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  • Photosynthesis
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(8), p.e0136579
    Description: The present study with young poplar trees aimed at characterizing the effect of O2 shortage in the soil on net uptake of NO3- and NH4+ and the spatial distribution of the N taken up. Moreover, we assessed biomass increment as well as N status of the trees affected by O2 deficiency. For this...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2015, Vol.10(5)
    Description: Climate change poses direct or indirect influences on physiological mechanisms in plants. In particular, long living plants like trees have to cope with the predicted climate changes (i.e. drought and air warming) during their life span. The present study aimed to quantify the consequences of simulated climate change for foliar N metabolites over a drought-rewetting-drought course. Saplings of three Central European oak species (i.e. Quercus robur , Q . petraea , Q . pubescens ) were tested on two different soil types (i.e. acidic and calcareous). Consecutive drought periods increased foliar amino acid-N and soluble protein-N concentrations at the expense of structural N in all three oak species. In addition, transient effects on foliar metabolite dynamics were observed over the drought-rewetting-drought course. The lowest levels of foliar soluble protein-N, amino acid-N and potassium cation with a minor response to drought and air warming were found in the oak species originating from the driest/warmest habitat ( Q . pubescens ) compared to Q . robur and Q . petraea . Higher foliar osmolyte-N and potassium under drought and air warming were observed in all oak species when grown on calcareous versus acidic soil. These results indicate that species-specific differences in physiological mechanisms to compensate drought and elevated temperature are modified by soil acidity.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    In: PLoS ONE, 2014, Vol.9(12)
    Description: In the future, periods of strongly increased temperature in concert with drought (heat waves) will have potentially detrimental effects on trees and forests in Central Europe. Norway spruce might be at risk in the future climate of Central Europe. However, Douglas-fir is often discussed as an alternative for the drought and heat sensitive Norway spruce, because some provenances are considered to be well adapted to drier and warmer conditions. In this study, we identified the physiological and growth responses of seedlings from two different Douglas-fir provenances to increased temperature and atmospheric drought during a period of 92 days. We analysed (i) plant biomass, (ii) carbon stable isotope composition as an indicator for time integrated intrinsic water use efficiency, (iii) apparent respiratory carbon isotope fractionation as well as (iv) the profile of polar low molecular metabolites. Plant biomass was only slightly affected by increased temperatures and atmospheric drought but the more negative apparent respiratory fractionation indicated a temperature-dependent decrease in the commitment of substrate to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The metabolite profile revealed that the simulated heat wave induced a switch in stress protecting compounds from proline to polyols. We conclude that metabolic acclimation successfully contributes to maintain functioning and physiological activity in seedlings of both Douglas-fir provenances under conditions that are expected during heat waves (i.e. elevated temperatures and atmospheric drought). Douglas-fir might be a potentially important tree species for forestry in Central Europe under changing climatic conditions.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 01 December 2012, Vol.285, pp.227-238
    Description: ► δ C- and δ O- signatures of tree-rings were used to assess forest management. ► One site showed pronounced differences in δ C between early- and latewood. ► Here, greater productivity was related to greater flexibility in water use efficiency. ► δ O-signatures acted as a proxy record of Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD). ► The slope of the correlation between δ O and WUE indicated stomatal sensitivity to VPD. Foresters frequently lack sufficient information about site quality to optimize plantation management and logwood production to local conditions. In the present study we explored the potential of δ C- and δ O-signatures of tree-rings to provide such information. We studied stem disks collected from two plantations in south-eastern Australia that had been thinned or treated with fertilizer. Estimated from tree-ring δ C, the sites differed markedly in intrinsic water use efficiency of photosynthesis (WUE = / ). Stem disks from one site (Lyons) showed pronounced differences in δ C between early- and latewood, depending on stand density. Fertilizer application subsequent to thinning transiently increased foliage-N concentrations, without additional effects on and δ C. Thinning (and fertilization) at the other site (Daylesford) had little effect on δ C-variation between early- and late wood. Greater productivity at Lyons is seemingly related to greater flexibility in WUE such that fluctuating water supply was more efficiently exploited. Current theory suggests δ O-signatures in wood at this site acted as a proxy record of Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD), and the slope of the correlation between δ O and WUE (as an indicator of stomatal sensitivity to VPD) helped identify growth limiting resources and conditions. In general, δ O and WUE were positively correlated and WUE seemed mainly under stomatal control. Employing a General Linear Model, we identified additional influences on WUE . The slope, and closeness of fit of the correlation between δ O and WUE depended on stand density, wood type (early- or late wood), and individual trees. These traits were not correlated in early wood immediately after planting, suggesting WUE was driven by biochemical demand for CO in photosynthesis. Conversely, enhanced competition for soil water after canopy closure resulted in positive correlations between δ O and WUE , indicating enhanced importance of stomatal resistance to CO -diffusion. We discuss the limitations to the use of δ C- and δ O analysis of bulk wood for determining the balance between demand- and supply-driven control of WUE .
