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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: 한국토양비료학회 학술발표회 초록집, 2014, Vol.2014(6), pp.422-423
    Keywords: Silicon ; Rice ; Paddy Soils ; Straw Residue Management ; Phytoliths
    Source: DBpia - 디비피아 (Nurimedia)
    Source: DBpia (Nurimedia)
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  • 2
    In: Global Change Biology, January 2018, Vol.24(1), pp.e183-e189
    Description: Current climate and land‐use changes affect regional and global cycles of silicon (Si), with yet uncertain consequences for ecosystems. The key role of Si in marine ecology by controlling algae growth is well recognized but research on terrestrial ecosystems neglected Si since not considered an essential plant nutrient. However, grasses and various other plants accumulate large amounts of Si, and recently it has been hypothesized that incorporation of Si as a structural plant component may substitute for the energetically more expensive biosynthesis of lignin. Herein, we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis. We demonstrate that in straw of rice () deriving from a large geographic gradient across South‐East Asia, the Si concentrations (ranging from 1.6% to 10.7%) are negatively related to the concentrations of carbon (31.3% to 42.5%) and lignin‐derived phenols (32 to 102 mg/g carbon). Less lignin may explain results of previous studies that Si‐rich straw decomposes faster. Hence, Si seems a significant but hardly recognized factor in organic carbon cycling through grasslands and other ecosystems dominated by Si‐accumulating plants. The key role of silicon in marine ecology by controlling algae growth is well recognized but research on terrestrial ecosystems neglected Si since not considered an essential plant nutrient. However, many plants accumulate large amounts of Si, and recently it has been hypothesized that incorporation of Si as a structural component may substitute for the energetically more expensive biosynthesis of lignin. Herein, we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis. We demonstrate that in rice straw deriving from a large geographic gradient across South‐East Asia, the Si concentrations are negatively related to the concentrations of carbon and lignin‐derived phenols. Our data offer an explanation for previous findings of faster decomposition of Si‐rich rice straw as lignin regulates plant litter decomposition rates. Hence, Si seems a significant but hardly recognized factor in carbon cycling through ecosystems dominated by grass species and/or other Si‐accumulating plants.
    Keywords: Carbon Cycle ; Lignin ; Litter Decomposition ; Rice ; Silicon ; Structural Plant Components
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 3
    In: Global Change Biology, April 2013, Vol.19(4), pp.1107-1113
    Description: More than 50% of the world's population feeds on rice. Soils used for rice production are mostly managed under submerged conditions (paddy soils). This management, which favors carbon sequestration, potentially decouples surface from subsurface carbon cycling. The objective of this study was to elucidate the long‐term rates of carbon accrual in surface and subsurface soil horizons relative to those of soils under nonpaddy management. We assessed changes in total soil organic as well as of inorganic carbon stocks along a 2000‐year chronosequence of soils under paddy and adjacent nonpaddy management in the angtze delta, hina. The initial organic carbon accumulation phase lasts much longer and is more intensive than previously assumed, e.g., by the ntergovernmental anel on limate hange (). Paddy topsoils accumulated 170–178 kg organic carbon ha a in the first 300 years; subsoils lost 29–84 kg organic carbon ha a during this period of time. Subsoil carbon losses were largest during the first 50 years after land embankment and again large beyond 700 years of cultivation, due to inorganic carbonate weathering and the lack of organic carbon replenishment. Carbon losses in subsoils may therefore offset soil carbon gains or losses in the surface soils. We strongly recommend including subsoils into global carbon accounting schemes, particularly for paddy fields.
