from 13 respectively 9 distinct microbial orders. Accordingly the introduced primers represent a valuable tool for further analysis of the microbial community involved in the turnover of phosphorus in soils but most likely also in other environments.
    Keywords: Phosphorus Turnover ; Forest Soil ; Phod ; Phon ; Appa ; Pita ; Psts ; Biology
    ISSN: 0167-7012
    E-ISSN: 1872-8359
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