    Keywords: Pinus Radiata ; Plantation Management ; Thinning ; Fertilization ; Stable Isotopes ; Δ13c and Δ18o ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Oecologia, 2014, Vol.174(3), pp.839-851
    Description: Plant carnivory represents an exceptional means to acquire N. Snap traps of Dionaea muscipula serve two functions, and provide both N and photosynthate. Using 13 C/ 15 N-labelled insect powder, we performed feeding experiments with Dionaea plants that differed in physiological state and N status (spring vs. autumn plants). We measured the effects of 15 N uptake on light-saturated photosynthesis ( A max ), dark respiration ( R D ) and growth. Depending on N status, insect capture briefly altered the dynamics of R D / A max , reflecting high energy demand during insect digestion and nutrient uptake, followed by enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Organic N acquired from insect prey was immediately redistributed, in order to support swift renewal of traps and thereby enhance probability of prey capture. Respiratory costs associated with permanent maintenance of the photosynthetic machinery were thereby minimized. Dionaea’s strategy of N utilization is commensurate with the random capture of large prey, occasionally transferring a high load of organic nutrients to the plant. Our results suggest that physiological adaptations to unpredictable resource availability are essential for Dionaea’s success with regards to a carnivorous life style.
    Keywords: Plant carnivory ; Cost/benefit ; Photosynthetic efficiency ; Respiration ; Nitrogen uptake
    ISSN: 0029-8549
    E-ISSN: 1432-1939
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, June 2018, Vol.237, pp.205-217
    Description: Energy crops are an important renewable source for energy production in future. To ensure high yields of crops, N fertilization is a common practice. However, knowledge on environmental impacts of bioenergy plantations, particularly in systems involving trees, and the effects of N fertilization is scarce. We studied the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which negatively affect the environment by contributing to tropospheric ozone and aerosols formation, from and willow plantations. Particularly, we aimed at quantifying the effect of N fertilization on VOC emission. For this purpose, we determined plant traits, photosynthetic gas exchange and VOC emission rates of the two systems as affected by N fertilization (0 and 80 kg ha yr ). Additionally, we used a modelling approach to simulate (i) the annual VOC emission rates as well as (ii) the OH reactivity resulting from individual VOC emitted. Total VOC emissions from was 1.5- and 2.5-fold higher compared to in non-fertilized and fertilized plantations, respectively. Isoprene was the dominating VOC in (80–130 μg g DW h ), whereas it was negligible in . We identified twenty-eight VOC compounds, which were released by with the green leaf volatile hexanal as well as dimethyl benzene, dihydrofuranone, phenol, and decanal as the dominant volatiles. The pattern of VOC released from this species clearly differed to the pattern emitted by . OH reactivity from VOC released by was ca. 8-times higher than that of . N fertilization enhanced stand level VOC emissions, mainly by promoting the leaf area index and only marginally by enhancing the basal emission capacity of leaves. Considering the higher productivity of fertilized compared to together with the considerably lower OH reactivity per weight unit of biomass produced, qualified the C -perennial grass as a superior source of future bioenergy production. N fertilization strongly increased VOC emission of but not of at the plantation level, making the latter a superior source of future bioenergy production.
    Keywords: Biogenic VOC Emissions ; Greenhouse Gas ; Plant Growth ; N Availability ; Bioenergy Crops ; Salix ; Miscanthus ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 7
    In: Journal Of Experimental Botany, 2013, Vol. 64(5), pp.1317-1332
    Description: Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) involves global changes in gene expression and metabolite accumulation in both rhizobia and the host plant. In order to study the metabolic changes mediated by leaf–root interaction, photosynthesis was limited in leaves by exposure of plants to darkness, and subsequently gene expression was profiled by real-time reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR) and metabolite levels by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in the nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus . Photosynthetic carbon deficiency caused by prolonged darkness affected many metabolic processes in L. japonicus nodules. Most of the metabolic genes analysed were down-regulated during the extended dark period. In addition to that, the levels of most metabolites decreased or remained unaltered, although accumulation of amino acids was observed. Reduced glycolysis and carbon fixation resulted in lower organic acid levels, especially of malate, the primary source of carbon for bacteroid metabolism and SNF. The high amino acid concentrations together with a reduction in total protein concentration indicate possible protein degradation in nodules under these conditions. Interestingly, comparisons between amino acid and protein content in various organs indicated systemic changes in response to prolonged darkness between nodulated and non-nodulated plants, rendering the nodule a source organ for both C and N under these conditions.
    Keywords: Carbon Starvation ; 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Lotus Japonicus〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉 ; Metabolomic Analysis ; Nodule ; Symbiosis ; Transcript Profile.
