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  • Pollution Control
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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, Jan 24, 2014, Vol.272, p.188(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2013.10.003 Byline: Yan Zhang, Hong Liu, Brian D. Fath Abstract: acents We developed a 7-compartment ecological network model for Beijing's urban system. acents We analyzed the degree of mutualism (synergism) of each ecological relationship. acents Based on the synergism, we determined the utilities for each compartment. acents We identified the relationships that increased and decreased mutualism. Author Affiliation: (a) State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Xinjiekouwai Street No. 19, Beijing 100875, China (b) Biology Department, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252, USA (c) Advanced Systems Analysis Program, International Institute for Applied System Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria Article History: Received 28 January 2013; Revised 30 September 2013; Accepted 2 October 2013
    Keywords: Pollution Control -- Case Studies ; Pollution Control -- Models
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, July, 2014, Vol.190, p.139(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.03.032 Byline: Shaoqing Chen, Bin Chen, Brian D. Fath Abstract: Urbanization is a strong and extensive driver that causes environmental pollution and climate change from local to global scale. Modeling cities as ecosystems has been initiated by a wide range of scientists as a key to addressing challenging problems concomitant with urbanization. In this paper, 'urban ecosystem modeling (UEM)' is defined in an inter-disciplinary context to acquire a broad perception of urban ecological properties and their interactions with global change. Furthermore, state-of-the-art models of urban ecosystems are reviewed, categorized as top-down models (including materials/energy-oriented models and structure-oriented models), bottom-up models (including land use-oriented models and infrastructure-oriented models), or hybrid models thereof. Based on the review of UEM studies, a future framework for explicit UEM is proposed based the integration of UEM approaches of different scales, guiding more rational urban management and efficient emissions mitigation. Author Affiliation: (a) State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China (b) Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252, USA (c) Advanced Systems Analysis, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria Article History: Received 7 January 2014; Revised 24 March 2014; Accepted 25 March 2014
    Keywords: Pollution Control -- Models ; Global Temperature Changes -- Models ; Urbanization -- Models ; Ecosystems -- Models
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, October 2014, Vol.73, pp.540-551
    Description: Cities consume 80% of the world׳s energy; therefore, analyzing urban energy metabolism and the resulting carbon footprint provides basic data for formulating target carbon emission reductions. While energy metabolism includes both direct and indirect consumptions among sectors, few researchers have studied indirect consumption due to a lack of data. In this study, we used input–output analysis to calculate the energy flows among directly linked sectors. Building on this, we used ecological network analysis to develop a model of urban energy flows and also account for energy consumption embodied by the flows among indirectly linked sectors (represented numerically as paths with a length of 2 or more). To illustrate the model, monetary input–output tables for Beijing from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed to determine the embodied energy consumption and associated carbon footprints of these sectors. This analysis reveals the environmental pressure based on the source (energy consumption) and sink (carbon footprint) values. Indirect consumption was Beijing׳s primary form, and the carbon footprint therefore resulted mainly from indirect consumption (both accounting for ca. 60% of the total, though with considerable variation among sectors). To reduce emissions, the utilization efficiency of indirect consumption must improve.