    Keywords: Carbon Sequestration ; Inorganic Carbon ; Land Use ; Organic Carbon ; Paddy ; Rice Cultivation ; Soils ; Subsoils
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: 한국토양비료학회 학술발표회 초록집, 2014, Vol.2014(6), pp.418-419
    Keywords: Silicon ; Rice ; Fertilizer ; Harvest Residue Management ; Southeast Asia
    Source: DBpia - 디비피아 (Nurimedia)
    Source: DBpia (Nurimedia)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Paddy and Water Environment, 2018, Vol.16(2), pp.243-252
    Description: Silicon (Si) mitigates abiotic and biotic stresses for rice plants ( Oryza sativa L.). Here, we test relationships between Si cycling, plant growth, and pest and fungal attacks in rice agroecosystems. We conducted a plot experiment on Si fertilization in a Southern Vietnamese paddy, where plant-available Si was inherently low. For two cropping seasons, we investigated the temporal dynamics of Si in soil solution, plant Si uptake, and the occurrence of leaf folders ( Cnaphalocrocis medinalis ) and rice blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae . Silicon application increased Si concentrations in soil solutions collected in the field as expected from previous laboratory experiments. Soil solution Si concentrations were furthermore affected by Si uptake by plants and by recycling Si with rice straw ash. Silicon concentrations in rice leaves at tillering stage increased with increasing Si application. However, surprisingly, no relationship between Si in soil solution and Si concentration in straw at maturity stage was found. The occurrences of leaf folders and rice blast disease were mitigated by increased Si uptake. However, rice biomass production was not affected, probably because the biotic stress level was generally low. Our field data emphasize the importance of recycling crop residues in rice fields for the Si supply to plants, especially in regions with low Si availability. They furthermore show that under field conditions, the relationship between dissolved Si in soil solution and Si uptake by rice plants is not as straightforward as expected and thus needs to be further investigated.
    Keywords: Dissolved silicon ; Leaf folder ; Rice ; Rice blast ; Silicon fertilization
    ISSN: 1611-2490
    E-ISSN: 1611-2504
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  • 6
    Text Resource
    Text Resource
    Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt
    Description: Silizium (Si) ist ein nützliches Nährelement für Reispflanzen, da es ihre Resistenz gegenüber biotischen und abiotischen Stressfaktoren verbessern kann. Das übergeordnete Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, zumVerständnis des Si-Kreislaufs in Reisanbausystemen beizutragen. Dabei wurde folgendes genauer untersucht:(i) die Beziehungen zwischen verschiedenen Si-Fraktionen im Boden und der Si-Aufnahme von Reispflanzen auf einer großen geografischen Skala, (ii) der Einfluss von rückgeführtem frischen und verbrannten Reisstroh auf die Si-Versorgung und Biomasseproduktion der Pflanzen und (iii) die Effekte von Si-Düngung auf die Si-Aufnahme und Biomasseproduktion von Reispflanzen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass eine Limitierung des Reiswachstums durch geringe Si-Verfügbarkeit auf stark verwitterten (sub-)tropischen Böden weit verbreitet sein könnte. Reisbauern können die Si-Versorgung der Pflanzen verbessern, indem sie Si düngen und regelmäßig das Si-reiche Reisstroh zurückführen.... ; Silicon (Si) is a beneficial nutrient for rice plants. It improves their resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. The overarching goal of this thesis was to contribute to an improved understanding of the Si cycle in rice production systems. More particularly, it addresses (i) relationships between Si forms in soils and Si uptake by rice plants on a large geographic scale, (ii) the role of recycling fresh and burned rice straw for the Si supply to plants, and (iii) the effects of Si fertilization on Si uptake and biomass production of rice plants.Results show that Si limitation of rice growth might be a widespread phenomenon in rice cultivation on weathered (sub-)tropical soils. Farmers might be able to improve the Si supply to rice plants by application of Si fertilizers in combination with frequent recycling of Si-rich rice straw....
    Keywords: Gelöstes Silizium; Nassreisböden; Phytolith-Auflösung; Reis; Reisstrohabbau; Reisstrohrückführung; Silizium-Düngung; Silizium-Kreislauf; Silizium-Verfügbarkeit ; Dissolved Silicon; Paddy Soil; Phytolith Dissolution; Rice; Rice Straw Decomposition; Rice Straw Recycling; Silicon Availability; Silicon Cycling; Silicon Fertilization ; Ddc::600 Technik, Medizin, Angewandte Wissenschaften::630 Landwirtschaft::630 Landwirtschaft Und Verwandte Bereiche
    Source: DataCite
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