Environmental Pollution, June 2018, Vol.237, pp.205-217
Energy crops are an important renewable source for energy production in future. To ensure high yields of crops, N fertilization is a common practice. However, knowledge on environmental impacts of bioenergy plantations, particularly in systems involving trees, and the effects of N fertilization is scarce. We studied the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which negatively affect the environment by contributing to tropospheric ozone and aerosols formation, from and willow plantations. Particularly, we aimed at quantifying the effect of N fertilization on VOC emission. For this purpose, we determined plant traits, photosynthetic gas exchange and VOC emission rates of the two systems as affected by N fertilization (0 and 80 kg ha yr ). Additionally, we used a modelling approach to simulate (i) the annual VOC emission rates as well as (ii) the OH reactivity resulting from individual VOC emitted. Total VOC emissions from was 1.5- and 2.5-fold higher compared to in non-fertilized and fertilized plantations, respectively. Isoprene was the dominating VOC in (80–130 μg g DW h ), whereas it was negligible in . We identified twenty-eight VOC compounds, which were released by with the green leaf volatile hexanal as well as dimethyl benzene, dihydrofuranone, phenol, and decanal as the dominant volatiles. The pattern of VOC released from this species clearly differed to the pattern emitted by . OH reactivity from VOC released by was ca. 8-times higher than that of . N fertilization enhanced stand level VOC emissions, mainly by promoting the leaf area index and only marginally by enhancing the basal emission capacity of leaves. Considering the higher productivity of fertilized compared to together with the considerably lower OH reactivity per weight unit of biomass produced, qualified the C -perennial grass as a superior source of future bioenergy production. N fertilization strongly increased VOC emission of but not of at the plantation level, making the latter a superior source of future bioenergy production.
Biogenic VOC Emissions ; Greenhouse Gas ; Plant Growth ; N Availability ; Bioenergy Crops ; Salix ; Miscanthus ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
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