    Keywords: Energy Metabolism ; Embodied Energy ; Carbon Footprint ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    E-ISSN: 1873-6777
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, June 24, 2015, Vol.306, p.174(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.05.005 Byline: Yan Zhang, Hongmei Zheng, Brian D. Fath Abstract: * The Lubei system is dominated by exploitation and control relationships. * The circular structure plays an important role in the sulfur flows. * The ecological structure of the system forms a pyramidal hierarchy. Author Affiliation: (a) State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Xinjiekouwai Street No. 19, Beijing 100875, China (b) Biology Department, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252, USA (c) Advanced Systems Analysis Program, International Institute for Applied System Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria
    Keywords: Sulfur Compounds – Case Studies ; Pollution Control – Case Studies ; Industrial Districts – Case Studies
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, March 10, 2013, Vol.252, p.258(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.04.008 Byline: Jinyun Zhang (a), Yan Zhang (a), Zhifeng Yang (a), Brian D. Fath (b)(c), Shengsheng Li (a) Keywords: Energy and the environment; Carbon emissions; Factor decomposition; Beijing Abstract: a* We calculated carbon emissions from Beijing's production and household sectors. a* We developed a model to decompose the carbon emissions into eight causal factors. a* We estimated the directions and magnitudes of the influences of the eight factors. a* We discuss potential strategies for mitigating Beijing's carbon emissions. Author Affiliation: (a) State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Xinjiekouwai Street No. 19, Beijing 100875, China (b) Biology Department, Towson University, Towson, MD, USA (c) Dynamic Systems Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria
    Keywords: Emissions (Pollution) ; Pollution Control
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, August 2013, Vol.59, pp.600-613
    Description: The evaluation of ecosystem health in urban clusters will help establish effective management that promotes sustainable regional development. To standardize the application of emergy synthesis and set pair analysis (EM–SPA) in ecosystem health assessment, a procedure for using EM–SPA models was established in this paper by combining the ability of emergy synthesis to reflect health status from a biophysical perspective with the ability of set pair analysis to describe extensive relationships among different variables. Based on the EM–SPA model, the relative health levels of selected urban clusters and their related ecosystem health patterns were characterized. The health states of three typical Chinese urban clusters – Jing-Jin-Tang, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta – were investigated using the model. The results showed that the health status of the Pearl River Delta was relatively good; the health for the Yangtze River Delta was poor. As for the specific health characteristics, the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta urban clusters were relatively strong in Vigor, Resilience, and Urban ecosystem service function maintenance, while the Jing-Jin-Tang was relatively strong in organizational structure and environmental impact. Guidelines for managing these different urban clusters were put forward based on the analysis of the results of this study.
    Keywords: Ecosystem Health Pattern ; Chinese Urban Cluster ; Emergy ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    E-ISSN: 1873-6777
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 2010, Vol.408(20), pp.4702-4711
    Description: Using , we analyzed the network structure and ecological relationships in an urban water metabolic system. We developed an ecological network model for the system, and used Beijing as an example of analysis based on the model. We used network throughflow analysis to determine the flows among components, and measured both indirect and direct flows. Using a network utility matrix, we determined the relationships and degrees of mutualism among six compartments – 1) local environment, 2) rainwater collection, 3) industry, 4) agriculture, 5) domestic sector, and 6) wastewater recycling – which represent producer, consumer, and reducer trophic levels. The capacity of producers to provide water for Beijing decreased from 2003 to 2007, and consumer demand for water decreased due to decreasing industrial and agricultural demand; the recycling capacity of reducers also improved, decreasing the discharge pressure on the environment. The ecological relationships associated with the local environment or the wastewater recycling sector changed little from 2003 to 2007. From 2003 to 2005, the main changes in the ecological relationships among components of Beijing's water metabolic system mostly occurred between the local environment, the industrial and agricultural sectors, and the domestic sector, but by 2006 and 2007, the major change was between the local environment, the agricultural sector, and the industrial sector. The other ecological relationships did not change during the study period. Although Beijing's mutualism indices remained generally stable, the ecological relationships among compartments changed greatly. Our analysis revealed ways to further optimize this system and the relationships among compartments, thereby optimizing future urban water resources development.
