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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 2010, Vol.408(22), pp.5405-5413
    Description: The implementation of a geodata-based probabilistic pesticide exposure assessment for surface waters in Germany offers the opportunity to base the exposure estimation on more differentiated assumptions including detailed landscape characteristics. Since these characteristics can only be estimated using field surveys, water body width and depth, hydrology, riparian buffer strip width, ground vegetation cover, existence of concentrated flow paths, and riparian vegetation were characterised at 104 water body segments in the vineyard region Palatinate (south-west Germany). Water body segments classified as permanent (n = 43) had median values of water body width and depth of 0.9 m and 0.06 m, respectively, and the determined median width:depth ratio was 15. Thus, the deterministic water body model (width = 1 m; depth = 0.3 m) assumed in regulatory exposure assessment seems unsuitable for small water bodies in the study area. Only 25% of investigated buffer strips had a dense vegetation cover (〉 70%) and allow a laminar sheet flow as required to include them as an effective pesticide runoff reduction landscape characteristic. At 77 buffer strips, bordering field paths and erosion rills leading into the water body were present, concentrating pesticide runoff and consequently decreasing buffer strip efficiency. The vegetation type shrubbery (height 〉 1.5 m) was present at 57 (29%) investigated riparian buffer strips. According to their median optical vegetation density of 75%, shrubberies may provide a spray drift reduction of 72 ± 29%. Implementing detailed knowledge in an overall assessment revealed that exposure via drift might be 2.4 and via runoff up to 1.6 fold higher than assumed by the deterministic approach. Furthermore, considering vegetated buffer strips only by their width leads to an underestimation of exposure by a factor of as much as four. Our data highlight that the deterministic model assumptions neither represent worst-case nor median values and therefore cannot simply be adopted in a probabilistic approach.
    Keywords: Probabilistic Exposure Assessment ; Pesticide ; Exposure ; Riparian Buffer Strips ; Field Survey ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 2012, Vol.146(1), pp.81-92
    Description: ► We found fungicides frequently in-stream, also in community-relevant concentrations. ► Median copper concentrations in water and sediment were 5.4 μg l and 32.3 mg kg dw. ► Runoff transport via field paths reduced pesticide reduction capacity of buffers. ► In-stream pesticide spectrum was clearly attributed to entries via erosion rills. ► Vegetated field paths or wetlands are suggested to reduce entries via erosion rills. The present study was performed to characterise in-stream pesticide exposure within the Palatinate vineyard region in south-west Germany, evaluate the influence of buffer strip widths and identify mitigation measures for the relevant entry pathways. In-stream water and sediment samples that were taken at nine sampling sites of different buffer widths following intense rainfall, and edge-of-field runoff that were sampled in erosion rills were analysed regarding 28 active ingredients of pesticides including copper. In-stream samples contained a mix of 8 ± 4 pesticide compounds, resulting in total pesticide concentrations of 1.4–8.9 μg l for water and 16–670 μg kg dw for sediment. Following an exceptional rainfall event with a previous 34-day drought period, pesticide concentrations reached 7.0–83.4 μg l . Fungicides were the most important pesticides found and were significantly correlated with the pesticide application frequency and rate. The calculated toxicity values per sample (TU ) indicated that both organic pesticides and copper concentrations likely cause ecotoxicological effects in the field. The buffer strip width was of little importance for pesticide in-stream concentrations because pesticide entry occurred mainly via the field path network and erosion rills. Pesticide in-stream concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with the concentrations detected in erosion rills ( = 0.56). As possible risk mitigation measures, we suggest the implementation of grassed field paths and vegetated ditches or wetlands.
    Keywords: Fungicide ; Copper ; Buffer Strips ; Surface Water ; Monitoring ; Exposure ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 March 2016, Vol.545-546, pp.171-183
    Description: Regulatory risk assessment considers vegetated buffer strips as effective risk mitigation measures for the reduction of runoff-related pesticide exposure of surface waters. However, apart from buffer strip widths, further characteristics such as vegetation density or the presence of erosion rills are generally neglected in the determination of buffer strip mitigation efficacies. This study conducted a field survey of fruit orchards (average slope 3.1–12.2%) of the Lourens River catchment, South Africa, which specifically focused on the characteristics and attributes of buffer strips separating orchard areas from tributary streams. In addition, in-stream and erosion rill water samples were collected during three runoff events and GIS-based modeling was employed to predict losses of pesticides associated with runoff. The results show that erosion rills are common in buffer strips (on average 13 to 24 m wide) of the tributaries (up to 6.5 erosion rills per km flow length) and that erosion rills represent concentrated entry pathways of pesticide runoff into the tributaries during rainfall events. Exposure modeling shows that measured pesticide surface water concentrations correlated significantly (R = 0.626; p 〈 0.001) with runoff losses predicted by the modeling approach in which buffer strip width was set to zero at sites with erosion rills; in contrast, no relationship between predicted runoff losses and in-stream pesticide concentrations were detected in the modeling approach that neglected erosion rills and thus assumed efficient buffer strips. Overall, the results of our study show that erosion rills may substantially reduce buffer strip pesticide retention efficacies during runoff events and suggest that the capability of buffer strips as a risk mitigation tool for runoff is largely overestimated in current regulatory risk assessment procedures conducted for pesticide authorization.
