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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 01 June 2019, Vol.97(6), pp.379
    Description: The Nagoya protocol on access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity came into effect in 2014. The protocol aims to regulate research on genetic resources: tissue samples, DNA sequences, cultures or specimens, and provide a framework for benefit-sharing with the countries of origin when commercially-viable products result. These genetic resources are subject to national legislation on the conditions of collection, storage and use. The way that the Nagoya protocol is implemented can hinder international research collaborations.2,3 In our experience, microbiologists need to routinely share microorganisms, deposit isolates in culture collections and submit their research data to publicly-accessible databases. The Nagoya protocol seems to have created new barriers to the deposit of samples and the availability of sequences.
    Keywords: Montreal Quebec Canada ; Prokaryotes ; Infectious Diseases ; Animal Diseases ; Pathogens ; Legislation ; Collaboration ; Animal Health ; Infectious Diseases ; Infectious Diseases ; Emergencies ; Infectious Diseases ; Legislation ; Legislation ; Pathogens ; Microorganisms ; Conventions ; Informed Consent ; Epidemics ; Legislation ; Emergencies ; Disease ; Public Health ; Biological Diversity ; Research ; Microorganisms ; Microorganisms ; Pathogens ; Animal Diseases ; Pathogens ; United Nations–UN;
    ISSN: 00429686
    E-ISSN: 1564-0604
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, December 2013, Vol.19(12), pp.2058-60
    Description: To the Editor: In 2012, the World Health Organization launched plans for a second campaign to eradicate the neglected tropical disease, yaws (1). The first campaign, conducted during the mid-20th century, was tremendously successful in terms of treatment and reduced the number of cases by 95%. However, it failed to eradicate the disease, and when local efforts to prevent new cases proved insufficient, yaws resurged in some areas. Comments on the new yaws eradication campaign have emphasized the need for sustained support and resources. Here we draw attention to an additional concern that could impede yaws eradication efforts.
    Keywords: Africa ; World Health Organization ; Bacteria ; Eradication ; Nonhuman Primates ; Pallidum ; Pertenue ; Syphilis ; Treponeme ; Yaws ; Zoonoses ; Disease Reservoirs ; Monkey Diseases -- Transmission ; Primates -- Microbiology ; Treponemal Infections -- Veterinary ; Yaws -- Transmission
    ISSN: 10806040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 3
    In: Emerging Microbes & Infections, 2017, Vol.6(9), p.e79
    Description: Central to the One Health approach and any disease eradication program is the question of whether a pathogen has a non-human reservoir. Despite well-established conceptual frameworks that define a reservoir of infection, empirical characterization of reservoirs often remains controversial, challenging and sometimes misleading. What is essentially missing are applicable requirements that standardize the use of the term 'reservoir of infection' across multiple disciplines. We propose an empirical framework, considering maintenance and feasible transmission of a pathogen, to standardize the acceptance of a disease reservoir across multiple disciplines. We demonstrate the intended use of these requirements by applying them to different diseases that are known to infect both humans and animals.
    Keywords: Public Health;
    ISSN: 2222-1751
    E-ISSN: 2222-1751
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, July 2018, Vol.61, pp.92-107
    Description: is an uncultivable bacterium and the causative agent of syphilis (subsp. [TPA]), human yaws (subsp. [TPE]), and bejel (subsp. ). Several species of nonhuman primates in Africa are infected by treponemes genetically undistinguishable from known human TPE strains. Besides , the equally uncultivable causes pinta in humans. In lagomorphs, ecovar Cuniculus and ecovar Lepus are the causative agents of rabbit and hare syphilis, respectively. All uncultivable pathogenic treponemes harbor a relatively small chromosome (1.1334–1.1405 Mbp) and show gene synteny with minimal genetic differences (〉98% identity at the DNA level) between subspecies and species. While uncultivable pathogenic treponemes contain a highly conserved core genome, there are a number of highly variable and/or recombinant chromosomal loci. This is also reflected in the occurrence of intrastrain heterogeneity (genetic diversity within an infecting bacterial population). Molecular differences at several different chromosomal loci identified among TPA strains or isolates have been used for molecular typing and the epidemiological characterization of syphilis isolates. This review summarizes genome structure of uncultivable pathogenic treponemes including genetically variable regions.