    Keywords: Urban Ecological Networks ; Urban Water Metabolism ; Throughflow Analysis ; Utility Analysis ; Ecological Network Analysis ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 10 October 2016, Vol.337, pp.29-38
    Description: The consumption of food, energy, and industrial products in cities results in large quantities of excess nitrogen circulating in socio-ecological systems. However, details about how nitrogen flows and transforms within urban systems are unclear. In this study, we analyzed the nitrogen processes of Beijing considering the influences from human activities and nature under the framework of urban metabolism. Ecological network analysis was used to track the integral (direct + indirect) flows and to compare the contribution of direct and indirect flows at both the scale of each component and of the whole urban system during the period from 1996 to 2012. We found that Atmosphere, Household, and Industry had the most interactions with other nodes in the network. The integral flow from Industry to Atmosphere, which was consistently at 200 Gg, was the largest at five time points; the flow from Household to Sewage treatment grew fastest, and in 2012, increased to 5.9 times its 1996 value; the flow from Industry to Farmland decreased most obviously, and in 2012, it decreased to 12.9% of the value in 1996. Moreover, the indirect effects were dominant for the whole system in Beijing with a ratio of indirect to direct flow equal to 1.2. Surface Water and Forest had the strongest indirect effects maintaining a ratio of almost 2. Meanwhile, exploitation and competition relations were most frequent and their proportions were much larger than the proportion of mutualism relations. Through our results, integral flows were found to identify accurately the crucial process of nitrogen metabolism and our results showed how these ecological relationships influence the urban nitrogen flows within the system.
    Keywords: Urban Ecology ; Nitrogen Cycles ; Metabolism ; Ecological Network Analysis ; Ecological Relationship ; Beijing ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 24 November 2015, Vol.316, pp.144-154
    Description: Global climate change has aroused widespread interest in reducing carbon emissions and increasing carbon sequestration. Thus, an urban carbon inventory must consider both emissions and sequestration. In this context, we analyzed the main contributors to the flows that comprise a city's carbon metabolic processes employing methods and concepts from ecological science. The carbon emissions and sequestration by urban carbon metabolic processes can be compared to ecological catabolism and anabolism, respectively. We used empirical coefficients to estimate the rates of carbon catabolism and anabolism and calculate the resulting carbon imbalance index. Our analysis reveals the contributions of individual metabolic actors and the distribution of the metabolic flows among them. Taking Beijing as a case study, we found that the catabolic rate of the metabolic actors was more than five times the anabolic rate from 1995 to 2010, leading to a carbon imbalance index that was twice the average Chinese level. The major catabolic actors were the other services and domestic sectors. These catabolic rates were primarily influenced by the flows of electricity, heating energy consumption, and mobile energy consumption. The overall carbon imbalance resulted from greatly reduced metabolic flows in farmland anabolism due to conversion of farmland into urban land. Identifying the metabolic actors and flows in this manner will inform government mitigation efforts by identifying where reduction is required and guiding planning of appropriate mitigation actions. Our study also provides directions for conservation of the urban ecological environment.
    Keywords: Urban Metabolism ; Catabolism ; Anabolism ; Technological Metabolism ; Carbon Accounting ; Carbon Imbalance ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Cleaner Production, 10 November 2018, Vol.201, pp.295-307
    Description: Maintaining urban systems consumes a large amount and variety of materials and leads to waste flows. Carbon is a basic element that intuitively characterizes the metabolic characteristics of urban resource consumption and pollution emission. In this study, we integrated the carbon metabolic flows among 18 metabolic actors and between these actors and the atmosphere, and calculated flows of material in many categories using empirically derived coefficients to estimate the associated carbon flows (emission and absorption). Taking Beijing as an example, we analyzed the dynamic changes in the carbon metabolism and the structural characteristics of material utilization. We defined two indices to characterize the metabolism (the carbon imbalance and external dependence indices), and identified key actors responsible for changes in the indices. The total carbon metabolism (inputs and outputs) increased by 64% and 200%, respectively, from 1995 to 2015, mainly driven by energy consumption, which accounted for more than 78% of the total. In addition, input growth was driven by food, accounting for up to 6% of the total. The carbon imbalance and external dependence indices increased to nearly two and four times their 1995 values, respectively, mainly due to the Manufacturing, Electricity and Heat Production, and Energy Conversion actors’ demand for food or energy during the early part of the study period, and by the rapid growth of food or energy required by the Urban Life and Transportation actors. Identifying and comparing the key metabolic actors provided a novel way to analyze data to determine targets for carbon regulation and emission reduction measures for Beijing.
    Keywords: Urban Metabolism ; Carbon Metabolism ; Carbon Imbalance ; External Dependence ; Beijing ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0959-6526
    E-ISSN: 1879-1786
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