    Keywords: Risk Assessment ; Runoff ; Monitoring ; Exposure Modeling ; Field Survey ; South Africa ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 15 February 2016, Vol.218, pp.33-39
    Description: Veterinary pharmaceuticals (VPs) are routinely used in livestock breeding. As a consequence, high concentrations of such VPs can be found in liquid manure, which is often applied to arable crops and grassland. From the soil, the VPs may enter surface water bodies via edge-of-field runoff, representing a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, the worst-case runoff predictions obtained by the FOCUS step 3 modeling approach, which is recommended for environmental-risk assessment of VPs in Europe, were compared with fate data obtained from experimental plot studies involving both arable and grassland plots. Five VPs were selected comprising three sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfadimidine, sulfamethoxazole) and two benzimidazoles (flubendazole, fenbendazole). The respective concentrations in runoff were initially estimated using literature data for model parameterization. Subsequently, the scenarios were parameterized specifically for each experimental plot study performed, enabling a direct comparison of the model performance with the close-to-field relevant situation. Generally, substantial variations between the predicted and measured concentrations of VPs in the runoff were uncovered. Although the FOCUS prediction suggested higher concentrations than were actually measured in 65% of the cases, the runoff concentrations of VPs were underestimated in the remaining 35%. This frequent underestimation of runoff concentrations was primarily observed for the grassland plots (85% of the underestimated situations), whereas the FOCUS predictions largely overestimated the measured concentrations for the arable plots. More strikingly, when involving a difference between the measured and predicted concentrations of 10% as a validity criterion for the model, only one (out of a total of 17) runoff concentration among the five VPs (i.e., sulfadimidine) assessed in the seven scenarios fell within this tolerance margin. Thus, these results demonstrate the substantial uncertainties related to the use of the FOCUS surface water modeling approach for the prediction of VPs introduced with manure and their environmental risk.
    Keywords: Veterinary Pharmaceuticals ; Focus Model ; Sulfonamide Antibiotics ; Benzimidazole Anthelmintics ; Exposure Modeling ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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  • 5
    In: Journal of Applied Ecology, April 2015, Vol.52(2), pp.310-322
    Description: The application of fungicides is considered an indispensable measure to secure crop production. These substances, however, may unintentionally enter surface waters via run‐off, potentially affecting the microbial community. To assess such risks adequately, authorities recently called for suitable test designs involving relevant aquatic micro‐organisms. We assessed the structural and functional responses of leaf‐associated microbial communities, which play a key role in the breakdown of allochthonous leaf material in streams, towards the inorganic fungicides copper (Cu) and elemental sulphur (S). These substances are of particular interest as they are authorized for both conventional and organic farming in many countries of the world. We used the food choice of the amphipod shredder Gammarus fossarum (indicative for micro‐organism‐mediated leaf palatability) as well as microbial leaf decomposition as functional endpoints. Moreover, the leaf‐associated microbial communities were characterized by means of bacterial density, fungal biomass and community composition facilitating mechanistic understanding of the observed functional effects. While Gammarus preferred Cu‐exposed leaves over unexposed ones, microbial leaf decomposition was reduced by both Cu and S (up to 30%). Furthermore, Cu exposure decreased bacterial densities (up to 60%), stimulated the growth of leaf‐associated fungi (up to 100%) and altered fungal community composition, while S did not affect any of the assessed structural endpoints. Synthesis and applications. We observed both structural and functional changes in leaf‐associated microbial communities at inorganic fungicide concentrations realistic for surface water bodies influenced by conventional and organic farming. Our data hence justify a careful re‐evaluation of the environmental safety of the agricultural use of these compounds. Moreover, inclusion of an experimental design similar to the one used in this study in lower tier environmental risk assessments of antimicrobial compounds may aid to safeguard the integrity of aquatic microbial communities and the functions they provide. We observed both structural and functional changes in leaf‐associated microbial communities at inorganic fungicide concentrations realistic for surface water bodies influenced by conventional and organic farming. Our data hence justify a careful re‐evaluation of the environmental safety of the agricultural use of these compounds. Moreover, inclusion of an experimental design similar to the one used in this study in lower tier environmental risk assessments of antimicrobial compounds may aid to safeguard the integrity of aquatic microbial communities and the functions they provide.