    ISSN: 0022-0957
    E-ISSN: 1460-2431
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of experimental botany, 2013, Vol.64(5), pp.1317-1332
    Description: Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) involves global changes in gene expression and metabolite accumulation in both rhizobia and the host plant. In order to study the metabolic changes mediated by leaf–root interaction, photosynthesis was limited in leaves by exposure of plants to darkness, and subsequently gene expression was profiled by real-time reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR) and metabolite levels by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in the nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus. Photosynthetic carbon deficiency caused by prolonged darkness affected many metabolic processes in L. japonicus nodules. Most of the metabolic genes analysed were down-regulated during the extended dark period. In addition to that, the levels of most metabolites decreased or remained unaltered, although accumulation of amino acids was observed. Reduced glycolysis and carbon fixation resulted in lower organic acid levels, especially of malate, the primary source of carbon for bacteroid metabolism and SNF. The high amino acid concentrations together with a reduction in total protein concentration indicate possible protein degradation in nodules under these conditions. Interestingly, comparisons between amino acid and protein content in various organs indicated systemic changes in response to prolonged darkness between nodulated and non-nodulated plants, rendering the nodule a source organ for both C and N under these conditions. ; p. 1317-1332.
    Keywords: Metabolites ; Photosynthesis ; Glycolysis ; Protein Degradation ; Amino Acid Composition ; Genes ; Host Plants ; Malates ; Leaves ; Protein Content ; Nitrogen Fixation ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Scotophase ; Lotus Corniculatus Var. Japonicus ; Metabolic Studies ; Amino Acids ; Carbon ; Gene Expression ; Legumes ; Spectroscopy
    ISSN: 0022-0957
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Plant physiology, September 2015, Vol.169(1), pp.560-75
    Description: Isoprene emissions from poplar (Populus spp.) plantations can influence atmospheric chemistry and regional climate. These emissions respond strongly to temperature, [CO2], and drought, but the superimposed effect of these three climate change factors are, for the most part, unknown. Performing predicted climate change scenario simulations (periodic and chronic heat and drought spells [HDSs] applied under elevated [CO2]), we analyzed volatile organic compound emissions, photosynthetic performance, leaf growth, and overall carbon (C) gain of poplar genotypes emitting (IE) and nonemitting (NE) isoprene. We aimed (1) to evaluate the proposed beneficial effect of isoprene emission on plant stress mitigation and recovery capacity and (2) to estimate the cumulative net C gain under the projected future climate. During HDSs, the chloroplastidic electron transport rate of NE plants became impaired, while IE plants maintained high values similar to unstressed controls. During recovery from HDS episodes, IE plants reached higher daily net CO2 assimilation rates compared with NE genotypes. Irrespective of the genotype, plants undergoing chronic HDSs showed the lowest cumulative C gain. Under control conditions simulating ambient [CO2], the C gain was lower in the IE plants than in the NE plants. In summary, the data on the overall C gain and plant growth suggest that the beneficial function of isoprene emission in poplar might be of minor importance to mitigate predicted short-term climate extremes under elevated [CO2]. Moreover, we demonstrate that an analysis of the canopy-scale dynamics of isoprene emission and photosynthetic performance under multiple stresses is essential to understand the overall performance under proposed future conditions.
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Butadienes -- Analysis ; Hemiterpenes -- Analysis ; Pentanes -- Analysis ; Populus -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00320889
    E-ISSN: 1532-2548
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Photosynthesis Research, 2016, Vol.129(1), pp.43-58
    Description: Steady-state rates of leaf CO 2 assimilation ( A ) in response to incubation temperature ( T ) are often symmetrical around an optimum temperature. A / T curves of C 3 plants can thus be fitted to a modified Arrhenius equation, where the activation energy of A close to a low reference temperature is strongly correlated with the dynamic change of activation energy to increasing incubation temperature. We tested how [CO 2 ] 〈 current atmospheric levels and saturating light, or [CO 2 ] at 800 µmol mol −1 and variable light affect parameters that describe A / T curves, and how these parameters are related to known properties of temperature-dependent thylakoid electron transport. Variation of light intensity and substomatal [CO 2 ] had no influence on the symmetry of A / T curves, but significantly affected their breadth. Thermodynamic and kinetic (physiological) factors responsible for (i) the curvature in Arrhenius plots and (ii) the correlation between parameters of a modified Arrhenius equation are discussed. We argue that the shape of A / T curves cannot satisfactorily be explained via classical concepts assuming temperature-dependent shifts between rate-limiting processes. Instead the present results indicate that any given A / T curve appears to reflect a distinct flux mode, set by the balance between linear and cyclic electron transport, and emerging from the anabolic demand for ATP relative to that for NADPH.
    Keywords: Temperature response ; Non-linear Arrhenius plot ; Cyclic electron flow ; Photorespiration
    ISSN: 0166-8595
    E-ISSN: 1573-5079
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