    Keywords: Treponema Pallidum Subsp. Pallidum ; T. Pallidum Subsp. Pertenue ; T. Pallidum Subsp. Endemicum ; T. Paraluisleporidarum ; Non-Human Primates ; Molecular Evolution ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1567-1348
    E-ISSN: 1567-7257
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, May 2017, Vol.23(5), pp.816-819
    Description: Survey results showed treponemal infection among pet macaques in Southeast Asia, a region with a high prevalence of human yaws. This finding, along with studies showing treponemal infection in nonhuman primates in Africa, should encourage a One Health approach to yaws eradication and surveillance activities, possibly including monitoring of nonhuman primates in yaws-endemic regions.
    Keywords: Asia ; Indonesia ; Macaca Spp. ; One Health ; Southeast Asia ; Sulawesi ; Treponema Pallidum ; Treponema Pallidum Subsp. Pertenue ; Bacteria ; Eradication ; Macaques ; Mammalian Host Reservoirs ; Nonhuman Primates ; Nontreponemal ; Pets ; Surveillance ; Yaws ; Monkey Diseases -- Epidemiology ; Treponemal Infections -- Veterinary
    ISSN: 10806040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, June 2018, Vol.24(6), pp.1002-1009
    Description: We investigated Treponema pallidum infection in 8 nonhuman primate species (289 animals) in Tanzania during 2015-2017. We used a serologic treponemal test to detect antibodies against the bacterium. Infection was further confirmed from tissue samples of skin-ulcerated animals by 3 independent PCRs (polA, tp47, and TP_0619). Our findings indicate that T. pallidum infection is geographically widespread in Tanzania and occurs in several species (olive baboons, yellow baboons, vervet monkeys, and blue monkeys). We found the bacterium at 11 of 14 investigated geographic locations. Anogenital ulceration was the most common clinical manifestation; orofacial lesions also were observed. Molecular data show that nonhuman primates in Tanzania are most likely infected with T. pallidum subsp. pertenue-like strains, which could have implications for human yaws eradication.
    Keywords: Africa ; One Health ; Tanzania ; Treponema Pallidum ; Bacteria ; Eradication ; Infection ; Nonhuman Primates ; Spirochetes ; Yaws ; Treponema Pallidum ; Primate Diseases -- Epidemiology ; Yaws -- Veterinary
    ISSN: 10806040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 2018, Vol.12(10), pp.urn:issn:1935-2727
    Description: BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) is the causative agent of yaws, a multistage disease endemic in tropical regions in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. To date, seven TPE strains have been completely sequenced and analyzed including five TPE strains of human origin (CDC-2, CDC 2575, Gauthier, Ghana-051, and Samoa D) and two TPE strains isolated from the baboons (Fribourg-Blanc and LMNP-1). This study revealed the complete genome sequences of two TPE strains, Kampung Dalan K363 and Sei Geringging K403, isolated in 1990 from villages in the Pariaman region of Sumatra, Indonesia and compared these genome sequences with other known TPE genomes.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences;
    ISSN: 1935-2727
    ISSN: 1935-2735
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  • 8
  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, October 2015, Vol.15(10), pp.1220-1225
    Description: Yaws is endemic in west Africa, southeast Asia, and the Pacific region. To eradicate yaws by 2020, WHO has launched a campaign of mass treatment with azithromycin. Progress has been made towards achievement of this ambitious goal, including the validation of point-of-care and molecular diagnostic tests and piloting of the strategy in several countries, including Ghana, Vanuatu, and Papua New Guinea. Gaps in knowledge need to be addressed to allow refinement of the eradication strategy. Studies exploring determinants of the spatial distribution of yaws are needed to help with the completion of baseline mapping. The finding that causes lesions similar to yaws is particularly important and further work is needed to assess the effect of azithromycin on these lesions. The integration of diagnostic tests into different stages of the eradication campaign needs investigation. Finally, studies must be done to inform the optimum mass-treatment strategy for sustainable interruption of transmission.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1473-3099
    E-ISSN: 1474-4457
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, November 2019, Vol.25(11), pp.2147-2149
    Description: Human yaws has historically been endemic to Kenya, but current epidemiologic data are lacking. We report seroprevalence for Treponema pallidum antibodies in olive baboons (Papio anubis) and vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) in Laikipia County, Kenya. Our results suggest endemicity of the yaws...
    Keywords: Kenya ; Laikipia County ; Treponema Pallidum ; Antibodies ; Baboon ; Bacteria ; Nonhuman Primates ; Primate ; Vervet Monkey ; Yaws ; Zoonoses
    ISSN: 10806040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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