    Keywords: Antagonistic Effect ; Antimicrobial ; Aquatic Hyphomycetes ; Bacteria ; Biofilm ; Ecosystem Functioning ; Environmental Risk Assessment ; Heavy Metal ; Leaf Litter Breakdown ; Mixture Toxicity
    ISSN: 0021-8901
    E-ISSN: 1365-2664
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, June 2001, Vol.35(8), pp.1869-1876
    Description: Rainfall-induced runoff transported sediments and pesticides into the Lourens River and its tributaries during a 28.8-mm rainstorm in mid-December 1998. Average 1-h peak levels of current-use insecticides applied to adjacent orchard plots were 1.5 mu g l super(-1) azinphos-methyl, 0.2 mu g l super(-1) chlorpyrifos and 2.9 mu g l super(-1) total endosulfan ( alpha , beta , S) in the river itself. Respective average 1-h pesticide levels associated with suspended particles were 1247, 924 and 12082 mu g kg super(-1), along with 980 mu g kg super(-1) of prothiofos. Total suspended solids increased during runoff from 32 to 520 mg l super(-1). The contaminated edge-of-field runoff entered the river via the tributaries directly bordering the orchard-growing areas. Increased concentrations of azinphos-methyl and prothiofos associated with suspended sediments were demonstrated to persist for about 3.5 months without any further input in one of the tributaries. This illustrates that the short-term exposure has the potential to result in long-term contamination of surface waters. In terms of chemical load during the 1-h peak discharge period, the single rainfall event caused a loss of 173 g h super(-1) azinphosmethyl, 55 g h super(-1) chlorpyrifos, 740 g h super(-1) total endosulfan ( alpha , beta , S) and 41 g h super(-1) prothiofos. Levels of contamination were extremely high; they exceed the national water quality standards and those established by the US EPA. A comparison with standard toxicity data and 24-h LC sub(50)s for the local amphipod species Paramelita nigroculus, obtained during this study, indicates that the concentrations found in the river may result in acute toxic effects on aquatic invertebrates and fishes. A probability analysis of 10-y rainfall data revealed that the frequency of a similar storm event occurring within the main spraying season is 1.7 y super(-1).
    Keywords: Edge-of-Field Runoff ; Insecticides ; Nonpoint-Source Pollution ; Orchards ; Toxicity ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    E-ISSN: 1879-2448
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, June, 2013, Vol.32(6), p.1254(10)
    Description: Byline: Renja Bereswill, Martin Streloke, Ralf Schulz Abstract The European Union's directive for sustainable use of pesticides requires implementing risk mitigation measures at streams threatened by pesticide entries. The need for mitigation measures was investigated at 10 stream sites within an intensively used arable region in central Germany by characterizing pesticide exposure following edge-of-field runoff and effects on the aquatic macroinvertebrates. Moreover, the influence of riparian buffer strip width (as a mitigation measure) at the sampling sites was considered. Generally, invertebrate fauna was dominated by pesticide-tolerant species, suggesting a high pesticide exposure at almost all sites. This result is also reflected by the elevated levels of suspended particle contamination in terms of toxic units (logTU.sub.Max〉-2), corresponding to one-hundredth of the median lethal concentration (LC50) to Daphnia magna. At two sites that received high aqueous-phase entries of the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin (logTU.sub.Max〉-0.6), the abundance and number of sensitive species in terms of the species at risk index decreased during the pesticide application period. In contrast, no acute significant negative effects on macroinvertebrates were observed at sites characterised by low water-phase toxicity (logTU.sub.Max〈-3.5). An influence of riparian buffer strip width on pesticide exposure was not observed, supposedly because of the presence of erosion rills and ephemeral ditches. In conclusion, results show that mitigation measures (such as the improvement of currently present riparian buffer strips) are needed in the study area. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;32:1254-1263. A[c] 2013 SETAC Supporting information: Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article All Supplemental Data may be found in the online version of this article.
    Keywords: Pesticides -- Usage ; Runoff ; Endangered Species
    ISSN: 0730-7268
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2001, Vol.45(4), pp.543-551
    Description: Spray drift and edge-of-field runoff are regarded as important routes of nonpoint-source pesticide input into aquatic surface waters, with current regulatory risk assessment in Europe focussing largely on spray drift. However, the two routes of entry had rarely been compared directly in the same catchment. To this end, the concentrations and loads of the current-use insecticides azinphos-methyl (AZP) and endosulfan (END) were monitored in the Lourens River, South Africa downstream of a 400-ha fruit orchard area during normal farming practice. Spray drift-related peak pesticide levels in the tributaries were in the range of 95th-percentiles of standard drift values according to regulatory risk assessment procedures. Resulting concentrations in Lourens River water samples (n = 3) at a discharge of 0.28 m super(3)/s were as high as 0.04 plus or minus 0.01 mu g/l AZP and 0.07 plus or minus 0.02 mu g/l END. Pesticide levels at the same site during runoff following 3 storm events varying in rainfall between 6.8 and 18.4 mm/d (discharge: 7.5-22.4 m super(3)/s) were considerably higher: by factors between 6 and 37 for AZP (0.26-1.5 mu g/l) and between 2 and 41 for END (0.13-2.9 mu g/l). Levels of pesticides associated with suspended particles were increased during runoff only up to 1247 mu g/kg AZP and 12082 mu g/kg END. A possible reason for the relative importance of runoff is that runoff largely integrates potential pesticide input over both time and space, because the prerequisites for the occurrence of runoff in terms of application and plot characteristics as well as meteorological conditions are far less specific than for spray drift. A probability analysis based on pesticide application patterns and 10-yr rainfall data indicates that the frequencies of rainfall events greater than or equal to 10 and greater than or equal to 15 mm/d are 3.4 and 1.7 per spraying season, respectively.
    Keywords: Catchment ; Exposure Assessment ; Insecticides ; Nonpoint-Source Pollution ; Orchards ; Runoff ; Spray Drift ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2013, Vol.90(6), pp.640-645
    Description: Vegetated treatment systems have the ability to reduce the risk of adverse effects of nonpoint source pesticide pollution in agricultural surface waters, however, flow-through systems have rarely been evaluated. Peak concentrations of a mixture of two insecticides and two fungicides (Indoxacarb, Tebuconazole, Thiacloprid and Trifloxystrobin) were reduced by more than 90 % in 45 m experimental stream mesocosms. Plant density and solubility had the highest explanatory power for the response variable reduction of peak concentration (R² = 0.70, p  〈 0.001). Optimized vegetated streams can be highly effective in reduction of runoff related pesticide peak concentrations.
    Keywords: Risk mitigation ; Pollution ; Experimental ditch mesocosm ; Aquatic plants ; FOCUS
    ISSN: 0007-4861
    E-ISSN: 1432-0800
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 March 2016, Vol.547, pp.226-233
    Description: Crop plant residues may enter aquatic ecosystems via wind deposition or surface runoff. In the case of genetically modified crops or crops treated with systemic pesticides, these materials may contain insecticidal Bt toxins or pesticides that potentially affect aquatic life. However, the particular exposure pattern of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., via plant material) is not properly reflected in current risk assessment schemes, which primarily focus on waterborne toxicity and not on plant material as the route of uptake. To assist in risk assessment, the present study proposes a prioritization procedure of stream types based on the freshwater network and crop-specific cultivation data using maize in Germany as a model system. To identify stream types with a high probability of receiving crop materials, we developed a formalized, criteria-based and thus transparent procedure that considers the exposure-related parameters, ecological status – an estimate of the diversity and potential vulnerability of local communities towards anthropogenic stress – and availability of uncontaminated reference sections. By applying the procedure to maize, ten stream types out of 38 are expected to be the most relevant if the ecological effects from plant-incorporated pesticides need to be evaluated. This information is an important first step to identifying habitats within these stream types with a high probability of receiving crop plant material at a more local scale, including accumulation areas. Moreover, the prioritization procedure developed in the present study may support the selection of aquatic species for ecotoxicological testing based on their probability of occurrence in stream types having a higher chance of exposure. Finally, this procedure can be adapted to any geographical region or crop of interest and is, therefore, a valuable tool for a site-specific risk assessment of crop plants carrying systemic pesticides or novel proteins, such as insecticidal Bt toxins, expressed in genetically modified crops.
    Keywords: Exposure Probability ; Crop Plant Material ; Prioritization Procedure ; Transgenic Crops ; Stream Types ; Geographic Information Systems ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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